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Full text of "History of the United States from the earliest discoveries to the present time : with additions : containing history of the British American provinces, history of Mexico, and the Constitution of the United States : with explanatory notes and questions"

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THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




ENDOWED BY THE 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 

SOCIETIES 

E17B.1 wa _ 

.VJ736 
1864 



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This book is due at the WALTER R. DAVIS LIBRARY on 
the last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold it 
may be renewed by bringing it to the library. 


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Form No. 513, 

Rev. 









Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/historyofunitedswill 



HISTORY 


em. 


OF THE 


■Wl^ 


UNITED STATES, 


FEOM THE EARLIEST DISCOVERIES TO 


THE 


PRESENT TIME. 




WITH ADDITIONS, 




CONTAINING 




HISTORY OF THE BRITISH AMERICAN PROVINCES, 


HISTORY OF MEXICO, 




AND THE 




CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, 


WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES AND QUESTIONS. 


BY MARCIUS WILLSON, 

itTTHOR OF " AMERICAN HISTORY," "OUTLINES Of GENERAL 
" PHILOSOPHY OF JIISTORV," ETC. 


HISTORY,'" 


REVISED AND ILLUSTRATED EDITION. 


1 
1 


CHICAGO : 


1 
1 


PUBLISHED BY S. C. GRIGGS & 


CO., 


NEW YORK: IVISON, PHINNEY, BLAKEMAN <S 


j CO. 

i 


1864. 
i 



UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

ATCHAPKLIULL 



EMBELLISHMENTS, MAPS, CHARTS, PLANS OF BATTLES, BIG, 

EMBELLISHMENTS. 

FRONTISPIECE— LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS, S 

POCAHONTAS SAVING THE LIFE OF CAPTAIN SMITH, .... 47 

DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE, .173 

BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL, 207 

SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLLS, .267 



MAPS, CHARTS, PLANS OF BATTLES, <fca 



Chart of American History, 

Vulley of Mexico, 

Vicinity of Pensacola, 

Vicinity of Montreal, . 

Port Royal Island and Vicinity, 

Vicinity of St. Augustine, . 

Harbor of St. Augustine, . 

Roanoke Island and Vicinity, . 

Vicinity of Jamestown, 

Indian Tribes and Early Settle 

ments, 

Plymouth and Vicinity, 
Vicinity of Boston, 
Valley of the Conn. River, in Mass., 
Nanagausett Fort and Swamp, . 
Vicinity of Pemaquid Port, 
Vicinity of Portland, . 
Louisburg and Vicinity in 1745, 
Island of Cape Breton, . 
Vicinity of Portsmouth, 
Vicinity of Hartford, . 
New Haven and Vicinity, . 
Vicinity of Providence, 
New York and Vicinity, . 
Albany and Vicinity, . 
Northern part of Delaware, 
Vicinity of Annapolis, 
Philadelphia and Vicinity,. 
Vicinity of Wilmington, N. C, . 
Charleston and Vicinity, . 
Savannah and Vicinity, 
Vicinity of Frederica, Geo., 
Forts in New Brunswick, . 
Vicinity of Lako George, . 
Forts at Oswego, 



Page 
10, 11 
19 
20 
33 
35 
36 

36 

38 
44 

46 
70 
74 



91 
91 
98 
98 
101 
104 
107 
112 
117 
118 
121 
142 
152 
155 
161 
167 
I6S 
179 
181 
183 



Vicinity of Quebec, 1759, . 
Plan of the Siege of Boston, 
Battle of Long Island, 
Westchester County, . 
Forts Lee and Washington, 
Seat of War in New Jersey, 
Trenton in 1776, ... . 

Places West of Philadelphia, 
Vicinity of Ticonderoga, . . 

Fort Schuyler on the Mohawk, . 
Towns of Saratoga and Stillwater, . 
Camps of Gates and Burgoyno at 

Saratoga, .... 
Forts on the Hudson, . 
Plan of Fort Mercer, . 
Battle of Monmouth, . 
Seat of War in S. Carolina, 
Battle of Sanders' Creek, . 
Battle of Guilford Court House, 
Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, . 
Siege of Yorktown, . 
New London and Vicinity, 
Map of the Country at the c 

of the Revolution, 
Vicinity of New Orleans, . 
District of Columbia, . 
Vicinity of Detroit, 
Niagara Frontier, 
Seat of the Creek War, 
Vicinity of Niagara Falls, . 
Vicinity of Baltimore, . 
Seat of Seminole War, 
Map of Mexico, . . 
Map of California, . 
Map of the United States in 1850, 



fago 
189 
210 
222 
225 
225 
226 
228 
237 
240 
242 
242 

242 
244 
244 
248 
261 
262 
271 
272 
276 
277 

284 
291 
296 
304 
306 
313 
319 
323 
338 
351 
367 
873 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the yea 1853, 
BY MARCIUS WILLSON, 

la the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Southern District of New York. 



STEREOTYPED by 
THOMAS B. SMITH, 

82 & 84 Beekmau Street. 



CONTENTS, AND PLAN OF THE WORK 

PART I. 

VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 

CHAPTER I. 

rOTAGES, CONQUESTS. AND DISCOVERIES IN THE SOUTHERN POR- 
TIONS OF NORTH AMERICA 

Divisions— I. Columbus— II. De Leon.— III. De Ayllon.— IV. Conquest 
of Mexico.— V. De Narvaez.— VI. Ferdinand De Soto. 

CHAPTER II. 

NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH AMERICA. . 
Divisions.— I. John and Sebastian Cabot. — IL Cortereal. — III. Verrazani. — 
IV. Cartier. — V. Roberval. — VI. Ribault, Laudonniere, and Melendez. — 
VII. Gilbert. Raleigh, and Grenville.— VIII. De La Roche.— LX. Gosnold. 
— X. De Monts.— XI. North and South Virginia. 



PART II. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND COLONIAL HISTORY. 

CHAPTER I. 

VIRGINIA 47-6-> 

Divisions. — I. Virginia under the first Charter. — TI. Virginia under the 
second Charter. — ill. Virginia under the third Charter. — IV. Virginia 
from the dissolution of the London Company in lti-24, to the com 
mencement of the French and Indian War in 1754. 

CHAPTER II. 

UASSACHUSETTS 67-109 

Section I. — Massachusetts from its earliest history to the union 
of the New England Colonies in 1643. 
Divisions. — I. Early History. — II. Plymouth Colony. — III. Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony. — IV. Union of the New England Colonies. — V. 
Early Laws and Customs. 

Section II. — Massachusetts from the Union of the New England 
Colonies in 1G43, to the close of King William's War in 1697. 
Divisions. — I. Events from the Union to King Philip's War. — II. King 
Philip's War. — III. Controversies and Royal Tyranny. — IV. Massa- 
chusetts during King 'William's "War 

sfccrroN III. — Massachusetts from the close of King William s 
War in 1697, to tne commencement of the French and Indian 
War ia 1754. 
Div.suns —I. Massachusetts during Queen Anne's War — II. King 
George's War 



Vi CONTENTS, AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

CHAPTER III. Page* 

NEW HAMPSHIRE J00— 101 

CHAPTER IV. 

CONNECTICUT, 103— HI 

Divisions. — 1. Early Settlements. — II. Pequod War. — III. New Haven 
Colony. — IV. Connecticut under her own Constitution. — V. Connec- 
ticut under the Royal Charter. 

CHAPTER V. 

RHODE ISLAND Ill- Il« 

CHAPTER VI. 

NEW YORK MS- 138 

Section I. — New Netherlands previous to the conquest by the 

English in 1664. 
Slction II. — New York from the conquest of New Netherlands 

in 1664, until the commencement of the French and Indian 

War in 1754. (Delaware included until 1682.) 

CHAPTER VII. 

NEW JERSEY, 136—141 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MARYLAND, . 141-I4S 

CHAPTER IX. 

PENNSYLVANIA . 149—151 

CHAPTER X. 

NORTH CAROLINA, 164— 16C 

CHAPTER XI. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 180-163 

CHAPTER XII. 

GEORGIA 166—173 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, 173—193 

Divisions. — I. Causes of the War, and Events of 1754. — II. 1755 : Ex- 
peditions of Monckton, Braddock, Shirley, and Winslow. — III. 1756: 
Delays; Loss of Oswego; Indian Incursions. — IV. 1757: Designs 
against Louisburg, and Loss of Fort Win. Henry.— V. 1758 : Redac- 
tion of Louisburg ; Abercrombie's Defeat ; The taking of Forts 
Frontenac and Du Quesne. — VI. 1759 to 17G3 : Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point Abandoned ; Niagara Taken ; Conquest of (iuebec,- 
Of all Canada ; War with the Cherokees ; Peace of 1763 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, .... r93— 2W 



PART III. 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

CHAPTER I. 

EVENTS OF 1775 , 2W- 210 

CHAPTER II. 

EVENTS OF 1775 . 216—236 

CHAPTER III. 

EVENTS OF 17-7 , 230— 24« 



CONTENTS, AND TLAN OF THE WORK. Vll 

CHAPTER IV. Pages. 

EVENTS OF 1778, . 246—253 

CHAPTER V. 

EVENTS OF 1779 253—260 

CHAPTER VI. 

EVENTS OF 1780 260—267 

CHAPTER VII. 

EVENTS OF 1781 267— 27B 

CHAPTER VIII. 

CLOSE OF THE WAR. AND ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION, . . 279— T85 



PART IV. 

THE UNITED STATES, 

FROM THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE FEDERAL 
CONSTITUTION IN 1789, TO THE YEAR ia53- 

CHAPTER I. 

"WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION 285-293 

CHAPTER II. 

ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION 293—297 

CHAPTER III 

JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION 237-302 

CHAPTER IV. 

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION. WAR WITH ENGLAND 302—328 

Section I.— Principal Events of 1809, '10, '11. 
Section II. — Principal Events of 1812. 

Divisions. — I. Declaration of War, and Events in the West. — II. Events 
on the Niagara Frontier. — III. Naval Events. 

Section III. — Principal Events of 1813. 

Divisions. — I. Events in the West and South. — II. Events in the North. 
—III. Naval Events. 

Section IV. — Principal Events of 1814. 

Divisions. — I. Events on the Niagara Frontier. — II. Events in the vi- 
cinity of LakeChamplain. — III. Events on the Atlantic Coast. — IV. 
Events in the South and close of the War. — War with Algiers. 

CHAPTER V. 

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, . 328— 3IS 

CHAPTER VI. 

J. Q. ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 332— S34 

CHAPTER VII. 

JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION 334— 33S 

CHAPTER VIII. 

VAN BUREN'S ADMINISTRATION, • 839—343 



VTI1 CONTENTS AND PLAN OF THE WORK. 

CHAPTER IX. Pages 

HARRISON'S ADMINISTRATION, • 848— 344 

CHAPTER X. 

TYLER'S ADMINISTRATION, 844—346 

CHAPTER XI. 

POLK'S ADMINISTRATION, 846—362 

War with Mexico. 

CHAPTER XII. 

TAYLOR'S ADMINISTRATION, 863— 36S 

CHAPTER XILT. 

FILLMORE'S ADMINISTRATION, 869—374 



APPENDIX 



CHAPTER I. 

1. History of Canada tinder the French.— II. History of Canada under the 
English, 876—898 

CHAPTER n. 

HISTORY OF MEXICO AND TEXAS, 3S8— 405 

I. Aboriginal Mexico. — II. Colonial History of Mexico. — III. Mexico 
during the First Revolution. — IV. Mexico from the close of the First 
Revolution to the adoption of the Federal Constitution of 1S24. — 
V. Mexico from the adoption of the Federal Constitution of 1S24 to 
the commencement of the Texan Revolution in 1S35. — VI. Texan 
Revolution. — VII. Mexico from the close of the Texan Revolution 
in 1S36 to the commencement of the War with the United States in 
1846. 

CHAPTER in. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, WITH EXPLANA- 
TORY NOTES AND QUESTIONS, 406—528 



EXPLANATION OF THE CHART. 



The " Miniature Chart of American History," found on the following two pages, 
Is a mere outline of a larger chart measuring about five feet by six and a half. The 
design of the small chart is, principally, to furnish, by its convenience for reference, 
additional aid to those pupils who may be studying the outlines of the history from the 
larger one ; for as the small chart wants the coloring of the other, and many of its 
Important features, it will be found, separately, of comparatively little importance. A 
brief explanation of the " Miniature Chart," however, may, in this place, be useful. 

The two divisions of the chart should be considered as brought together, so as to 
present the whole united on one sheet. The chart is arranged in the " downward course 
of time," from top to bottom, embracing a period of nearly 350 years, extending from the 
discovery of America by the Cabots, in 1497, to the year 1845. The dark shading, ex- 
tending entirely across the chart at the top, represents all North America as occupied 
by the Indian tribes at the time of the discovery ; — and, following the chart downwards, 
the gradually increasing light portions represent the gradual increase of European set- 
tlements. The darkest shading represents the country as unexplored by the whites ; — 
the lighter shading, as having been explored, but not settled. Thus, Vermont was the 
last settled of the New England States; Upper Canada was settled at a much later 
period, and some of the westera United States still later. 

On the right is a column of English History; then a column of dates, corresponding 
with which the events are arranged on the chart from top to bottom; then follows the 
history of the present British Provinces north of the United States; then the histories 
of the several United States as their names are given at the bottom of the chart : after 
the territories, at the left, and adjoining Oregon, appear Texas, Mexico, and Central 
America. The large chart, of which this is a very imperfect outline, gives the prom- 
inent features, in the histories of all the settled portions of North America. 

The utility of well-arranged charts is very much the same as that of historical maps. 
Although maps give the localities of events, they cannot give their sequctices, or oroat 
of succession; but as the eye glances over the chart, and follows it downwards in the 
stream of time, there is presented to the mind, instead of one local, fixed picture, a mov 
Ing panorama of events. In the map, the associations are based upon the proximity of 
locality ; in the chart, upon the order of succession ; and the two combined, in connec 
tion with the written history, give the most favorable associations possible for the at 
tainment and retention of historical knowledge. One prominent advantage of the chart, 
however, separately considered, is, that it presents at one view a Comparative History, 
of which books alone can give only a very inadequate idea, and that only to a well- 
disciplined memory of arbitrary associations. A view of the chart makes upon the 
mind as lasting an impression of the outlines of a country's history, as does the map of 
its topography, when the plans of both are equally understood ; and the prominent fea- 
tures in a country's history may be recalled to the mind, after a study of the chart, with 
the same facility that the geographical outlines may be recalled, after a study of the 
map; for the principles upon which the mind acquires the knowledge, through the 
medium of the eye, are in both cases the same. The chart, the map, and the wiitlen 
history, should be used together; the chart, presenting at one view a comparative 
chronology of the events, being considered the framework of the s tructure ; and the 
aiap, giving the localities, the basis upon which it stands. 

1* 



INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

SCHOOL EDITION OF THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



In offering the foV owing History to the public, a few remarks appear necessary. <a 
order to point out those particulars in which it is believed to possess peculiar ejeriis 
Of the adaptation of the style to the object intended, and of the moral and general In- 
fluence of the work, the public alone must be the judges. Those who would compare 
its historical accuracy with other histories nn the same subject, are referred to a Criti- 
cal Review of American Histories, by the same author, first published in the B blical 
Repository for July, 1845 ; which may give some idea of the labor and care bestowed 
upon the compilation of the following work. We would, however, here inform the 
reader that a uniformity in the system of dates has been preserved, the dates being 
given throughout in New Style. See this important subject examined in the before 
mentioned Review. 

It will be observed that the marginal dates and references in the following work are 
numerous ; carrying along a minute chronology with the history. This plan avoids 
the necessity of encumbering the text with dates, and at the same time furnishes, to 
the inquiring reader, a history far more minute and circumstantial than could otherwise 
be embraced in a volume much larger than the present. 

The more prominent features in the Plan of the work, in which it differs from any 
other History, are, the Arrangement of the Questions in the margin, and the introduc- 
tion of numerous Maps, Charts, and Geographical Notes. 

The Questions are arranged in the margin, each opposite that portion of the text 
to which it refers, and numbered to correspond with similar divisions of the text. In 
point of convenience and utility, it is believed that this plan of arrangement is far more 
desirable than that hitherto adopted, of placing the questions at the bottoms of the pa- 
ges, or at the end of the volume. Moreover, the questions are designedly so constructed 
as to require from the pupil a knowledge of the whole text. — The supposed utility of the 
Chart, (pages 10 and 11,) may be learned from the description of the same on page 9. 

The progressive series of the three Large Maps, on pages 46, 234, and 375, show the 
state of the country at different periods. The First represents the country as occu- 
pied by the Indian Tribes, fifty years after the settlement of Jamestown, when only a 
few bright spots of civilization relieved the darkness of the picture. The Second, as il 
was at the clo;e of the Revolution, when almost the entire region west of the Allegha- 
nieswas a, wilderness, — showing how slowly settlements had advanced during the long 
period that the colonies were under the dominion of Great Britain. The Third repre- 
sents the country as it now is, and as it has become under the influence of republican 
institutions. In place of the recent wilderness, we observe a confederacy of many 
states, each with its numerous cities, towns, and villages, denoting the existence of a 
great and happy people. 

The Geographical and Historical Notes, and Small Maps, at the bottoms of the 
pages, give the localities of all important places mentioned, and furnish that kind of 
geographical information respecting them, without which the history can be read with lit 
rie interest or profit. Maps of important sections of the Union, the vicinities of our large 
towns r)lans of battle grounds and sieges, &c, are here given on the same pages with 
the events referring to them, where they necessarily catch the e-ye of the pupil, so that 
they can hardly fall to arrest his attention, and increase the interest tha he feels in the 
history. 

On the whole, It is believed that the plan here adopted, considered apart from what- 
ever other merits the work may possess, affords unusual facilities for tlw ■»« , r , ni«ittoii 
j? historical know l&rtge 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 



PART I. 

VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



EXTENDING FROM THE DISCOVERY OF 
AMERICA, BY COLUMBUS, IN 1492 ; TO 
THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, VIR- 
GINIA, IN 1607: EMBRACING A PERIOD 
OF 115 YEARS. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY SPANISn VOYAGES, CONQUESTS, AND DIS- 
COVERIES, IN THE SOUTHERN PORTION'S OF 
NORTH AMERICA. 

DIVISIONS. 

I. Discovery of America by Columbus. — II. 
Juan Police de Leon in Florida. — III. De 
Ayllon in Carolina. — IV. Conquest of Mexi- 
co. — V. Pamphilo de Xarvaez VI. Ferdi- 
nand de Soto. COLCJIBCS. 

I. Discovery of America by Columbus. — 1. 'The 
discovery 1 of America by Christopher Columbus, may 
be regarded as the most important event that has ever 
resulted from individual genius and enterprise. -Al- 
though other claims to the honor of discovering the 
Western hemisphere have been advanced, and with 
some appearance of probability, yet no clear historic 
evidence exists in their favor. 3 It has been asserted 
that an Iceland* bark, in the early part of the eleventh 
century, having been driven southwest from Greenland! 




1. What is 
said of the 

Discovery cj 
America by 
CoiiMubus? 

a. Oct. 12, 

149-2. Old 

Stvle; or, 

Oct. 21, New 

Style. 

2. Of oilier 
claims to the 

Discovery? 

3. Of the 
Icelan.iir 
claim t 



* GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.— 1. Iceland is an island in the Northern Ocean, re- 
markable for its boiling springs (the Geysers), and its flaming volcano, Mou^.t Hecla 
Zt was discovered by a Norwegian pirate, in the year 861, and was soon after settled 
by the Norwegians ; but it is supposed that the English and the Irish had previously 
,-nade settlements there, which were abandoned before the time of the Norwegian 
discovery. 

t Greenland is an extensive tract of barren country, in the northern frozen regions 
separated from the western continent by Baffin's Bay and Davis's Strait. It was dis- 
covered by the Norwegians thirty years after the discovery of Iceland, and a thriving 
colony was planted there; but from 14015 until after the discovery by Columbus, all 
correspondence with Greenland was cut off, and aU knowledge of the country seemed 
to be buried in oblivion. 



14 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART 1 

1492. by adverse winds, touched 11 upon the coast of Lab- 
rador ;* — that subsequent voyages were made ; and 
a - 1001 - that colonies were established in Nova Scotia,f or in 
Newfoundland. | 
i. wim is 2. J But even if it be admitted that such a discov- 
'"superio? ery was made, it does not in the least detract from 
^fiahmof 6 the honor so universally ascribed to Columbus. The 
Goiwmbus? i ce i an di c discovery, if real, resulted from chance, — was 
not even knoAvn to Europe, — was thought of little im- 
portance, — and was soon forgotten ; and the curtain of 
darkness again fell between the Old world and the 
New. The discoveiy by Columbus, on the contrary, 
was the result of a theory matured by long reflection 
and experience ; opposed to the learning and the big- 
otry of the age ; and brought to a successful demon- 
stration, after years of toil against opposing difficulties 
and discouragements. 
s. wjMtioas 3. 2 The nature of the great discovery, however, 
vafent error was long unknown ; and it remained for subsequent 
Ykedfscov- adventurers to dispel the prevalent error, that the voy- 
e iumbiis°i a g e of Columbus had only opened a new route to the 
wealthy, but then scarcely known regions of Eastern 
liill'^ntaf Asia. 3 During several years, b the discoveries of Colum- 
ns discov- bus were confined to the islands of the West Indies ;$ 
and it was not until August, 1498, six vears after his 

b 149^ to 

' H98. first voyage, that he discovered the main land, near the 
c. Aug. ioth. mouth of the Orinoco ; |) and he was then ignorant that 

it was any thing more than an island. 
4. wm is 4. 4 The principal islands of the West Indies, — 
Iv. indies? Cuba,1[ St. Domingo,** and Porto Rico,ff were soon 

* Labrador, or New Britain, is that part of the American coast between the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence and Hudson's Bay ; a bleak and barren country, little known, and inhab- 
ited chiefly by Indians. 

t Nova Scotia is a large peninsula, southeast from New Brunswick, separated from 
it by the Bay of Fundy, and connected with it by a narrow isthmus only nine miler 
across. 

t Newfoundland is a Lilly and mountainous island on the east side of the Gulf of Si. 
Lawrence ; nearly a thousand miles in circumference, deriving all its importance from its 
extensive fisheries. 

§ The West Indies consist of a large number of islands between North and South 
America, the most important of which are Cuba, St. Domingo, Jamaica, and Fort-. Rico 

|| The Orinoco is a river on the northeast coast of South America. 

IT Cuba, one of the richest islands in the world. is the largest of the West Indies, be- 
ing 760 miles in length from southeast to northwest, and about 50 miles in breadth 
Its northern coast is 150 miles south from Florida. 

** St. Domingo, or Hayii, formerly called Hispaniola, is a large island, lying between 
Cuba and Porto Rico, and about equally distant from each. 

tl Porto Rico is a fertile island of the West Indies, GO miles southeast from St. Da 
uihigo. It is 140 miles long from east to west, and 36 broad. 



CHAP. I J I>£ LEON. 1 5 

colonized, and subjected to Spanish authority. 'In 1506 1506. 
the eastern coast of Yucatan* was discovered ; and in ' 



1510 the first colony on the continent was planted on \ QfYuca- 

i > i p t\ • orr e tt * tit tan ' a "< i °J 

the Isthmus of Danen.f 2 boon after, Vasco JNunez the. first coi- 
de Balboa, governor of the colony, crossed the Isthmus, continent? 
and from a mountain on the other side of the Conti- 
nent discovered 1 an Ocean, which being seen in a dIc?^'^, 
southerly direction, at first received the name of the the Pan * iC? 
Souih Sea. a 1513 

II. Juan Ponce de Leon in Florida. — 1. 3 In 1512 s. "J"?' '* 
Juan Ponce de Leon, an aged veteran, and former gov- Leon! 
ernor of Porto Rico, fitted out three ships, at his own ex- 
pense, for a voyage of discovery. 4 A tradition prevailed *■ whattoa» 

. . • • t)it tradition 

among the natives of Porto Rico, that in a neighboring tfmeFcun- 
island of the Bahamas^ was a fountain which possessed tainQ; 
the remarkable properties of restoring the youth, and of 
perpetuating the life of any one who should bathe in its 
stream, and drink of its waters. 5 Nor was this fabu- 5 w ^y i( w ^ 
lous tale credited by the uninstructed natives only. It ite&t 
was generally believed in Spain, and even by men 
distinguished for virtue and intelligence. 

2. 6 In quest of this fountain of youth Ponce de e.Givean 

A ' QCCOlOlt Of 

Leon sailed b from Porto Rico in March, 1512; and, mehscovery 
after cruising some time among the Bahamas, discov- 
ered an unknown country, to which, from the abun- ' arc 
dance of flowers that adorned the forests, and from its c - a p" 16 - 
being first seen on Easter^ Sunday, (which the Span- 
iards call Pascua Florida.) he gave the name of 7 niic , ttcas 

Florida. II th extent oj 

II Jjg JjBOTlrS 

3. 7 After landing' 1 some miles north of where St. discoveries'/ 
Augustineir now stands, and taking formal possession a. April is. 

* Yucatan, one of the Suites of Mexico, is an extensive peninsula, 150 miles S. W 
from Cuba, and lying between tbe Bays of Honduras and Campeachy. 

t The Isthmus of Darien Is that narrow neck of land which connects North and 
South America. It is about 300 miles in length, and, in the narrowest part, is only about 
30 miles across. 

J The Bahamas are an extensive group of islands lying east and southeast from 
Florida. They have been estimated at about 000 in number, most of them mere cliffs, 
and rocks, only 14 of them being of any considerable size. 

§ Kastrr day. a church festival observed in commemoration of our Savior's resur- 
rection, is the Sunday following the first full moon that happens after the 20th of March. 

|| Florida* the most southern portion of the United States, is a large peninsula 
about two thirds of the size of Yucatan. The surface is level, and is iutersicted by 
numerous ponds, bikes, rivers, and marshes. 

"I See note and map, p. 36 



16 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[PART L 



1512. of the country, he explored its coasts; and doubling its 

~ southern cape, continued his search among the group 

of islands which he named the Tortugas:* but the 

chief object of the expedition was still unattained, and 

Ponce de Leon returned to Porto Rico, older than 

J- ivhatwtn when he departed. 'A few years later, having been ap- 

tiie second pointed governor of the country which he had discovered, 

voyage ^ e ma( i e a S8C0nc i voyage to its shores, with the design 

of selecting a site for a colony ; but, in a contest with 

the natives, many of his followers were killed, and 

Ponce de Leon himself was mortally wounded. 



2. What is 
said of the 
enterprise 

of 
De Ayllon t 

a. Pronoun- 
ced Ail-yon. 



3. Of the dis- 
covery of 
Carolina./ 



4. Of the hos- 
pitality of 
the natives 

and Vie per- 
fidy of the 
Spaniards .? 

5. Wliativas 
theresult of 

the enter- 
prise/ 



6. Give an 
account of 
the second 
voyage and 
its result. 



Ill, De Ayllon in Carolina. — 1. 2 About the time 
of the defeat of Ponce de Leon in Florida, a company 
of seven wealthy men, of St. Domingo, at the head 
of whom was Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, 1 judge of ap- 
peals of that island, dispatched 13 two vessels to the Ba- 
hamas, in quest of laborers for their plantations and 
mines. 3 Being driven northward from the Bahamas, 
by adverse winds, to the coast of Carolina, they an- 
chored at the mouth of the Cambaheef river, which 
they named the Jordan. The country they called 
Chicora. 

2. 4 Here the natives treated the strangers with great 
kindness and hospitality, and being induced by curiosity, 
freely visited the ships ; but when a sufficient number 
was below the decks, the perfidious Spaniards closed 
the hatches and set sail for St. Domingo. 6 One of the 
returning ships was lost, and most of the Indian pris- 
oners in the other, sullenly refusing food, died of fam- 
ine and melancholy. 

3. c Soon after this unprofitable enterprise, De Ayl- 
lon, having obtained the appointment of governor of 
Chicora, sailed with three vessels for the conquest of 
the country. Arriving in the river Cambahee, the 
principal vessel was stranded and. lost. Proceeding 
thence a little farther north, and being received with 
apparent friendship at their landing, many of his men 
were induced to visit a village, a short distance in the 



* The Tortugas, or Tortoise Islands, are about 100 miles southwest from the southern 
cape of Florida. 

t The Cambahee is a small river in the southern part of South Carolina, emptying intr 
St. Helena Sound 35 miles southwest from Charleston. (See map, p. 35.) 



CHAP. 1.] CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 17 

interior, where they were all treacherously cut off by 1517 
the natives, in revenge for the wrongs which the Span- 
iards had before committed. De Ayllon himself was 
surprised and attacked in the harbor ; — the attempt to 
conquer the country was abandoned ; — and the iew 
survivors, in dismay, hastened back to St. Domingo. 

IV. Conquest of Mexico.* — 1. 'In 1517 Fran- V™ ( >™? d 
cisco Fernandez de Cordova, sailing- from Cuba a with ™ as Yuca - 

t o tan cxvfO' 

three small vessels, explored 6 the northern coast of red? 
Yucatan. 2 As the Spaniards approached the shore, a. Note p.m. 
they were surprised to find, instead of naked savages, b. March, 
a people decently clad in cotton garments ; and, on lal7 ' 
landing, their wonder was increased by beholding sev- ^J^me 
eral large edifices built of stone. 3 The natives were Spaniards? 
much more bold and warlike than those of the islands 3. mat was 

, , , j , the charac- 

and the more southern coasts, and every where re- tercftk* 
ceived the Spaniards with the most determined opposi- na lVM> 
tion. 

2. 'At one place fifty-seven of the Spaniards were i. The result 
killed, and Cordova himself received a wound, of diitoni 
which he died soon after his return to Cuba. s But, 5. what u 
notwithstanding the disastrous result of the expedition, vlscaferijlj 
another was planned in the following year; and under MBXlC0? 
the direction of Juan de Grijalva, a portion of the south- 
ern coast of Mexico was explored, 8 - and a large amount cMayjune, 
of treasure obtained by trafficking with the natives. lal8 ' 

3. *Velasquez ; governor of Cuba, under whose %£% d l° ! ™£ 
auspices the voyage of Grijalva had been made, en- °f conquest 

• 1 1 11 i-i i farmed, and 

nched by the result, and elated with a success far be- why! 
yond his expectations, now determined to undertake 
the conquest of the wealthy countries that had been 
discovered, and hastily fitted out an armament for the 
purpose. 7 Not being able to accompany the expedi- Ic™™™ 
tion in person, he gave the command to Fernando ^mSSoS 
Cortez, who sailed with eleven vessels, having on cartez. 
board six hundred and seventeen men. In March, 
1519, Cortez landed in Tabasco,! a southern province 

* Mexico is a large country southwest from the United States, bordering on the Gulf 
of Mexico on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. It is abont one fourth an 
large as the United States and their territories. The land on both coasts is low, but in 
the interior is a large tract of table lands 6 or 8000 feet above the level of the sea. 

t Tabasco, one of the southern Mexican States, adjoins Yucatan on the southwe-.t. 



18 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [FART I 

1519. of Mexico, where he had several encounters with the 
natives, whom he routed with great slaughter. 

a. April 12. 4. iProceeding thence farther westward, he landed" at 
i. Hmo was San Juan de Ulloa,* where he was hospitably received, 
cen-edbythe and where two officers of a monarch who was called 

Montezu- Montezuma, came to inquire what his intentions Avere 
" m1 in visiting -that coast, and to offer him what assistance 

2. what did he might need in order to continue his voyage. 2 Cor- 
mire%em, ^ z respectfully assured them that he came with the 
%^t a dMhe. most friendly sentiments, but that he was intrusted 

maice) w ith affairs of such moment by the king, his sovereign, 
that he could impart them to no one but to the empe- 
ror Montezuma himself, and therefore requested them 
to conduct him into the presence of their master. 

3. what did 5. 3 The ambassadors of the Mexican monarch, 
mtba^sudSrs knowing how disagreeable such a request would be, 

thendoi endeavored to dissuade Cortez from his intention ; at 
the same time making him some valuable presents, 
which only increased his avidity. Messengers were 
dispatched to Montezuma, giving him an account of 
every thing that had occurred since the arrival of the 

4. what did Spaniards. 4 Presents of great value and magnificence 
Montezuma were re turned by him, and repeated requests were 

made, and finally commands given, that the Spaniards 
should leave the country ; but all to no purpose. 

5. what 6. 6 Cortez, after destroying his vessels, that his 
cortez take? soldiers should be left without any resources but 

b. Aug. 26. their own valor, commenced 1 * his march' towards 

6. what the Mexican capital. c On his way thither, several 
cuTred "on nations, that were tributary to Montezuma, gladly 

l cor'tez Cl io? mrew °ff their allegiance and joined the Span- 

wards tte iards. Montezuma himself, alarmed and irresolute, 

capital i continued to send messengers to Cortez, and, as his 

hopes or his fears alternately prevailed, on one day 

gave him permission to advance, and, on the next, com- 

7. what is manded him to depart. 

smrf of the 7. ij±_ s the vast plain of Mexico opened to the view 
of the plain of the Spaniards, they beheld numerous villages and 
and the city? cultivated fields extending as far as the eye could reach, 



* San Juan de Ulloa is a small island, opposite Vera Cruz, the principal eastern sea 
port of Mexico. It is 180 miles south of east from the Mexican capital, and contain! 
a strong fortress, built of coral rocks taken from the bottom of the sea. 



CHAP. I.] 



CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 



29 



and in the middle of the p.ain, partly encompassing a 
large lake, and partly built on islands within it, stood 
the city* of Mexico, adorned with its numerous temples 
and turrets ; the whole presenting to the Spaniards a 
spectacle so novel and wonderful that they could hardly 
persuade themselves it was any thing more than a 
dream. 'Montezuma received 11 the Spaniards with 
great pomp and magnificence, admitted them within 
the city, assigned them a spacious and elegant edifice 
for their accommodation, supplied all their wants, 
and bestowed upon all, privates as well as officers, 
presents of great value. 

8. 2 Cortez, nevertheless, soon began to feel solici- 
tude for his situation. He was in the middle of a vast 
empire. — shut up in the centre of a hostile city, — and 
surrounded by multitudes sufficient to overwhelm him 
upon the least intimation of the will of their sovereign. 
3 In this emergency, the wily Spaniard, with extraordi- 
nary daring, formed and executed b the plan of seizing 
the person of the Mexican monarch, and detained him 
as a hostage for the good conduct of his people. He 
next induced him, overawed and broken in spirit, to 
acknowledge himself a vassal of the Spanish crown, 
and to subject his dominions to the payment of an an- 
nual tribute. 

9. 4 But while Cortez was absent, c opposing a force 
that had been sent against him by the governor of 
Cuba, who had become jealous of his successes, the 
Mexicans, incited by the cruelties of the Spaniards who 
had been left to guard the capital and the Mexican 
king, flew to arms. 6 Cortez, with singular good for- 



1519. 



1. Of Mon- 
tezuma's re. 
cepttoii of 
the Span- 
iards/ 

a. Nov. 



2. Of the 
embarrass- 
ing situa- 
tion of 

Cortez ? 



3. Of the 
seizure and 
treatment 
of Monte- 
zuma i 

b. Dec. 
1520. 



4. W~hy torn 
Cortez call- 
ed from the 
capital, and 
why did the 

Mexica ns 
rise in arms} 

a May. 

5. What is 

said of the 
goodfortune 
of Cortez 1 




* The city of Mexico, built by the Spaniards on the ruins of the ancient city, was 
long the largest town in America, hut is new inferior 
to New York and Philadelphia. It is 170 inik s from the 
Gulf of Mexico, and 200 from the Pacific Ocoa" and is 
situated near the western bank of Lake Tezcuco, ' the 
delightful Vale of Mexico, or, as it was formerly cai« 1. 
the Plain of Tenochtillan, which is 230 miles in cir 
cuniference, and elevated 7000 feet above the level of 
the ocean. The plain contains three lakes besides Tez- 
cuco, and is surrounded by hills of moderate elevation, 
except on the south, where are two lofty volcanic 
mountains. Two of the lakes are above the level of the 
city, whose streets have been frequently inundated by 
them; but in 1689, a deep channel. 12 miles long, cut 
through the hills on the north, was completed, by 
which the superfluous waters are conveyed into the 
river Tula, and thence to the Parvuco. 



20 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART I. 

1520. tune, having subdued his enemies, and incorporated 
' ~ Jul 4 most of them with his own forces, returning, entered* 

the capital without molestation. 

LHrno'did 10. 'Relying too much on his increased strength, he 

'niexu-anij? soon ^^ aside the mask of moderation which had hith- 

followed? ert0 concealed his designs, and treated the Mexicans like 

conquered subjects. They, finally convinced that they 

had nothing to hope but from the utter extermination 

of their invaders, resumed their attacks upon the 

xwhattoss Spanish quarters with additional fury. 2 In a sally 

Spaniards which Cortez made, twelve of his soldiers were killed. 

suffer} anc | tne Mexicans learned that their enemies were not 

invincible. 
s.W7uais 11. 3 Cortez, now fully sensible of his danger, tried 
Tnterpnsi- what effect the interposition of Montezuma would have 
uTuma/and upon his irritated subjects. At sight of their king, 
W irfon C hZ' whom they almost worshipped as a god, the weapons 
appearance? f the Mexicans dropped from their hands, and every 
head was bowed with reverence ; but when, in obe- 
dience to the command of Cortez, the unhappy mon- 
arch attempted to mitigate their rage and to persuade 
them to lay down their arms, murmurs, threats, and 
reproaches ran through their ranks ; — their rage broke 
forth with ungovernable fury, and, regardless of their 
monarch, they again poured in upon the Spaniards 
flights of arrows and volleys of stones. Two arrows 
wounded Montezuma before he could be removed, and 
a blow from a stone brought him to the ground. 
iivfmtthen 12. *The Mexicans, on seeing their kin<r fall by 

did the Mex- . ., '. ,= ...= J 

icansdo? their own hands, were instantly struck with remorse, 

and fled with horror, as if the vengeance of heaven 

were pursuing them for the crime which they had 

5. what is committed. 5 Montezuma himself, scorning to survive 

""tezwna™" this last humiliation, rejected with disdain the kind al- 

death> tentions of the Spaniards, and refusing to take any 

nourishment, soon terminated his wretched days. 

«. Give a* 13. "Cortez, now despairing of an accommodation 

mmrcM with the Mexicans, after several desperate encounter? 

^ilrdsjrwn' with them, began a retreat from the capital ; — but in- 

Mexico. numerable hosts hemmed him in on every side, and 

his march was almost a continual battle. On the sixth 

day of the retreat, the almost exhausted Spaniards, now 



CHAP. I.] 



CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 



21 



reduced to a mere handful of men. encountered, 1 in a 
spacious valley, the whole Mexican force ; — a countless 
multitude, extending as far as the eye could reach. 
'As no alternative remained but to conquer or die, 
Cortez, without giving his soldiers time for reflection, 
immediately led them to the charge. The Mexicans 
received them with unusual fortitude, yet their most 
numerous battalions gave way before Spanish disci- 
pline and Spanish arms. 

14. The very multitude of their enemies, however, 
pressing upon them from every side, seemed sufficient 
to overwhelm the Spaniards, who, seeing no end of 
their toil, nor any hope of victory, were on the point 
of yielding to despair. At this moment Cortez, ob- 
serving the great Mexican standard advancing, and 
recollecting to have heard that on its fate depended the 
event of every battle, assembled a few of his bravest 
officers, and, at their head, cut his way through the 
opposing ranks, struck down the Mexican general, 
and secured the standard. The moment their general 
fell and the standard disappeared, the Mexicans, panic 
struck, threw away their weapons, and fled with pre- 
cipitation to the mountains, making no farther opposi- 
tion to the retreat of the Spaniards. 

15. Notwithstanding the sad reverses which he 
had experienced, Cortez still looked forward with con- 
fidence to the conquest of the whole Mexican empire, 
and, after receiving supplies and reinforcements, in 
December, 1520, he again departed for the interior, 
with a force of five hundred Spaniards and ten thou- 
sand friendly natives. After various successes and re- 
verses, and a siege of the capital which lasted seventy- 
five days, — the king Guatemozin having fallen into 
his hands, — in August, 1521, the city yielded ; b the fate 
of the empire was decided ; and Mexico became a 
province of Spain. 

16. 3 Another important event in the list of Spanish 
discoveries, and one which is intimately connected 
with American history, being the final demonstration 
of the theory of Columbus, requires in this place a 
passing notice. 

17 4 Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese by birth, 



1520. 



a. July 17. 



1. Describa 
the great 
battle with 
the Mexi- 
cans. 



2. Give an 
account of 

Vie final 
conquest of 

Mexico. 



1521. 



b. Aug. 23. 

3. What 

ether impor- 
tant nvent 
requires a 

notice here, 

4. Who was 
Magellan, 
and what 

was hisplan 
of a new 

route to tht 
Indies I 



22 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[PART i 



152®. 



a Emanuel. 

1. What is 

said of his 
first appli- 
cation for 
aid} 



S.Charles V. 

2. Under 
whose pat- 
ronage did 
lie sail and 

when ? 
d. Aug. 20. 

1419. 
3. Givs an 
account of 
the voyage 
embracing 
the first cir- 
cumnaviga- 
tion of the 
Stole. 



e. March 16. 
1520. 



who had served his country with distinguished valor 
in the East Indies,* believing that those fertile regions 
might be reached by a westerly route from Portugal, 
proposed the scheme to his sovereign, 8 - and requested 
aid to carry it into execution. 'Unsuccessful in his 
application, and having been coldly dismissed by his 
sovereign without receiving any reward for his ser- 
vices, he indignantly renounced his allegiance and 
repaired to Spain. b 

1 8. 2 The Spanish emperor, engaging readily . in 
the scheme which the Portuguese monarch had re- 
jected, a squadron "of five ships was soon equipped at 
the public charge, and Magellan set sail' 1 from Sevillef 
in August, 1519. 3 After touching at the Canaries,^: 
he stood south, crossed the equinoctial line, and spent 
several months in exploring the coast of South Amer- 
ica, searching for a passage which should lead to the 
Indies. After spending the winter on the coast, in the 
spring he continued his voyage towards the south, — 
passed through the strait^ which bears his name, and, 
after sailing three months and twenty one-days through 
an unknown ocean, during which time his crew suf- 
fered greatly from the want of water and provisions, 
he discovered 6 a cluster of fertile islands, which he 
called the Ladrones. |j 

19. The fair weather and favorable winds which he 
had experienced induced him to bestow on the ocean 
through which he had passed the name of Pacific, 
which it still retains. Proceeding from the Ladrones, 



* East Indies is the name given to the islands of the Indian Ocean south of Asia, 
together with that portion of the main land which is between Persia and China. 

t Seville is a large city beautifully situated on the left bank of the Guadalquiver, 
in the southwestern part of Spain. It was once the chief market for the commerce 
of America and the Indies. 

t The Canaries are a group of 14 islands belonging to Spain. The Peak of Teneriffe, 
on one of the more distant islands, is about 250 miles from the northwest coast of 
Africa, and 800 miles southwest from the Straits of Gibraltar. 

§ The Strait of Magellan is at ths southern extremity of the American continen', 
separating the Islands of Terra del Fuego from the main land. It is a dargerous 
passage, more than 300 miles in length, and in some places not more than a mita 
across. 

|i The Ladrones, or the Islands of Thieves, thus named from the thievish dUposi 
non of the natives, are a cluster of islands in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 miles soutti 
east from the co ist of China. When first discovered, the natives were ignorant of any 
country but their own, and imagined that the ancestor of their race was formed from 
a piece of the rock of one of their islands. They were utterly unacquainted with 
fire, and when Magellan, provoked by repeated thefts, burned one of their villages, 
thuy thought that the fire was a beast which fed upon their dwellings. 



1522. 



CHAP. Lj PAMPHTL0 DE NARVAEZ. 23 

he soon discovered the islands now known as the 1520. 
Phillippmes.* Here, in a contest with the natives, 
Magellan vras killed, 1 and the expedition was prose- a - Ma r 8 - 
cuted under other commanders. After arriving at the 
Moluccas,! and taking in a cargo of spices, the only- 
vessel of the squadron, then fit for a long voyage; 
sailed for Europe byAvay of the Cape of Good Hope,! 
and arrivcd b in Spain in September, 1522, thus accom- b - wthSeft 
plishing the first circumnavigation of the globe, and 
having performed the voyage in the space of three 
years and twenty-eight days. 

V. Pamphtlo de Narvaez. — 1. l In 1526, Pamphilo 1526. 
de Narvaez, the same who had been sent c by the c. see p. 19. 
governor of Cuba to arrest the career of Cortez in Udp'ijl 
Mexico, solicited and obtained from the Spanish em- ™Sm 
peror, Charles V., the appointment of governor of Flor- s ^qutJft 
ida, d with permission to conquer the country. 2 The a. Notep.is. 
territory thus placed at his disposal extended, with in- \1^\%£ 
definite limits, from the southern cape of the present ptacedatfua 
Florida to the river of Palms,(now Panuco,^) in Mexico. 
3 Having made extensive preparations, in April, 1528, 1528. 
Narvaez landed 6 in Florida with a force of three hun- e - Apdl ,22 - 
dred men, of whom eighty were mounted, and erect- miAofrm 
ing the royal standard, took possession of the country Florida? 
for the crown of Spain. 

2. Striking into the interior with the hope of finding ^^Zan- 4 
some wealthy empire like Mexico or Peru,|[ during ^"|£j£ 
two months the Spaniards wandered about through iardst 
swamps and forests, often attacked by hordes of lurking 
savages, but cheered onward by the assurances of their 
captive guides, who, pointing to the north, were sup- 

* The Phillippines, thus named in honor of Philip II. of Spain, who subjected them 
40 years after the voyage of Magellan, are a group of more than a thousand islands, 
the largest of which is Luzon, about 400 miles southeast from the coast of China. 

t The -Moluccas, or Spice Islands, are a group of small islands north from New 
Holland, discovered by the Portuguese in 1511. They are distinguished chiefly for the 
production of spices, particularly nutmegs and cloves. 

t The Cape of Good Hope is the most important cape of South Africa, although Cape 
Ligullus is farther south. 

§ The Panuco is a small river which empties into the Gulf of Mexico 210 miles 
north from the Mexican capital, and about 30 miles north from Tampico. 

|| Peru is a country of South America, bordering on the Pacific Ocean, celebrated 
for its mines of gold and silver, the annual produce of which, during a great number 
of years, was more than four millions of dollars. Peru, when discovered by the Span- 
iards, was a powerful and wealthy kingdom, considerably advanced in civilization Its 
conquest was completed by Pizarro in 1532. 



24 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART 

1528. posed to describe a territory which abounded in goki, 
aJune *At length they arrived" in the fertile province of the 
1 Their dh- Apallachians, in the north of Florida, but their hopes 
appointed of finding gold were sadly disappointed, and the resi- 
dence of the chieftain, instead of being a second 
Mexico, which they had pictured to themselves, proved 
to be a mere village of two hundred wigwams. 

2. r.'hatwas 3. afhey now directed their course southward, and 
theexpedi- finally came upon the sea, probably in the region of 

the Bay of Apalachee,* near St. Marks. Having al- 
ready lost a third of their number, and despairing of 
being able to retrace their steps, they constructed five 

t. Oct. frail boats in which they embarked, 15 but being driven 
out into the gulf by a storm, Narvaez and nearly all 
his companions perished. Four of the crew, after 
wandering several years through Louisiana,! Texas, J 
and Northern Mexico, and passing from tribe to tribe, 

c. 1536. often as slaves, finally reached a Spanish settlement. 

3. what teas yj Ferdinand de Soto. — 1. 3 Notwithstandino- the 

still the pre- » 

vaient belief melancholy result ot the expedition of JNarvaez, it 
to the riches was still believed that in the interior of Florida, a 
name which the Spaniards applied to all North Amer- 
ca then known, regions might yet be discovered which 
4 f"2«S AV0U *d vie in opulence with Mexico and Peru. *Fer- 
ie soto, ami diiiand de Soto, a Spanish cavalier of noble birth, who 
ofhisde- had acquired distinction and wealth as the lieutenant 
ng <mering 1 ' of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, and desirous of 
Florida? signalizing himself still further by some great enter- 
prise, formed the design of conquering Florida, a 
1533. country of whose riches he had formed the most ex- 
travagant ideas, 
s. what did 2. 6 He therefore applied to the Spanish emperor, 
aniiobuan and requested permission to undertake the conquest of 
XfilVof Florida at his own risk and expense. The emperor. 
spam? indulging high expectations from so noted a cavalier, 
not only granted his request, but also appointed him 

* Apalachee is a large open bay on the coast of Florida, south of the western part of 
Georgia. St. Marks is a town at the head of the bay. 

t Jjauisiana is a name originally applied to the whole valley of the Mississippi and the 
country westward as far as Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. The present Louisiana is 
one of the United States, at the southwestern extremity of the Union. 

i Texas, embracing a territory as extensive as the six New England States togethci 
with New York and New Jersey, adjoins Louisiana on the west 



CHAP. L] FERDINAND DE SOTO. 25 

governor-general of Florida for life, and also of the I53§. 
island of Cuba\ 2 De Soto soon found himself sur- a Note u 
rounded by adventurers of all classes, and in April, , .„, 

. -^ •, ir^ii -i n r ^ r 1 l- When and 

1538. sailed for Ouba with a fleet of seven large and with what 

, ' . , . ° armament 

three small vessels. duiiesaiii 

3. 2 In Cuba the new governor was received with 2. what is 
great rejoicings ; — new accessions were made to his recfptfon'L 
forces ; and after completing his preparations, and leav- of'/fis'iand- 
injr his wife to srovern the island, he embarked for 



Florida f 

1539. 

b. June 10 



Florida, and early in June, 1539, his fleet anchored 5 in 
the Bay of Espiritu Santo.* or Tampa Bay. 3 His 
forces consisted of six hundred men, more than two ; . //j« 
Lundred of whom were mounted, both infantry and forces! 
cavalry beinaf clad in complete armor. 4 Besides am- *• of the 

1 rr 1 i e i 1 1 i • supplies for 

pie stores ot food, a drove 01 three hundred swine was his army / 
landed, with which De Soto intended to stock the 
country where he should settle ; and these were driven 
with the expedition throughout most of the route. 

4. s After establishing a small garrison in the vi- 5. cave an 
cinity of Espiritu Santo, and sending most of his ves- the wander- 
sels back to Havanna.f he commenced his march into 'Spaniards 
the interior, taking with him, as interpreter, a Spaniard m % r ) nle ' 
found among the natives, avIio had remained in cap- 
tivity since the time of Narvaez. After wandering 

five months through unexplored and mostly unculti- 
vated regions, exposed to hardships and dangers and 
an almost continued warfare with the natives, during 
which several lives were lost, the party arrived, in the c . Nov. 6. 
month of November, in the more fertile country of the 
Apallachians, east of the Flint river,! and a faw leagues 
north of the Bay of Apalachee, where it was deter- 
mined to pass the winter. 

5. 'From this place an exploring party discovered 6. What dts- 
the ocean in the very place where the unfortunate mentioned, 
Narvaez had embarked. De Soto likewise dispatched eveimfoi- 
thirty horsemen to Espiritu Santo, with orders for the l » wed ? 

* Espiritu Santo, now called Tampa Bay, is on the western coast of Florida, 200 
aides southeast from St. Marks. There is no place of anchorage between the two 
f lai es. 

t Hananna, the capital of Cuba, a wealthy and populous city, is on the north side 
uf the island. It has the finest harbor in the world, capable of containing a thousand 
bliips. The entrance is so narrow that but one vessel can pass at a time. 

t The Flint river is in the western part of Georgia. It joins the (Jhattahooche at 
the northern boundary of Florida, and the two united form the Apalachicola. 

2 



26 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART I 

1539. garrison to rejoin the army in their present winter 
~ quarters. The horsemen arrived with the loss of but 
two of their number, and the garrison rejoined De 
Soto, although with some loss, as, during their march, 
they had several desperate encounter! with the na- 
tives. Two small vessels that had been retained at 
Espiritu Santo reached the Bay of Apallachee, and 
by the aid of these the coast was further explored du- 
s. 153S-40. ring the winter, 1 and the harbor of Pensacola* dis 

covered. 

.in what 6. 'The Spaniards remained five months in win- 

m tle'span- d ter °i uarters at Apallachee, supplying themselves with 

mefrfirfi provisions by pillaging the surrounding country ; bm 

loinuri they were kept in constant alarm by the never-ceas- 

1540. i n g stratagems and assaults of the natives. 2 At 

length, in the month of March, they broke up their 

irc ' camp and set out b for a remote country, of which they 

courlem had heard, to the northeast, governed, it was said, by 

iai'luakein a woman, and abounding in gold and silver. 3 De 

the spring/ g oto } lat | previously dispatched his ships to Cuba, with 

&What in- orders to rendezvous in the following- October at fen 

struct ions "... 

had De Soto sacola, where he proposed to meet them, having, w 

given to his , ' . , i i • i ■ ■ 

ships i the mean time, explored the country m the interior. 

i. vrimt dis- 7. 4 Changing his course now to the northeast, Df 

!~z>e Soto crossed several streams which flow into the At 

lantic, and probably penetrated near to the Savannah, > 

where he indeed found the territory of the princess 

of whose wealth he had formed so high expectations ; 

but, to his great disappointment, the fancied gold 

proved to be copper, and the supposed silver only thin 

5. Describe plates of mica. 

Desoto 8. s His direction was now toAvards the north, to 
Georgia! trie head waters of the Savannah and the Chattahoo- 
i- ensacola and vicinity. chee,| whence he crossed a branch of 



Soto meet 
with! 







* Pensacola is a town on the northwest side of Pc nsu 
cola Bay, near the western extremity of Florida. The buy 
is a fine sheet of water upwards of 20 miles in length from 
N.E. to S.W. 

t The Savannah river forms the boundary line between 
South Carolina and Georgia. 

t The C/iattahorclice river rises in the northeastern part 
of Georgia, near the sources of the Savannah, and, aftei 
crossing the State southwest, forms the boundary between 
Georgia and Alabama. 



CHAP, t] FERDINAND DE SOTO. 27 

the Apalachian* chain which runs through the northern 1540. 
part of Georgia, and came upon the southern limits of ' '• 

the territory of the Cherokees. a 'Hearing that there a. Mapp.45. 
was gold in a region farther north, he dispatched two 1. why wa» 
horsemen, with Indian guides, to visit the country, ■.fthe'cherl 
These, after an absence of ten days, having crossed "andwkat 
rugged and precipitous mountains, returned to the w< %uit't' fr 
camp, bringing with them a few specimens of fine 
t opper or bruc", but none of gold or silver. 

9. 2 During several months the Spaniards wan- 2 - What «t 
ered through the valleys of Alabama, obliging the toanderinga 

chieftains, through whose territories they passed, to iords^n* 
march with them as hostages for the good conduct of AmmM 
their subjects. 3 In October they arrived 1 " at Mauville,f b - Cct. 28 
a fortified Indian town near the junction of the Ala- 3. what is 
bama| and the Tombeckbee. Here was fought" one "mie., and 
of the most bloody battles known in Indian warfare. U red l there ? 
♦During a contest of nine hours several thousand In- 4 . Give an 
dians were slain and their village laid in ashes. Ivmiattfe 

10. The loss of the Spaniards was also great, near Mobile. 
Many fell in battle, others died of their wounds, — they 

lost many of their horses, and all their baggage was 
consumed in the flames. 5 The situation of the 5 - wtutttoa* 
Spaniards after the battle was truly deplorable, for of the span 
nearly all were wounded, and, with their baggage, ttebattu? 
they had lost their supplies of food and medicine ; but, 
fortunately for them, the Indian power had been so 
completely broken that their enemies were unable to 
offer them any farther molestation. 

1 1. 6 While at Mauville, De Soto learned from the y'7'«f>- 

1 1 • 111 1 ill i formation 

natives that the ships he had ordered had arrived at «*« De sow 
Pensacola. c But, fearing that his disheartened sol- and what' 
diers would desert him as soon as they had an oppor- nextmm* 
tunity of leaving the country, and mortified at his meH,s! 
losses, he determined to send no tidings of himself cNotep - 2B - 

* The Apalaeliiav or Alleghany Mountains extend from the northern part of Georgia 
+ o itea State of New YorK. at a distance of about 250 miles from the coast, and nearly 
,>ar;rilel to it. They divide the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those 
wh'ch flow into the Mississippi. 

t Pronounced Mo-veel, whence Mobile derives its name. 

I The Alabama river rises in the N.W. part of Georgia, and through most of its 
course is called the Cvona. The Tombeckbee rises in the N.E. part of Mississippi. The 
two unite 35 miles north from Mobile, in the State of Alabama, and thrt ugh several 
channels empty into Mobile Bay. 



23 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART L 

1510. until he had crowned his enterprise with success by 
discovering new regions of wealth. He therefore 
a. N'ov is turned from the coast and again advanced" into the 
interior. His followers, accustomed to implicit obe- 
dience, obeyed the command of their leader without 
remonstrance. 
^V^'aT* *~' ir l lrl e follo^ving Avinter b he passed in tlie coun- 
■ whatwa, tr y °* * ne Chickasaws, probably on the western bank 
t'lesitiia- f the Yazoo,* occupying an Indian village which 
Spaniards had been deserted on his approach. Here the In- 
Kcond win- dians attacked him at night, in the dead of winter, 
tohauosses and burned the village ; yet they were finally repulsed, 
d ttfferi but not till several Spaniards had fallen. In the burn- 
ing of the village the Spaniards lost many of their 
horses, most of their SAvine, and the few remaining 
clothes which they had saved from the fires of Mau- 
ville. During the remainder of the winter they suf- 
fered much from the cold, and were almost constantly 
harassed by the savages. 
; whmand ^. 2 At the opening of spring the Spaniards re- 
where aid sumed their march, continuing their course to the 

trici} cross ? ° 

theMwis- northwest until they came to the Mississippi,! which 

c. May 5. ibey crossed, probably at the lowest Chickasaw bluff, 

3 what one 0I " tne anc i ent crossing places, between the thirty- 

comsedid fourth and the thirty-fifth parallel of latitude. 3 Thence, 

they then J r ... . , V 

take? 7 alter reaching the St. t rancis,^: they continued north 

my spend until they arrived in the vicinity of New Madrid, in 

ami where the southern part of the State of Missouri. 
v'aismeiT H- 4 After tra versing the country, during the sum- 

thJr ?erf n ~ mer > t0 tne distance of two or three hundred miles 

(i. ioJi-2. west of the Mississippi, they passed the winter 1 on the 

1542. banks of the Wachita.^ 5 In the spring they passed 

* The Yazoo river rises in the northern part of the State of Mississippi, and running 
sonttiwest, enters the Mississippi river 65 miles north from Natchez. 

t The Mississippi river, which, in the Indian language, signifies the Father of Wa- 
ters, rises 160 miles west from Lake Superior. Its source is Itasca Lake, in Iowa Ter- 
ritory. After a winding course of more than 3000 miles, in a southerly direction, it 
discharges its vast flood of turbid waters into the Gulf of Mexico. It is navigable for 
Iteam-boats to the Falls of St. Anthony, more than 2000 miles from its mouth by 
ihe river's course. The Mississippi and its tributary streams drain a vast valley, ex 
tending from the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains, containing more than a million 
sf square miles of the richest country in the world ; — a territory six times greater than 
the whole kingdom of France. 

% The St. Francis river rises in Missouri, and running south, enters the Mississippi 
60 miles north from the mouth of the Arkansas. 

$ The fVachita river rises in the western part of the State of Arkansas, and run- 



CliAP. I.] 



FERDINAND DE SOTO. 



29 



down that river to the Mississippi, where De Soto was 
taken sick and died. 1 To conceal his death from the 
natives, his hody, wrapped in a mantle, and placed in 
a rustic coffin, in the stillness of midnight, and in the 
presence of a few faithful followers, was silently sunk 
in the middle of the stream. 

15. 'De Soto had appointed his successor, under 
whom the remnant of the party now attempted to pen- 
etrate by land to Mexico. They wandered several 
months through the wilderness, traversino- the western 
prairies, the hunting grounds of roving and warlike 
tribes, but hearing no tidings of white people, and find- 
ing their way obstructed by rugged mountains, they were 
constrained to retrace their steps. 2 In December they 
came upon the Mississippi a short distance above the 
mouth of the Red* river, and here they passed the 
winter, b during which time they constructed seven 
large boats, or brigantines. 3 In these they embarked 
on the twelfth of July, in the following year, and in 
seventeen days reached the Gulf of Mexico. Fearing 
to trust themselves far from land in their frail barks, 
they continued along the coast, and on the twentieth 
of September, 1543, the remnant of the party, half 
naked and famishing with hunger, arrived safely at a 
Spanish settlement near the mouth of the river Panuco c 
in Mexico. 



1512. 

5. What is 

said of the 
death 'j 
De Soio! 

a. May 3!. 



1. Of the a! 

tempt of tiu 

Spaniards 

to reach 

Mexico 

by land ? 



2. Where 
and in 
what man- 
ner did ihzy 
pass their 
fourth win- 
terl 

b. 1542-3. 

1543. 

3. What max 
their subse 
quent course 
and in what 

i/,am>er 
did the rem- 
nant of the 
party reach 

Mexico .' 

c. Note p. 23. 



nins: S.E. receives many tributaries, anil enters the Red river 30 miles from the Junction 
of the latter with the Mississippi. 

* The Red river rises on the confines of Texas, forms its northern boundary, and en- 
ters the Mississippi 1511 miles N.W. from New Orleans 




30 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART L 

149?. 

CHAPTER II. 

doefcfiajf- 'NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTS OF NORTH AMERICA, 
Ur II. treat? FROM THE DISCOVERY OF THE CONTINENT BY THE CA- 

BOTS, IN 1497, TO THE SETTLEMENT OF JAMESTOWN, IN 

VIRGINIA, IN 1607. 110 YEARS. 

(Eroririnced 

a. Car te-are 

b. Re-bo. DIVISIONS. 

e. Lo-ilon-e- 

d. Poash.) I' *J°hn and Sebastian Cabot. — II. Gaspar Cortereal. — 

2 What are ^^' Vvrrazani. — IV. James Cartier.* — V. Roberval. — 

the Divis- VI. Ribault, b Laudonniere, c and Melendez. — VII. Gilbert, 

Chaptefll.7 Raleigh, Grenville, $-c.—VIII. Marquis de la RocheA— 

IX. Bartholomew Gosnold. — X. De Monts. — XL North and 

South Virginia. 

\ccmimof L J° IIN AND Sebastian Cabot. — 1. 3 Shortly after 
the voyage the return of Columbus from his first vovage, John 

anddiscov- _, - _ T . . . . . . . ..J to. 7 

ery madefy Labot, a Venetian bv birth, but then residing: in Lug- 

Vi£ (Jabots • • ■ i 

land, believing that new lards might be discovered in 
the northwest, applied to Henry VII. for a commis- 
e. Dated sion of discovery. Under this commission 5 Cabot, 
'o ia s.) H96. taking with him his son Sebastian, then a young man, 
. aqj sailed from the port of Bristol* in the spring of 1497. 
2. On the 3d of July following he discovered land, 
which he called Prima Vista, or first seen, and which 
until recently was supposed to be the island of New- 
f.Note.p. H. foundland/ but which is now believed to have been 
the coast of Labrador. f After sailing south a short 
distance, and probably discovering the coast of New- 
foundland, anxious to announce his success, Cabot 
returned to England without making any farther 
discovery. 
1498. 3. 4 In 1498 Sebastian Cabot, with a company of 
%ndvoyafe tfiitee hundred men, made a second voyage, with thg 
iijscias- h p e f finding a northwest passage to India. H 

Han Cabo!. r to . tit ... . . , 

explored the continent irom Labrador to Virginia, ani 
eN<jte,p.i5. perhaps to the coast of Florida ;s when want of pro- 
visions compelled him to return to England. 

* Bristol, a commercial city of England, next in importance to London and Liver 
pool/is on the river Avon, four miles distant from its entrance into the river Severn, 
where commences the Bristol Channel. It is 115 miles vve»< from London and 140 
south from Liverpool. 



CHAP. E J 



OORTEREAL, \ 2RRAZANI. 



31 



4. x He made several subsequent voyages to the 
American coast, and, in 1517, entered one of the 
shaits which leads into Hudson's Bay. In 1526, 
having entered the service of Spain, he explored the 
River La Plata, and part of the coast of South Ameri- 
ca. Returning to England during the reign of Ed- 
ward VI, he was made Grand Pilot of the kingdom, 
and rece ved a pension for his services. 



1500. 

1. Of the 

subsequent 
voyages of 

Cabot. 



11. Gaspar Cortereal. — 1. 2 Soon after the sue- 2. Give an 
eessful voyage of the Cabots, which resulted in the the°v"!/a% 
discovery of North America, the king of Portugal, in °{reaii 
the year 1500, dispatched Gaspar Cortereal to the 1500 
coasts of America, on a voyage of discovery. After J501. 
exploring the coast of Labrador* several hundred miles, a. Note p. u. 
in the vain hope of finding a passage to India, b Cor- h Notep. qz 
teieal freighted his ships with more than fifty of the 
natives, whom, on. his return, he sold into slavery. c - Aus - 

2. 3 Cortereal sailed on a second voyage, with a de- 3 - J. 17 '?-','* 

. . ,. " 1 °, '. . , said of the. 

termination to pursue his discovery, ana bring back a second voy- 
cargo of slaves. Not returning as soon as was expected, 
his brother sailed in search of him, but no accounts of 
either ever again reached Portugal. 



III. Verrazani. — 1. 4 At an early period the fish- 
eries of Newfoundland began to be visited by the 
French and the English, but the former attempted no 
discoveries in America until 1523. s h\ the latter part 
of this year Francis I. fitted out a squadron of four 
ships, the command of which he gave to John Verra- 
zani, a Florentine navigator of great skill and celebrity. 
Soon after the vessels had sailed, three of them became 
so damaged in a storm that they were compelled to re- 
turn ; but Verrazani proceeded in a single vessel, with 
a determination to make new discoveries. Sailing e 
from Madeira,* in a westerly direction, after having 
encountered a terrible tempest, he reached f the coast 
nf America, probably in the latitude of Wilmington. f 



1504. 

4. M7iat h 
said of the 

Newfound- 
land 

fisheries ? 

5. Give an 
account of 
the voyage 

of 
Verrazani. 



1524. 



* The Madeiras are a cluster if islands, north of the Canaries, 400 miles west from 
tne coast of Morocco, and nearl) 700 southwest from the Straits of Gibraltar. Madeira, 
the principal island, celebrated for its wines, is 54 miles long, and consists of a collec- 
tion of lofty mountains, on the lower slopes of which vines are cultivated 

t Wilmington. (Se3 Note and Map, p. 103.1 



32 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[PART *. 



1524. 

1. What is 
said of the 
Jirst land- 
ing, and 
intercourse 
with the 
natives.! 

2. What oc- 
curred on, 

the coast of 
New Jer- 
sey 1 



3. Near 
Sew York? 



a. May 1. 

4. What was 
the charac- 
ter Cjf t)l£ 

natives in 
the vicinity 
of Newport) 

5. Farther 

north I 
o. Note p. 14. 



1. Wnatis 

said of the 

name Nexo 

France i 



2 'After exploring the coast some distance north 
and south, without being able to find a harbor, he was 
obliged to send a boat on shore to open an intercourse 
with the natives. The savages at first fled, but soon 
recovering their confidence, they entered into an ami- 
cable traffic with the strangers. 

3. Proceeding north along the open coast of New 
Jersey, and no convenient landing-place being dis- 
covered, a sailor attempted to swim ashore through tb>- 
surf ; but, frightened by the numbers of the natives 
who thronged the beach, he endeavored to return, 
when a wave threw him terrified and exhausted upon 
the shore. He was, however, treated with great kind- 
ness ; his clothes were dried by the natives ; and, when 
recovered from his fright and exhaustion, he was per- 
mitted to swim back to the vessel. 

4. 3 Landing again farther north, probably near the 
city of New York,* the voyagers, prompted by curi- 
osity, kidnapped and carried away an Indian child. 
4 It is supposed that Verrazani entered 1 the haven of 
Newport,! where he remained fifteen days. Here the 
natives were liberal, friendly, and confiding ; and the 
country was the richest that had yet been seen. 

5. s Verrazani still proceeded north, and explored the 
coast as far as Newfoundland. b The natives of the 
northern regions were hostile and jealous, and would 
traffic only for weapons of iron or steel. 6 Verrazani 
gave to the whole region which he had discovered 
the name of New France ; an appellation which was 
afterwards confined to Canada, and by which that 
country was known while it remained in the possession 
of the French. 



1534. 

7. Give an 
account of 
lite fust voy- 
age of 
Cartier. 



IV. James Cartier. — 1. 7 After an interval of ten 
years, another expedition was planned by the French ; 
and James Cartier, a distinguished mariner of St. Malo,| 
was selected to conduct a voyage to Newfoundland. 



* .Vflj York. (See Note and Map, p. 117.) 

t Newport (See Note, 7, 114 and Map, p. 112.) 

t St. MUo is a small seaport town In the N.W. part of France, in the ancient prov 
Ince of BriWany, or Bretagne, 200 miles west from Paris. The town is on a rocky 
elevation i^&iied St. Aaron, surrounded by the sea at high water, but connected wi ti- 
the mainland by a causeway. The inhabitants were erly and extensively engaged in 
Ihe Newfoundland cod fishery 



CHAP. II.] ('ARTIER. 33 

After having minutely surveyed 11 the northern coast of 153-1. 

that island, he passed through the Straits of Belleisle, ' ,„„. 

i r o i a. June 

into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and entered the mouth 
of the river of the same name ; but the weather be- 
coming boisterous, and the season being far advanced, 
after erecting a cross, b — taking possession of the conn- b. At the 
try in the name of the king of France, — and inducing cfaspee. 
two of the natives to accompany him, he set sail c on c. au S . is. 
his return, and, in less than thirty days, entered 11 the a. sept. is. 
harbor of St. Malo in safety. 

2. 'In 1535 Cartier sailed 6 with three vessels, on a 1535. 
second voyage to Newfoundland, and entering the gulf 3 - W:jv29 - 
on the day of St. Lawrence, he gave it the name of mdwyeie. 
that martp". Being informed by the two natives who 

had returned with him, that far up the stream which 
he had discovered to the westward, was a large town, 
the capital of the whole country, he sailed onwards, 
entered the river St. Lawrence, and, by means of his 
interpreters, opened a friendly communication with the ( i n Quebec 

nn tii-pc harbor. Se6 

natives. ... map p. 1S9. 

3. 2 Leaving his ship safely moored/ Cartier pro- g. sert. 29. 
ceededs with the pinnace and two boats up the river, \^° ) ]"{f. 
as far as the principal Indian settlement of Hochelag-a, p' ore > he st 

Mr X o 7 iMicrence, 

on the site of the present city of Montreal,* where he and what 
was received 11 in a friendly manner. Rejoining his during the 
ships, he passed the winter' where they were an- h!"oct 13. 
chored ; during which time twenty-five of his crew >• 1335—6 
died of the scurvy, a malady until then unknown to 1536. 
Europeans. 

4. 3 At the approach of spring, after having taken 3 \ Vhat ^ 
formal possession* of the country in the name of his ^l™™^ 
sovereign, Cartier prepared to return. An act of tionedi 
treachery, at his departure, 11 justly destroyed the confi- k. May is. 
dence which the natives had hitherto reposed in their 
guests. The Indian king, whose kind treat- MO nt:ie.u *hi ric. 
ment of the French merited a more generous 
return, was decoyed on board one of the vessels 
ai.d carried to France. 



* Montreal, the largest town in Canada, is situated on the 
S.E. side of a fertile island of the same name about 30 miles 
long and 10 broad, enclosed by the divided channel of the St. 
Lawrence. The city is about 140 miles S.W. from Quebec. 
bTit farther bv the course of the river. 

2* 



mm 



34 VOYAGES AND DISCOVEPOES. [PART I. 

1540. V. Roberval. — 1. 'Notwithstanding- the advantages 
i what was likely to result from founding colonies in America, the 
'the. preva- French government, adopting the then prevalent no- 

lent opinion • o 7 . t o r 

with regard tion that no new countries were valuable except such 

to the vaiue -, -, , , , ., •, . , x . . 

o/«eiw as produced gold and silver, made no immediate at- 
tempts at colonization. 
2. whatu 2. 2 At length a wealthy nobleman, the Lord of Ro- 

said of the & , J J 

ees/gns and bervai, requested permission to pursue the discovery 

Roberval? and form a settlement. This the king readily granted, 

1540 and Roberval received 11 the empty titles of Lord, Lieu- 

a. Jan. tenant-general, and Viceroy, of all the islands and 

countries hitherto discovered either by the French or 

the English. 

account™ 3. 3 While Roberval was delayed in making exten- 

t'he third s ive preparations for his intended settlement. Cartier, 

voyage of I t . i • , ' ■ i ' 

cartier whose services could not be dispensed with, received a 

1541. subordinate command, and, in 1541, sailed b with five 
). June 2. s j a jp S a l r eady prepared. The Indian king had in the 

mean while died in France ; and on the arrival of 
Cartier in the St. Lawrence, he was received by the 
natives with jealousy and distrust, which soon broke 
i. what Fort out into open hostilities. 4 The French then built for 
their defence, near the present site of Quebec,* a fort 
which they named Charlesbourg, where they passed 
the winter. 

1542. 4. 6 Roberval arrived at Newfoundland in June of 
laidofthe tne following year, with three ships, and emigrants for 
"iiobervaf f° ur, ding a colony ; but a misunderstanding having 

and the fan- arisen between him and Cartier, the latter secretly set 
schemes! sail for France. Roberval proceeded up the St. Law- 
rence to the place which Cartier had abandoned, where 
c. 1542—3. ne erected two forts and passed a tedious winter. 
After some unsuccessful attempts to discover a passage 
d. Note p. 22. t the East Indies, d he brought his colony back to 
France, and the design of forming a settlement was 
1549, abandoned. In 1549 Roberval again sailed on a voy 
age of discovery, but he was never again heard of. 

* Quebec, a strongly fortified city of Canada, is situated on the N.W. side of tho 
St. Lawrence, on a promontory formed by that river and the St. Charles. The city con 
sists of the Upper and the Lower Town, — the latter on a narrow strip of land ne;ir the 
water's edge ; and the former on a plain difficult of access, more than 200 feet higher 
Cape Diamond, the most elevated point of the Upper Town, is 345 feet above the level 
of the river, and commands a grand view of an extensive tract of country. ISee Man 
p. 189.) 



CHAP, II.] 



RLBAULT, LAUDONNIERE, MELKNDEZ. 



35 



VI. RlBAULT, LaUDONNIERE, AND Melendez. — 1. 'Co- 
ligni, admiral of France, having long desired to estab- 
lish in America a refuge for French Protestants, at 
length obtained a commission from the king for that 
purpose, and 
Florida, fc under the command of John Ribault. 2 Ar 
riving on the coast in May, he discovered the St. Johns 



1562. 

1. What is 

said of the 
attempts of 
Colignl to 
form a set- 
in lob2, dispatched 1 a squadron to tiementin. 

America! 

1562. 

a. Feb. 28. 

River, which he named the river of May; but the b. Note p. is. 
squadron continued north until it arrived at Port 2 - ^^ 
Royal* entrance, near the southern boundary of Caro- «>«-« »«afe3 
Una, where it was determined to establish the colony. 

2. 3 Here a fort was erected, and named Fort Charles, 3 - wiiatFori 

' „ ' was erected 

and twenty-six men were left to keep possession ol the incaroww- 
country, while Ribault returned to France for further ' c Jllly 
emigrants and supplies. 4 The promised reinforcement 4. why was 
not arriving, the colony began to despair of assistance ; mentaban- 
and, in the following spring, having constructed a rude i cgq 
brigantine, they embarked for home, but had nearly 
perished by famine, at sea, when they fell in with and 
were taken on board of an English vessel. 

3. 6 In 1564, through the influence of Coligni, an- 1564. 
other expedition was planned, and in July a colony 5. whenanA 
was established on the river St. Johns,f and left under the second 
the command of Laudonniere. "Many of the emi- usiiMi 
grants, however, being dissolute and improvident, the ^JlJ^r^lr 
supplies of food were wasted ; and a party, under the and J n t "£ Uu 
pretence of desiring to escape from famine, were per- colonists? 
mitted to embark d for France ; but no sooner had they d. nee. 
departed than they commenced a career of piracy 
against the Spanish. The remnant were on the point 
of embarking for France, when Ribault arrived and 
assumed the command, bringing supplies, 
and additional emigrants with their fam- 
ilies. 



1565. 



VICINITY OF PORT ROYAL. 



* Port. Royal is an island 12 miles in length, on the 
coast of South Carolina, on the east side of which is situ- 
ated the town of Beaufort, 50 miles S.W. from Charles- 
ton. Between the island and the mainland is an excellent 
harbor. 

t The SI. Johns, the principal river of Florida, rises in 
the eastern part of the territory, about 25 miles from the 
coast, and runs north, expanding into frequent lakes, 
until within 20 miles of its mouth, when it turns to the 
east, and falls into the Atlantic, 35 miles north from St 
Augustine. (See Hap next page > 




36 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES, 



[PART 



1565. 4. 'Meanwhiie news arrived in Spain that a com- 
a Notep 15 P an y °f French Protestants had settled in Florida," 
i. what oc- within the Spanish territory, and Melendez, who had 

vurredwhen 
the Span- 
iards heard 

of the 
settlement f 



b. Sept. J. 
2. Give an 
account of 
l/te arrival 

qf Melendez 
and the 

founding of 



3. What be- 
came of the 
French 
fleet i 



obtained the appointment of governor of the country, 
upon the condition of completing its conquest within 
three years, departed on his expedition, with the deter- 
rrination of speedily extirpating the heretics. 

5. 2 Early in September, 11 1565, he came in sight ci 
Florida, and soon discovering a part of the French 
fleet, gave them chase, but was unable to overtake 
them. On the seventeenth of September Melendez 

aii Aug%- entered a beautiful harbor, and the next day, c after 
c sept. is. taking formal possession of the country, and proclaim- 
ing the king of Spain monarch of all North America, 
laid the foundations of St. Augustine.* 

6. 3 Soon after, the French fleet having put to sea 
with the design of attacking the Spaniards in the har- 
bor of St. Augustine, and being overtaken by a furious 
storm, every ship was wrecked on the coast, and the 

t. Give an French settlement was left in a defenceless state. 4 The 
tfiT'dlstrfc- Spaniards now made their way through the forests, 
''French* an< b surprising 1 ' the French fort, put to death all its 
colony, inmates, save a few who fled into the woods, and who 
subsequently escaped on board two French ships which 
had remained in the harbor. Over the mangled re- 
mains of the French was placed the inscription, "We 
do this not as unto Frenchmen, but as unto heretics." 
The helpless shipwrecked men being 
soon discovered, although invited to 
rely on the clemency of Melendez, were 
all massacred, except a few Catholics 
and a few mechanics, who were reserved 
as slaves. 



d Oct. l. 



VICINITY OK ST. AUGUSTINE, 
AND ST. JOHNS RIVER. 




HARBOR OF ST. AUfJUSTINK. 




* St. Augustine is a 
town on the eastern toast 
of Florida, 350 miles north 
from the southern point of 
Florida, and 35 miles south 
from the mouth of the St 
Johns river. It is situated 
on the S. side of a penin- 
sula, hav'nj: on the eas< 
Matanzas Sound, which 
separates it from Anastatia 
island. The city is low, \ral 
healthy and p'easan;. 



CHAP. II. J 



GILBERT, RALEIGH, GRENVILLE. 



3: 



7. 'Although the French court heard of this out- 1566. 
rage with apathy, it did not long remain unavenged. 
De Gourgues, a soldier of Gascony,* having fitted 1 
out three ships at his own expense, surprised two of 
the Spanish forts on the St. Johns river, early in 1563, 
and hung their garrisons on the trees, placing over 
them the inscription, " I do this not as unto Spaniards 
or mariners, but as unto traitors, robbers, and murder- 
ers." De Gourgues not being strong enough to main- 
ain his position, hastily retreated, b and the Spaniards 
retained possession of the country. 

VII. Gilbert, Raleigh, Grenville, &c. — 1. 2 In 
15S3 Sir Humphrey Gilbert, under a charter from 
Queen Elizabeth, sailed c with several vessels, with the 
design of forming a settlement in America ; but a 
succession of disasters defeated the project, and, on the 
homeward voyage, the vessel in which Gilbert sailed 
was wrecked, 11 and all on board perished. 

2. 3 His brother-in-law, Sir Walter Raleigh, not dis- 
heartened by the fate of his relative, soon after obtained 6 
for himself an ample patent, vesting him with almost 
unlimited powers, as lord proprietor, over all the lands 
which he should discover between the 33d and 40th 
degrees of north latitude. 4 Under this patent, in 1584, 
he dispatched, for the American coast, two vessels 
under the command of Philip Amidas and Arthur 
Barlow. 

3. Arriving on the coast of Carolina in the month 
of July, they visited the islands in Pamlicof and Al- 
bemarlej Sound, took possession of the country in the 
name of the queen of England, and, after spending 
several weeks in trafficking with the natives, returned 
without attempting a settlement. 5 The glowing de- 



a. 1567. 

I. In what 
manner 
were the 
French 

avenged? 



b. May. 



1533. 

2. Give- an 
account of 
the voyage 
of Gilbert. 
c. June. 



d. Sept. 

1534. 
3. Of the 

■patent of 
Raleigh. 
e. April 4. 



i.Ofthevwj 
age of A mi- 
das and 
Barlow 



5. What 
name, was 
given to Hit 
country, 
and wliu? 



* Gascony was an ancient province in the southwest of France, lying chiefly between 
;he Garonne and the Pyrenees. " The Gascons are a spirited and a liery race, but 
heir habit of exaggeration, in relating their exploits, has made the term gasconade pro- 
reibial.' 

\ P-^nlico Sound is a large bay on the coast of N. Carolina, nearly a hundred milei 
tong from N.E. to S.W., and from 15 to 25 miles broad. It is separated from the ocean 
ttrov,,_ r hout its whole length by a beach of sand hardly a mile wide, near the ruid.llb 
of which is the dangerous Cape Hatteras. Ocracock Inlet, 35 miles S.W. from Caps 
Hatteias, is the only entrance which admits ships of large burden. 

1 Albemarle Sound is north of and connects with Pamlico Sound, and is likew'ao 
separated from the ocean by a narrow sand beach. It is about 60 miles long from eas« 
to west, and from 4 to 15 miles wide 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[PAItT I 



1584. 



1585. 

a. April 19. 
1. Give an. 
account of 
the firs' at- 
tempt to 
form a set- 
tlement at 
Roanoke. 



b. Sept. 

1586. 

8. What was 

the conduct 

of the 
colonists? 



c. June, 
d. Note p. 14. 
3. Under 
what cir- 
cumstances 
was the set- 
tlement 
abandoned ? 



e. June 29. 

4. What 
events hap- 
pened soon 
after the de- 
parture of. 
the colony 1 
i July. 



senption which they gave of the beauty and fertility 
of the country, induced Elizabeth, who esteemed her 
reign signalized by the discovery of these regions, to 
bestow upon them the name of Virginia, as a memo- 
rial that they had been discovered during the reign of 
a maiden queen. 

4. 'Encouraged by their report, Raleigh made ac- 
tive preparations to form a settlement ; and, in the 
following year, 1585, dispatched 1 a fleet of seven ves- 
sels under the command of Sir Richard Grenville, 
with Ralph Lane as governor of the intended colony. 
After some disasters on the coast, the fleet arrived at 
Roanoke,* an island in Albemarle Sound, whence, 
leaving the emigrants under Lane to establish the 
colony, Grenville returned b to England. 

5. 2 The impatience of the colonists to acquire sud- 
den wealth gave a wrong direction to their industry, 
and the cultivation of the earth was neglected, in the 
idle search after mines of gold and silver. Their 
treatment of the natives soon provoked hostilities ; — 
their supplies of provisions, which they had hitherto 
received from the Indians, were withdrawn ; — famine 
stared them in the face ; and they were on the point 
of dispersing in quest of food, when Sir Francis Drake 
arrived with a fleet from the West Indies. a 

6. 3 He immediately devised measures for furnishing 
the colony with supplies ; but a small vessel, laden 
with provisions, which was designed to be left for that 
purpose, being destroyed by a sudden storm, and the 
colonists becoming discouraged, he yielded to their 
unanimous request, and carried them back to England 
Thus was the first English settlement abandoned 6 after 
an existence of little less than a year. 

7. 4 A few days after the de- 
parture of the fleet, a vessel, dis- 
patched by Raleigh, arrived f with 
a supply of stores for the colony, 
but finding: the settlement deserted. 



ROANOKE r. AND VICINITV. 



* Roanoke is an island on the coast of North Carolina, be- 
tween Pamlico and Albemarle sounds. The north point of 
she island is 5 miles west from the Old Roanoke Inlet, which 
is now closed. The English fort and colony were at the 
north end of the island. cSee Map.) 




CHAP. H.] GILBERT, RALEIGH, GRENVILLE. 39 

immediately returned. Scarcely had this vessel depart- I5§6. 
ed, when Sir Richard Grenville arrived with three ships. 
After searching in vain for the colony which he had 
planted, he likewise returned, leaving fifteen men on the 
island of Roanoke to keep possession of the country. 

8. Notwithstanding the ill success of the attempts 1587. 
of Raleigh to establish a colony in his new territory, 1. Give an 
r.either his hopes nor his resources were yet exhausted. jkTsecond 
Determining to plant an agricultural state, early in the formTsli 
following year he sent out a company of emigrants ileli,c " c - 
with their wives and families, — granted a charter of 
incorporation for the settlement, and established a mu- 
nicipal government for his intended " city of Raleigh." 

9. 2 On the arrival 11 of the emigrants at Roanoke, a - A »s- 
where they expected to find the men whom Grenville ~' appoL^' 
had left, they found the fort which had been built P S f ^ 
there in ruins ; the houses were deserted ; and the ^"/j^y 7 ^*. 
bones of their former occupants were scattered over rival? 
the plain. At the same place, however, they deter- 
mined to establish the colony ; and here they laid the 
foundations for their " city." 

10. 3 Soon finding- that thev were destitute of many s. whatu 

. % • - set hi of the 

things which were essential to their comfort, their return of 

governor, Captain John White, sailed b for England, mite? 

to obtain the necessary supplies. 4 On his arrival he b - Se P l - 6 

found the nation absorbed by the threats of a Spanish t??!at"cfr- 

mvasion; and the patrons of the new settlement were too "o"'*;""^ 

much engaged in public measures to attend to a less ^"Jiefand 

important and remote object. Raleigh, however, in the Jinauy losti 

following year, 1588, dispatched White with supplies, 1588. 

in two vessels ; but the latter, desirous of a gainful c ' May a 
voyage, ran in search of Spanish prizes ; until, at len & Ji, 
one of his vessels was overpowered, boarded, and rifled, 
and both ships were compelled to return to England. 

11. Soon after, Raleigh' assigned d his patent to a a. March vs 
company of merchants in London ; and it was not loS9 
until 1590 that White was enabled to return e in 1590. 
search of the colony; and then the island of Roanoke. e - Ang - 
was deserted. No traces of the emigrants could be 

found. The design of establishing a colony was 
abandoned, and the country was again left f to the un- f. sept 
disturbed possession of the natives. 



40 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [rART 1 

J SOS. VIII. Marquis de la Roche.— 1. 'In 1598, the 
i. what is Marquis de la Roche, a French nobleman, received 
S amm P t% f rom tne king of France a commission for founding a 
peia Roche French colony in America. Having: equipped several 

to form a set- . , .■>, , . , . . . s" * J , ,. 

ttement? vessels, ne sailed with a considerable number of set- 
tlers, most of whom, however, he was obliged to draw 
from the prisons of Paris. On Sable* island, a barren 
spot near the coast of Nova Scotia, forty men wert 
left to form a settlement. 
\\7,atwm 2. 2 La Roche dying- soon after his return, the colo 

the fate of ■ . l • * j j 1 a 

vie colony i nists were neglected ; and when, alter seven years, a 
vessel was sent to inquire after them, only twelve of 
them were living. The dungeons from which they 
had been liberated were preferable to the hardships 
which they had suffered. The emaciated exiles were 
carried back to France, where they were kindly re- 
ceived by the king, who pardoned their crimes, and 
made them a liberal donation. 

1602. IX. Bartholomew Gosnold.— 1. 3 h\ 1692, Bar- 

3. Give an tholomew Gosnold sailed 1 from Falmouth, f England, 

?he°voyal'e and abandoning the circuitous route by the Canaries 1 

a < Ap^5 an( ^ tne W est Indies, made a direct voyage across the 

d. Note p. 22. Atlantic, and in seven weeks reached' 1 the American 

c. Note p. i4. continent, probably near the northern extremity of 

dMay ' Massachusetts Bay.| 4 Not finding a good harbor, and 

cover'ief- d dfj sailing southward, he discovered and landed e upon a 

he make i promontory which he called Cape Cod.§ Sailing 

ay thence, and pursuing his course along the coast, he 

f. June l- 4. discovered f several islands, one of which he named 

Elizabeth, || and another Martha's Vineyard. 11 

* Sable island is 90 miles S.E. from the eastern point of Nova Scotia. 

t Falm.mth is a seaport town at the entrance of the English Channel, near the south 
western extremity of England. It is 50 miles S.W. from Plymouth, has an excellent 
harbor, and a roadstead capable of receiving the largest fleets. 

t Massachusetts Bay is a large bay on the eastern coast of Massachusetts, between 
the headlands of Cape Ann on the north, and Cape Cod on the south. 

§ Cape Cod, thus named from the number of codfish taken there by Us discovtrer, is 
50 'miles S.E. from Boston. 

|| Elizabeth Islands are a group of 13 islands south of Buzzard's Bay, and ,'rom 2T 
to 30 milts E. and S.E. from Newport, Rhode Island. Nashawn, the largest, is 7 and 
a half miles long. Cattahunk, the one named by Gosnold Elizabeth Island, is two 
mites and a half long and three quarters of a mile broad. 

IT Martha's Vineyard, three or four miles S.E. from the Elizabeth Islands, is 19 
miles in length from E. to W. and from 3 to 10 miles in width. The island called by 
Gosnold Martha's Vineyard is now called No Man's Land, a small island four or five 
miles 8(s*th from Martha's Vineyard. When or why the name was changed is uui 
known. 



CHAP Il.| G0SN0LD, DE MONTS. 41 

2. 'Here it was determined to leave a portion of the 1602. 
crew for the purpose of forming a settlement, and a , What ~ 
storehouse and fort were accordingly erected; but dis- said of the 

... . ° J , ' , • at temp I to 

trust oi the Indians, who began to show hostile mten- form a set- 

i , , '. c i . . -, , ,. tlementi 

ions, and the despair oi obtaining seasonable supplies, a j u „e28. 
defeated the design, and the whole party embarked* 2. wiuuu-m 
or England. 2 The return occupied but five weeks, ofmvoy- 
nd the entire .voyage only four months. 

3. 3 Gosnold and his companions brought back so s. Give an 
favorable reports of the regions visited, that, in the fol- thevoyages 

r t> • , i , 1 j • and discov- 

.owmg year, a company 01 Bristol 1 " merchants dis- criesof.Mar- 
patched two small vessels, under the command of Mar- H ™^™?f' 
tin Prinsr, for the purpose of exploring 1 the country, and . „ . 

m r ■ f i • ^1 • 1 ii, b. Note p. 30. 

opening a traffic with the natives, i ring landed" on c . April 20. 
the coast of Maine, — discovered some of its principal <*. Ju » e 
rivers,— and examined the coast of Massachusetts as 
far as Martha's Vineyard. The whole voyage occu- 
pied but six months. In 1606. Pring repeated the 

voyage, and made a more accurate survey of Maine. 

4. What 

X. De Monts. — 1. 4 In 1603, the kins: of France f rant of 

1 t-w -n* 1 c t ■ 1 land was 

granted e to De Monts, a gentleman 01 distinction, the madctoDe 
sovereignty of the country from the 40th to the 46th e. Nov. 8. 
degree of north latitude ; that is, from one degree south g'.Notep. II 
of New York city/ to one north of Montreal, s 5 Sail- 1604. 
ing h with two vessels, in the spring of 1604, he ar- r March 7. 
rived at Nova Scotia> in May, and spent the summer ' 5 G ^, ean 
in trafficking with the natives, and examining the account of 

o 7 o the voi/asre 

coasts preparatory to a settlement. of De. Monts. 

2. ^Selecting an island near the mouth of the river 6. ofnu 
St. Croix,* on- the coast of New Brunswick, he there Jiri ' t wmten 
erected a fort and passed a rigorous winter,! his men i 1604-5. 
suffering much from the want of suitable provisions. 1605. 
7 ln the following spring, 1605, De Monts removed to ^ oftheset- 
a place on the Bay of Fundy ;f and here was formed Port Royai. 

* The St. Croix river, called by the Indians Schoodic, empties into Passamaquody 
Bay at the eastern extremity of Maine. It was the island of the same name, a few 
miles up the river, on which the French settled. By the treaty of 1783 the St. Croii 
was made the eastern boundary of the United States, but it was uncertain what rivei 
was the St. Croix until the remains of the French fort were discovered. 

t The Bay of Fundy, remarkable for its high tides, lies between Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick. It is nearly 200 miles in length from S.W. to N.E. and 75 milea 
across at its entrance, gradually narrowing towards the head of the bay. At the en- 
trance the tide is of the ordinary height, about eight feet, but at the head of the bay 
it rises 60 feet, and is n> rapid as often to overtake and sweep off animals feeding on 
the shore. 



42 VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. [PART 1. 

1605. th'i first permanent French settlement in America. 
Tne settlement was named Port Royal,* and the 
whole country, embracing the present New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia, and the adjacent islands, was called 
Acadia. 
160S. 3. 'In 1608, De Monts, although deprived of his 
i. what former commission, having obtained from the king of 
of France the grant of the monopoly of the fur trade on 
the river St. Lawrence, fitted out two vessels for the 
purpose of forming a settlement ; but not finding i 
convenient to command in person, he placed them 
under Samuel Champlain, who had previously visited 
those reg-ions. 
2 ' ^%t n r ^" 2 ^' ne expedition sailed a in April, and in June ar- 
r% rived b at Tadoussac, a barren spot at the mouth of the 
chanrpiam Sagucnayf river, hitherto the chief seat of the traffic 
settlement in furs. Thence Champlain continued to ascend the 

0/ a rifis r * ver unti * iie * iac * P asse d me I s l e °f Orleans,! when 
b. June 3. he selected a commodious place for a settlement, on 
c July 3. the site of the present city of Q,uebec, d and near the 
i. Note p. 34. pi ace w here Cartier had passed the winter, and erected 
a fort, in 1541. From this time is dated the first per- 
manent settlement of the French in New France or 
Canada. 

1505 XL North and South Virginia. — 1. 2 In 1606 
2. what is James the 1st, of England, claiming all that portion 
Noniivir- °^ North America which lies between the 34th and 
ginia and the 45th degrees of north latitude, embracing the coun- 
virginia? try from Cape Fear^ to Halifax, || divided this territory 
into two nearly equal districts ; the one, called North 
Virginia, extending from the 41st to the 45th degree: 



* Port Royal (now Annapolis), or.ce the capital of French Acadia, is situated on the 
east bank of the river and bay of Annapolis, in the western part of Nova Scotia, a short 
distance from the Bay of Fundy. It has an excellent harbor, in which a thousand ves 
sels might anchor in security. 

t The Saguenay river empties into the St. Lawrence from the north, 130 miles NT, 
from Quebec. 

t The Isle of Orleans is a fertile island in the St. Lawrence, five miles below Que 
bee. It is about 25 miles long and 5 broad. (See Map, p. 1S9.) 

§ Cape Fear is the southern point of Smith's island, at the mouth of Cape Frar river, 
on the coast of N. Carolina, 150 miles N.E. from Charleston. (See Map, p. 155.1 

jl Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, is situated on the S.W. side of the Bay of 
Chehucto, which is on the S.E. coast of Nova Scotia. The town U 10 miles from the 
si^a, and has an excellent harbor of 10 square miies. It is about 450 miles N.E. from 

E'JStOD. 



CHAP, n.] NORTH AND SOUTH VIRGINIA. 43 

and the other, called South Virginia, from the 34th to 1(*06. 
the 38th. 

2. 'The former he granted* to a company of a. April 20 
" knights, gentlemen, and merchants,"' of the west of mm V anSs 
England, called the Plymouth Company ; and the latter W dtetrias 
to a company of " noblemen, gentlemen, and mer- s>~ ar - tedl 
chants," mostly resident in London, and called the 
London Company. The intermediate district, from 

the 38th to the 4 1st degree, was open to both compa- 
nies ; but neither was to form a settlement within one 
hundred miles of the other. 

3. 2 The supreme government of each district was 2. how were 

. , r . ° ., ... t-, 1 j 1 the govern- 

tO be vested in a council residing in England, the mentsof 

members of which were to be appointed by the king, trio?' 
and to be removed at his pleasure. The local admin- eslahUshaa% 
istration of the affairs of each colony was to be com- 
mitted to a council residing within its limits, likewise 
to be appointed by the king, and to act conformably 
to his instructions. 3 The effects of these regulations 3- what 
were, that all executive and legislative powers were ejects of 
placed wholly in the hands of the king, that the colo- latumsi 
nists were deprived of the rights of self-government, — ■ 
and the companies received nothing but a simple char- 
ter of incorporation for commercial purposes. 

4. 4 Soon after the errant, the Plymouth Company b - Al,g - ^ 

. ^ c Nov 22 

dispatched 1 ' a vessel to examine the country ; but before 4 " Giv ' ean 
the voyage was completed she was captured by the ^f""/^^ 
Spaniards. Another vessel was soon after sent out for p ff the 
the same purpose, which returned with so favorable an Company to 
account of the country, that, in the following year, the country. 
company sent out a colony of a hundred planters under 1507 
the command of George Popham. 

d ■» d Aug 21 

5. s They landed d at the mouth of -the Kennebec,* 5 _ Qftheai 
where they erected a few rude cabins, a store-house, 'frff/J^^ 
and some slight fortifications ; after which, the vessels Kennebec 
sailed e for England, leaving forty-five emigrants in ihe e. Dee. is. 
plantation, which was named St. George. The winter 

was intensely cold, and the sufferings of the colony, 

* The Kennebec, a river of Maine, west of the Penobscot, falls into the ocean ISA, 
miles N.E. from Boston. — The place where the Sagadahoc colony (as it is usually called) 
passed the Winter, is in the present town of Phippsburg, which is composed of a long 
narrow peninsula at the mouth of the Kennebec river, haying the river on the east 
Hills Point, a mile above the S E corner of the peninsula, was the site of the colom 



44 



VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES. 



[PA RT 1 



ISOS. 



S Of the ex- 
pedition 
sent out by 
the London 
Company. 
a. Dftc. 30. 



D. Note p. 38. 

c. Note p. 22. 

d. Note p. 14. 

e. May 6. 



2. Give an 
account of 
Vie settle- 
ment of 
Jamestown. 

I May 23. 



g. See p 36. 



from famine and hardships, were extremely severe. 
They lost their store-house by fire, and their president 
by death ; and, in the following year, abandoned the 
settlement and returned to England. 

6. * Under the charter of the London Company, which 
alone succeeded, three small vessels, under the com- 
mand of Captain Christopher Newport, sailed a for the 
American coast in December, 1606, designing to lard 
and form a settlement at Roanoke. b Pursuing the 
old route by the Canaries and the West Indies, d New- 
port did not arrive until April ; when a storm fortu- 
nately carried e him north of Roanoke into Chesapeake 
Bay.* 

7. 2 Sailing along the southern shore, he soon entered 
a noble river which he named James River, f and, 
after passing about fifty miles above the mouth of the 
stream, through a delightful country, selected' a place 
for a settlement, which was named Jamestown.^. Here 
was formed the first permanent settlement of the Eng- 
lish in the New World, — one hundred and ten years 
after the discovery of the continent by Cabot, and forty- 
one years from the settlements of St. Augustine in 
Florida. 



* The Chesapeake Bay. partly in Virginia. 
miles in! width, 180 miles in length from N. 




and partly in Maryland, is from 7 to 20 
to S., and 12 miles wide at its entrance, 
between Cape Charles on the N. and Cape 
Henry on the S. 

t The James River rises in the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, passes through the Klue 
Ridge, and falls into the southern part of 
Chesapeake Bay. Its entrance into the hay 
is called Hampton Roads, having Point 
Comfort on the north, and Willoughby 
Point on the south. 

| Jamestown is on the north side of 
James river, 30 miles from its mouth, and 
8 miles S.S.W. from Williamsburg. The 
village is entirely deserted, with the excep- 
tion of one or two old buildings, and is nof 
fori ;d on nmdrrn maps. 




NOTES ON THE INDIAN TRIBES. 

(see map, next page.) 

Although there is much connected with the history, customs, religion, traditions, &c, 
of the Indians of North America, that is highly interesting, yet in this place we can do 
little more than give the names, and point out the localities of the principal tribes east 
of the Mississippi, as they were first known to Europeans. 

The discovery of a similarity in the primitive words of different Indian languages, is 
the principle that has governed the division of the different tribes into families or na- 
tiois. The principal divisions within the limits of the present United States, east of 
the Mississippi, -were the Algonquin, the Iroquois, the Cherokee, and the Mobilum 
Tribes. 

Of the Algonqthx Tkibes, the Elehemins and tha Abenakes occupied most of the 
present State of Mai le. They were firmly attached to the French during the early 
history of the country, and were almost constantly in a state of hostilities with the Brit- 
ish colonies. Tue principal tribes of the Abenakes were the Penobscots, the Norridge- 
wucks, and the Androscoggins. Next south of the Abenakes were the New England 
Indian 1 ), extending from Maine to the eastern boundary of Connecticut. Their princi- 
pal tribes were the Massachusetts, Pawtuckets, Nipmucks, Pokanokets, and Narragan- 
setts. After the termination of King Phillip's war, in 1675, most of these tribes joir.ed 
the eastern Indians, or sought refuge in Canada, whence they continued to harass the 
frontiers of New England, until the final overthrow of the French, in 1760. The Mo- 
hsgans embrace! the Pequods, Manhattans, Wabingas, and other tribes, extending 
from Rhode Island to New Jersey. Next south and west of the Mohegans were the 
Lsnni-Lennipes, consisting of two divisions, the Minsi and the Delawares, although 
both tribes are best known in history as the Delawares. They gradually ren.oved 
west of the Ailegha.nies; they joined the French against the English during the French 
and Indian war; most of them took part with the British during the war of the Rev- 
olution, and they were at the head of the western confederacy of Indians which was 
dissolve! by the victory of General Wayne in 1794. Only a few hundred of this once 
powerful tribe now remains, some in Canada, the rest west of the Mississippi. — On the 
eastern shore of Maryland were tue Xcmlicokes, who removed west of the Alleghanies, 
and joi led the British during the Revolution. The Susquehannocks, Mam.ahcacks, 
and M>naains, were tribes farther inland, on the head waters of the streams that enter 
Chesapeake Bay. Of their history little is known, and there are no remnants' of their 
languages remaining. The Powhatan nation embraced a confederacy of more than 
twenty tribes, bordering o l the southern shores of the Chesapeake. It is believed that 
not a single individual who speaks the Powhatan language now remains. — The SJiaio- 
ness were a roving tribe, first found between the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers, whence 
they were driven by the Cherokees. They were among the most active allies of the 
French during the French and Indian war ; they joined the British curing the war of 
the Revolution; and part of the tribe, under Tecumseh, during the late war. They 
have since removed wes: of the Mississippi. The principal of the other western tribes 
belonging to the Algonquin family, were the Miarnis, Illinois, Kickapoos, Sacs and 
F-izes, Minomonies, and Potowatomies, whose history is interesting, principally, as 
connected with th> early settlemjnts of the French in the western country. 

Tile iBOQUOrs Tbibrs embraced tin Hurons, north of Lakes Erie and Ontario ; the 
Five Nations, in New York, and the Tuscaroras, of Carolina. The Hurons or Wycav- 
diis, whja first kiowu, were engaged in a deadly war with their kindred, the Five 
Nations, by whom they were finally driven from their country. Remnants of this tribe 
are now found in Canada, and west of the Mississippi. Tiie Five Nations, found on 
the southern shore of Lake Ontario, embraced the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, 
Seiecis, aid Cayugas. They were the most powerful of all the tribes cast of the Mis- 
sissippi, ail were farther advanced in the few arts of Indian life than their Algonquin 
neighbors. They uniformly adhered to the British interests. In 1714 they were joined 
by the Tnseiroras, sinee whioh time the confederacy has been called the Siz Nations. 
The C.I330S3:! N.vho* occupied the eastern and southern portions of Tenr.iEteo 
ani the highlands of Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. They fought against the Eng- 
lish during most of the French and Indian war, and joined the British during the Rev- 
olution; but, during the late war, assisted the Americans against the Creeks. In 18:8, 
they removed west of the Mississippi. They are now the most civilized of all the In- 
dian tribes, and thjir population has increased during the last fifty years. 

T.ne Mdiju.ian' Titt»E8 embraced the Creeks, Choctas, Chickasas, and the Seminoles. 
The Latter once belonged to the Creek tribe. The Creeks and the Chickasas adhered 
to the British during the Revolution. The CTtoctaj have ever been a peaceable people, 
and although they have had successively, for neighbors, the French, the Spankh, and 
the English, they have never been at war with any of them. 



P'::^'X^7: h ~i ^':P >m' 






HI 




JLony. West from ^Washington \ 



;: 



®MM 




'// MAP 

Of the Country 

EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI, 

For the Year 1650 ; 

Forty-seven years nfier the 
Settlement of JnntfstoTvn ; 
showing Lhe Localities of thp 
INDIAN TRIBES, 
and the commencement of 
European Settlements. 





irAlION'TA 



PART II. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS MU COLONIAL 
HISTORY ; 

160T to 17T5. 



CHAPTER I. 

HISTORY OF VIRGINIA.* 

DIVISIONS. 
Virginia tinder the first charier. — II. 
Virginia under the second charter. — III. 
Virginia under the third charter. — IV 
Virginia from the dissolution of the Lon- 
don Company to the commencement of 
the French a?id Indian War. 




POfAJIONI v.;>. 



i. Virginia under the First Charter. — 1. 



*. To xohc x 
had the gtya- 

l ^ the I wgtnvk 



urn 



frustration of the government of the Virginia r-ol- ( ^?/-'^/J7 



* VIRGINIA, the most northern of the Southern States, and until 1S45 the largest 
Lu the Union, often called the Ancient Dominion, from its early settlement, contains an 
srea of nearly 70,000 square miles. The state lias a great variety of surface and soil. 
From the coast to the head of tide water on the rivers, including a tract of generally 
more than 100 miles in width, the country is low, sandy, covered with pitch pine, 
and is unhealthy from August to October. Between the head of tide water and the 



48 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PAUT u 

IGOT. ony had been entrusted to a council of seven persons, 
whom the superior council in England h~d been per- 
mitted to name, with a president to be elected by the 
i. what wo* council from their number. J But the names and in- 
' me early structions of the council having been placed, by the 
which 'ajose, folly of the king, in a sealed box, with directions that 
was smith it should not be opened until the emigrants had arrived 
imprisoned? j n America, dissensions arose during the voyage ; and 
loU7. j h n Smith, their best and ablest man, was put in con 
finement, upon the absurd accusation of an intention 
to murder the council, usurp the government, and 
make himself king of Virginia. 
2. mutt is 2. 2 Soon after their arrival, the council chost Ed- 
wingjLu, ward Wingfield president, — an ambitious and unprin- 
s^nith treat- cipled man, — and finding that Smith had been ap- 
an-fwflf pointed one of their number, they excluded him from 
"pany'T their b°dy, as, by their instructions, they had power to 
do, but released him from confinement. As Smith de- 
manded a trial upon the charges brought against him, 
which were known to be absurdly false, his accusers 
thought best, after a partial hearing of the case, to 
withdraw the accusation ; and he was soon restored to 
his station as a member of the council. 
laidof'the 3. 2 Of the one hundred and five persons on the list 
character of f emigrants, destined to remain, there were no men 
grants? with families, — there were but twelve laborers, and 
very few mechanics. The rest were composed of gen- 
tlemen of fortune, and of persons of no occupation, — 
mostly of idle and dissolute habits — who had been 
tempted to join the expedition through curiosity or the 
hope of gain ; — a company but poorly calculated to 
4. Their re- plant an agricultural state in a wilderness. 4 Tlie 

ceptwn by *_, , . , i • 1 1 ■ i i i • i 

the names? tingnsh were kmdly received by the natives in th^ 

immediate vicinity of Jamestown, who, when informed 

of the wish of the strangers to settle in the country, 

Note 44 on ~ ere d them as much land as they wanted. 

s. q/pow- 4. s Soon after their arrival, Newport, and Smith, 

xZiubictl? an d twenty others, ascended the James* river, and 

Blue Ridge, the soil is better, and the surface of the country becomes uneven anil hilly. 
The interior of the State, traversed by successive ridges of the Alleghany, running 
N.E. and S.W. is a healthy region, and in the valleys are some of the best" and most 
pleasant lands in the State. The country west of the mountains, towards the Obis, 
b -ough and wild, with occasional fertile tracts, but rich as a mineral region. 



CHAP. I. J VIRGINIA. 49 

visited the native chieftain, or king, Powhatan, at his 1607. 

principal residence near the present site of Richmond.* 
His subjects murmured at the intrusion of the stran- 
gers into the country ; but Powhatan, disguising his 
jealousy and his fear, manifested a friendly disposition. 

5. 'About the middle of June Newport sailed for 1. whatoe- 
England ; and the colonists, whose hopes had been ""Jdeparf 
highly excited by the beauty and fertility of the coun- Newport? 
try, beginning to feel the want of suitable provisions, 

and being now left to their own resources, soon awoke 
to the reality of their situation. a Thev were few in s- J ,7 'i?' w 
number, and without habits or industry: — the Indians sumnngsol 
began to manifest hostile intentions, — and before au- 
tumn, the diseases of a damp and sultry climate had 
swept away fifty of their number, and among them, 
Bartholomew Gosnold, the projector of the settlement, 
and one of the ablest men in the council. 

6. 3 To increase their misery, their avaricious pr«si- 3. in what 
dent, Wingfield, was detected in a conspiracy to seize ^waJ'the" 
the public stores, abandon the colony, and escape in defected! 
the company's bark to the West Indies. 4 He was 4 what is 
therefore deposed, and was succeeded by Ratcliffe ; but sa Jf^ J^Hf" 
the latter possessing little capacity for government, and fcf*yg*g|j 
being subsequently detected in an attempt to abandon the govern 
the colony, the management of affairs, by common 
consent, fell into the hands of Smith, who alone seemed 
capable of diffusing light amidst the general gloom. 

7. s Under the management of Smith, the condition s. mat* 

- , , .,-,.. ° , TT '1111 •• said of the 

of the colony rapidly improved. He quelled the spirit manage- 
of anarchy and rebellion, restored order, inspired the v smlth 
natives with awe, and collected supplies of provisions, 
by expeditions into the interior. As autumn approach- 
ed, wild fowl and game became abundant ; the Indi- _,. 
ans, more friendly, from their abundant harvests made ov 
voluntary offerings ; and peace and» plenty again re- 
vived the drooping spirits of the colony. 6 - vnder 

• - • • • r oh(it eft"' 

8. 6 The active spirit of Smith next prompted him to cumstancei 
explore the surrounding country. After ascendir g the ]alt,,f'p%- 
Chickalnminyt as far as he could advance in boats, 'lf,d, h a,,sf 

* liieiaaond, the capital of Virginia, is on the north side of James river, 75 mil js from 
its mouth. Immediately above the river are the falls, and directly opposite is the village 
of Manchester. 

t The Ckickahominy river rises northwest from Richmond, and, during most of its 



50 COLONIAL HISTORY. [FART Q. 

1607. with two Englishmen and two Indian guides he stiucli 
into the interior. The remainder of the party, dis- 
obeying his instructions, and wandering from the boat, 
were surprised by the Indians and put to death. Smith 
was pursued, the two Englishmen were killed, and he 
himself, after dispatching with his musket several of 
the most forward of his assailants, unfortunately sink- 
ing in a miry place, was forced to surrender. 
i. injehat 9. 'His calmness and self-possession here saved his 
he save to life. Showing a pocket compass, he explained its won- 
life i derful properties, and, as he himself relates, " by the 
globe-like figure of that jewel he instructed them con- 
cerning the roundness of the earth, and how the sun 
did chase the night round about the earth continually." 
In admiration of his superior genius the Indians re- 
tained him as their prisoner. 
z. How did 10. 2 Regarding him as a being of superior order, 
ns^dhim but uncertain whether he should be cherished as a 
mtheydo friend, or dreaded as an enemy, they observed towards 
mm hunt hjm t h e u t m ost respect as they conducted him in tri- 
umph from one village to another, and, at length, 
brought him to the residence of Opechancanough, 
where, for the space of three days, their priests or sor- 
cerers practiced incantations and ceremonies, in order 
to learn from the invisible world the character and de- 
signs of their prisoner. 
3. what u 11. 3 The decision of his fate was referred to Pow 
defisum'qf hatan and his council, and to the village of that chief- 
hisfatei ta j n g m jth was conducted, where he was received with 
lfinfi great pomp and ceremony. Here it was decided that 
4 under ne should die. 4 He was led forth to execution, and 
eumftanc'es ms h eaa was ^ ai 'd upon a stone to receive the fatal 
was /us life blow, when Pocahontas, the young and favorite 
Pocahontas? daughter of the king, rushed in between the victim 
and the uplifted arm of the executioner, and with tears 
and entreaties besought her father to save his life. 
'plw)mtmf 5 'l , he savage chieftain relented ; Smith was set at lib- 
^himT er ty i anc ^ soon a fter, with a guard of twelve men 
was conducted in safety to Jamestown, after a captivity 
of seven weeks. 

course, runs nearly parallel with James river, which it enters five or six miles abova 
3 (own. iSee Man o. 44 > 



TMAP. I.j VIRGINIA. 5 1 

12. 'The captivity of Smith was, on the whole, 1608. 
beneficial to the colony ; for he thereby learned much L What 
of the Indians, — their character, customs, and Ian- t j^i.f vei 
guage ; and was enabled to establish a peaceful inter- from his 
course between the English and the Powhatan tribes. 

'fBut on his return to Jamestown he found disorder and 2. what was 
misrule again prevailing ; the number of the English uon^fthe 
was reduced to forty men ; and most of these, anxious ^return? 
\o leave a country where they had suffered so much, 
Y\d determined to abandon the colony and escape with 
die pinnace. This was the third attempt at desertion. 
By persuasion and threats a majority were induced to 
relinquish the design ; but the remainder, more reso- 
lute, embarked in spite of the threats of Smith, who 
instantly directed the guns of the fort upon them and 
compelled ihem to return. 

13. 3 Soon after, Newport arrived from England with 3 . \yh at u 
supplies, and one hundred and twenty emigrants. The a^iwitf 
hopes of the colonists revived ; but as the new emi- „„ 1 "^ a „ tc? 

r 1 emigrants t 

grants were composed 01 gentlemen, refiners ol gold, 
goldsmiths, jewellers, &c, and but few laborers, a 
wrong direction was given to the industry of the colo- 
ny. 4 Believing that they had discovered grains of 4. of the, 
gold in a stream of water near Jamestown, the entire sea goui 
industry of the colony was directed to digging, wash- 
ing, refining, and loading gold ; and notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of Smith, a ship was actually freight- 
ed with the glittering earth and sent to England. 

14. s During the prevalence of this passion for gold, 5. \vhmw 
Smith, finding that he could not be useful in James- exploration 
town, employed himself in exploring the Chesapeake country 
Bay a and its tributary rivers. In two voyages, occu- 
pying about three months of the summer, with a few 
companions, in an open boat, he performed a naviga- 
tion of nearly three thousand miles, passing far up 

the Susquehanna* and the Potomac ;f nor did he 

* The Susquehanna is one of the largest rivers east of the Alleghanies. Its eastern 
branch rises in Otsego Lake, New York, and running S.W. receives the Tioga near the 
Pennsylvania boundary. It passes through Pennsylvania, receiving the West Branch 
in the interior of the State, and enters the head of Chesapeake Bay, near the N.E. cor- 
ner of Maryland. The navigation of the last 50 miles of its course is obstructed by 
numerous rapids. 

t The Potomac river rises in tl e Alleghany Mountains, makes a grand and magnifi 
cent passage through the Blue Ridge, at Harper's Ferry, and throughout its whol» 



by Smith t 
a. Note p. 44 



52 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[1'a.k.t n. 



16©§. 



i. II hat oc- 
curred on 
'lis return? 
a. Sept. 20. 
2. What is 
said, of his 
administra- 
tion of the 
government 
and of the 
condition of 
the colony 
ifter an ex- 
istence of 
two years i 



1609. 

d. June 2. 
3. What is 
said of the 
second char- 
ter 1 



4. What 

changes 

were made 

in the 

government 

of the 

colony? 



merely explore the numerous rivers and inlets, but 
penetrated the territories, and established friendly re- 
lations with the Indian tribes. The map which he 
prepared and sent to England is still extant, and de- 
lineates, with much accuracy, the general outlines of 
the country which he explored. 

15. ^oon after his return from this expedition, Smith 
was formally made president* of the council. 2 By 
his energetic administration order and industry again 
prevailed, and Jamestown assumed the appearance of 
a thriving village. Yet at the expiration of two years 
from the time of the first settlement, not more than 
forty acres of land had been cultivated ; and the colo- 
nists, to prevent themselves from starving, were still 
obliged to obtain most of their food from the indolent 
Indians. Although about seventy new emigrants ar- 
rived, yet they were not suitable to the wants of the 
colony, and Smith was obliged to write earnestly to 
the council in England, that they should send more 
laborers, that the search for gold should be abandoned, 
and that " nothing should be expected except by labor." 

II. Virginia under the Second Charter. — 1. 3 In 
1609, a new charter was given b to the London Com- 
pany, by which the limits of the colony were enlarged, 
and the constitution of Virginia radically changed. 
The territory of the colony was now extended by a 
grant of all the lands along the seacoast, within the 
limits of two hundred miles north, and two hundred 
south of Old Point Comfort ;* that is, from the northern 
boundary of Maryland, to the southern limits of North 
Carolina, and extending westward from sea to sea. 

2. 4 The council in England, formerly appointed by 
the king, was now to have its vacancies filled by the 
votes of a majority of the corporation. This council 
was authorized to appoint a governor, who was to re- 
side in Virginia, and whose powers enabled him to 
rule the colonists with almost despotic sway. The 



course is the boundary line between Virginia and Maryland. At its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay it is seven and a half miles wide. It is navigable for the largest 
vessels to Washington City, 110 miles by the river — 70 in a direct line. Above Wash- 
ington the navigation is obstructed by numerous falls. 

* Point Comfort is the northern point of the entrance of James river into Chesapeake 
Bay. (See James River, Note, p. 44.) 



made} 
a June 12. 



CHAP. I. VIRGINIA. 53 

council in England, it is true, could make laws for the 1609. 
colony, anl give instructions to the governor; hut the 
discretionary powers conferred upon the latter were so 
extensive, that the lives, liberty, and property of the 
colonists, were placed almost at his arbitrary disposal. 

3. ^nder the new charter, the excellent Lord Del- i. whatnaw 
aware was appointed governor for life. Nine ships, memwert 
under the command of Newport, were soon dispatched" 
for Virginia, with more than five hundred emigrants 
Sir Thomas Gates, the deputy of the governor, assisted 

by Newport and Sir George Somers, was appointed to 
administer the government until the arrival of Lord 
Delaware. 2 When the fleet had arrived near the 2 - w £g thtt l 
West Indies, a terrible storm b dispersed it, and the juetoniu 
vessel in which were Newport, Gates, and Somers, b. Q Aug. 3. 
was stranded on the rocks of the Bermudas.* A 
small ketch perished, and only seven vessels arrived 11 c - Aug - 
in Virginia. 

4. 3 0n the arrival of the new emigrants, most of 3. what icas 
whom were profligate and disorderly persons, who had memiar- 
been sent off to escape a worse destiny at home, Smith ra Sf[ s dj u ' 
found himself placed in an embarrassing situation. Smitlli 
As the first charter had been abrogated, many thought 

the original form of government was abolished ; and, 
as no legal authority existed for establishing any other, 
every thing tended to the wildest anarchy. 

5. 4 ln this confusion, Smith soon determined what pHounua 

„ .' . . . . .he manage ) 

course to pursue. Declaring that nis powers as presi- 
dent were not suspended until the arrival of the per- 
sons appointed to supersede him, he resumed the reins 
of government, and resolutely maintained his authority. 
6 At length, being disabled bv an accidental explosion 5 Wkatu 

* ... . said of his 

of gunpowder, and requiring surgical aid -which the return m 
new settlement could not afford, he delegated his au- " s 
thority to George Percv, brother of the Earl of North- 
umberland, and embarked for England. 

* The Bermudas are a group of about 400 small islands, nearly all but five mew 
rock-;, containing a surface of about 20 square miles, and situated in the Atlantic Ocean, 
580 miles E. from Cape Flatteras, which is the nearest hind id them. They were dis- 
covered in 1515, by a Spanish vessel commanded by Juan Ilermudez, fro.n whom tiiey 
have derived '.heir name. Soon after the shipwreck ah< ve mentioned. Somers formed a 
settlement there, and from him they were long known as the "Summer Islands," hut the 
original name, Bermudas, has since prevailed. They are well fortified, belong to tits 
English, au I aie valuable, principally, as a naval station. 



54 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART H. 



1610. 

1. Describe 
the situa- 
tion of the 
colony du- 
ring the 
" starving 
time." 



». What had 
become of 

Sir Thomas 
Gates and 

his compan- 
ions} 



a. May 20. 



». June 2. 
3. Under 
what cir- 
cumstances 
was the set- 
tlement 
abandoned, 
and -what 
caused the 
return of the 
colony 7 

c. June 17. 



d. June 13. 

4. Give an 
account uf 
Lord Dela- 
ware. 



1611. 



5. Of Bit 

Thomas 
Dale. 

e. May 20. 



6. 'On the departure of Smith, subordination and 
industry ceased ; the provisions of the colony were 
soon consumed ; the Indians became hostile, and with- 
held their customary supplies ; the horrors of famine 
ensued ; and, in six months, anarchy and vice had 
reduced the number of the colony from four hundred 
and ninety to sixty ; and these were so feeble and de- 
jected, that if relief had been delayed a few days 
longer, all must have perished. This period of suffer- 
ing and gloom was long remembered with horror, and 
was distinguished by the name of the starving time. 

7. 2 In the mean time Sir Thomas Gates and his 
companions, who had been Avrecked on the Bermudas, 
had reached the shore without loss of life, — had re- 
mained nine months on an uninhabited but fertile island, 
— and had found means to construct two vessels, in 
which they embarked* for Virginia, where they an- 
ticipated a happy welcome, and expected to find a 
prosperous colony. 

8. 3 0n their arrival b at Jamestown, a far different 
scene presented itself; and the gloom was increased by 
the prospect of continued scarcity. Death by famine 
awaited them if they remained where they were ; and, 
as the only means of safety, Gates resolved to sail for 
Newfoundland, and disperse the company among the 
ships of English fishermen. With this intention they 
embarked, but just as they drew near the mouth of 
the river, Lord Delaware fortunately appeared with 
emigrants and supplies, and they were persuaded to 
return. d 

9. '•The return of the colony was celebrated by re- 
ligious exercises, immediately after which the commis- 
sion of Lord Delaware was read, and the government 
organized. Under the wise administration of this able 
and virtuous man, order and contentment were again 
restored ; but the health of the governor soon failing 
he Avas obliged to return to England, having previ 
ously appointed Percy to administer the governmen 
until a successor should arrive. e Before the return of 
Lord Delaware was known, the company had dis- 
patched Sir Thomas Dale with supplies. Arriving* 
in May, he assumed the government of the colony. 



CHAP. I VIRGINIA. bb 

which he administered with moderation, although 1611, 
upon the basis of martial law. 

10. *In May, Dale had written to the company, ' ofti^ 
stating the small number and weakness of the colo- Gates. 
nists, and requesting new recruits ; and early in Sep- 
tember Sir Thomas Gates arrived with six ships and 

three hundred emigrants, and assumed the government 
of the colony, which then numbered seven hundred 
men. B New settlements were now formed, and several 2. what 
wise regulations adopted ; among which was that of 'uZmSen 
assigning to each man a few acres of ground for his ada P' edf 
orchard and garden. 

11. 'Hitherto all the land had been worked in com- 
mon, and the produce deposited in the public stores. 

The good effects of the new regulation were apparent ^.^iL 
in the increased industry of the colonists, and soon 
after, during the administration of Sir Thomas Dale, 
larger assignments of land were made, and finally, the 
plan of working in a common field, to fill the public 
stores, was entirely abandoned. 

III. Virginia under the Third Charter. — 1. *Iri 1312. 
1612, the London Company obtained 11 from the king ^-W'-fl* 
a new charter, making important changes in the third char- 
powers of the corporation, but not essentially affecting a . Marcll 22. 
the political rights of the colonists themselves. 

2. 'Hitherto the principal powers possessed by the 6. What 
company had been vested in the superior council, the govern 
which, under the first charter, was appointed by the effected 
king ; and although, under the second, it had its va- * 
cancies filled by the majority of the corporation, yet 

the corporation itself could act only through this me- 
dium. The superior council was now abolished, and 
its powers were transferred to the whole company, 
which, meeting as a democratic assembly, had the sole 
power of electing the officers and establishing the laws 
of the colony. 

3. 'In 1613 occurred the marriage of John Rolfe, a 1613 
vounsr Englishman, with Pocahontas, the daughter of 6 - GiCr - r a 'J: < 

■L 00 b ' o . ,_ account 0) 

Powhatan ; — an event which exerted a happy influ- PoCi ^atm 
ence upon the relations of the colonists and Indians. 
The marriage received the approval of the father and 
friends of the maiden, and was hailed with great joy 



DO • COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART J. 

1613. by the English. In 1616, the Indian wife accompanied 
her husband to England, and was received with much 
kindness and attention by the king and queen ; but as 
she was preparing to return, at the age of twenty-two 
» she fell a victim to the English climate. She left one 

son, from whom are descended some of the most re- 
spectable families in Virginia, 
e. in !6i3. 4. 'During the same year* Samuel Argall, a ?ea 
siiiPscx^e- ca p tam ? sailing from Virginia in an armed vessel foi 
. duions. the purpose of protecting the English fishermen off 
the coast of Maine, discovered that the French had 
just planted a colony near the Penobscot,* on Mount 
Desert Isle.f Considering this an encroachment upon 
the limits of North Virginia, he broke up the settle- 
ment, sending some of the colonists to France, and 
transporting others to Virginia. 

5. Sailing again soon after, he easily reduced the 

b.Notep.42. feeble settlement of Port Royal, b and thus completed 

the conquest of Acadia. On his return to Virginia he 

c. Note and entered the harbor of New York, and compelled the 

ap, p. . Tj u t cri trading establishment, lately planted there, to 

acknowledge the sovereignty of England. 

1614. 6. 2 Early in 1614, Sir Thomas Gates embarked for 

\tuf»?as England, leaving the administration of the govern- 

Dates ad- ment in the hands of Sir Thomas Dale, who ruled 

don. with vigor and wisdom, and made several valuable 

changes in the land laws of the colony. After having 

remained five years in the country, he appointed 

1616. George Yeardley deputy-governor, and returned to 

3. what is England. 3 During the administration of Yeardley 
cultured tne cu l ture 0I " tobacco, a native plant of the country, 

tobacco/ was introduced, which soon became, not only the prin- 
cipal export, but even the currency of tbe colony. 

1617. 7. 4 In 1617, the office of deputy-governor was in- 

4. ave an trusted to Argall, who ruled with such tyranny as to 
Argaivs excite universal discontent. He not only oppressed 
}n tm. the colonists, but defrauded the company. After nu- 
merous complaints, and a strenuous contest among 
rival factions in the company, for the control of the 

* The Penobscot is a river of Maine, which falls into Penobscot Bay, about 50 niilea 
PJ.E. from the mouth of the Kennebec. 

t Mount Desert Island is about 20 miles S.E. from the mouth of the Penobscot, — a 
peninsula intervening. It is 15 miles long, and 10 or 12 broad. 



CHAP. I.] VIRGINIA. 57 

colony, Argall was displaced, and Yeardley appointed S619. 
governor. 'Under the administration of Yeardley the 
planters Avere fully released from farther service to the 
colony, martial law was abolished, and the first colo- ley's admin 
nial assembly ever held in Virginia was convened* at "' [[['TL 

Jo a. June 29. 

Jamestown. 

8. 2 The colony was divided into eleven boroughs ; 2. 0/ the 
and two representatives, called burgesses, were chosen °po%er"oj 
from each. These, constituting the house of burgesses, ^Jrges^ 
debated all matters which were thought expedient for 

the good of the colony; but their enactments, although 
sanctioned by the governor and council, were of no 
force until they were ratified by the company in Eng- 
land. 3 In the month of August, 1620, a Dutch man- 1620. 
of-war entered James river, and landed twenty ne- vAmteir- 
groes for sale. This was the commencement of negro was "Sot 
slavery in the English colonies. introduced! 

9. 4 It was now twelve years since the settlement of 
Jamestown, and after an expenditure of nearly four ^"^'J"/ 
hundred thousand dollars by the company, there were t %%° a 'fy n 
in the colony only six hundred persons ; yet, during - what am- 

1 - "( 1 11 • a '.•', '„, ° tional »mi- 

the year lb20, through the influence 01 bir .bdwyn graiions 
Sandys, the treasurer of the company, twelve hundred 
and sixty-one additional settlers were induced to emi- 
grate. But as yet there were few women in the colony, 
and most of the planters had hitherto cherished the 
design of ultimately returning to England. 

10. 5 In order to attach them still more to the coun- 5 - What 

. . measures 

try. and to render the colony more permanent, ninety were taken 

to (ttt&p/i th& 

young women, of reputable character, were first sent emigrants 
over, and, in the following year, sixty more, to become country? 
wives to the planters. The expense of their transporta- 
tion, and even more, was paid by the planters ; the 
price of a wife rising from one hundred and twenty, 
to one hundred and fifty pounds of tobacco. . „ , 

11. $ Ir> August, 1621, the London Company granted . c . j 
to their colony a written constitution, ratifying, in the e . Give an 
main, the form of government established by Yeardley. ^v-nmn 
It decreed that a governor tmd council should be ap- "^ntaiby 
pointed by the company, and that a general assembly, cmn ^ my 
consisting of the council, and two burgesses chosen by Assembly, 
the people from each plantation, or borough, should tm JtfiZte& 

3* 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1621. 



Powers of 
governor. 



Orders of 

the 
company. 

Trial by 
jury. 

Constitu- 
tion, basis 
qfzohat. 



a Oct. 
1. What is 
said of the 
arrival of 
Sir Francis 
Wyatt, and 

the 
condition of 
the colony I 



2. Give an, 
account of 
the Indian, 
conspiracy. 



1622. 



3. Of the 

massacre 

and Indian 

war which 

followed. 



I. Whqt is 
laid of the 
listress of 
the colony ' 



be convened yearly. The governor had a negative 
voice rpon the proceedings of the assembly, but no 
law was valid unless ratified by the company in 
England. 

12. With singular liberality it was further ordained 
that no orders of the company in England should bind 
the colony until ratified by the assembly. The trial 
by jury was established, and courts of justice were re- 
quired to conform to the English laws. This consti- 
tution, granting privileges which were ever after 
claimed as rights, was the basis of civil freedom in 
Virginia. 

13. 'The new constitution was brought 1 over by 
Sir Francis Wyatt, who had been appointed to succeed 
Governor Yeardley. He found the numbers of the 
colony greatly increased, their settlements widely ex- 
tended, and every thing in the full tide of prosperity. 
But this pleasant prospect was doomed soon to experi- 
ence a terrible reverse. 

14. 2 Since the marriage of Pocahontas, Powhatan 
had remained the firm friend of the English. But he 
being now dead, and his successor viewing with jeal- 
ousy and alarm' the rapidly increasing settlements of 
the English, the Indians concerted a plan of surprising 
and destroying the whole colony. Still preserving the 
language of friendship, they visited the settlements, 
bought the arms, and borrowed the boats of the Eng- 
lish, and, even on the morning of the fatal day, came 
among them as freely as usual. 

15. 3 On the first of April, 1622, at mid-day, the 
attack commenced ; and so sudden and unexpected 
was the onset, that, in one hour, three hundred and 
forty-seven men, women, and children, fell victims to 
savage treachery and cruelty. The massacre would 
have been far more extensive had not a friendly In- 
dian, on the previous evening, revealed the plot to an 
Englishman whom he wished to save ; by which 
means Jamestown and a few of the neighboring set- 
tlements were well prepared against the attack. 

16. i Although the larger part of the colony was 
saved, yet great distress followed ; the more distant 
settlements were abandoned ; and the number of the 



CHAP. I.] VIRGINIA. 59 

plantations was reduced from eighty to eight. 'But 1623. 
the English soon aroused to vengeance. An extermi- 



.. What IBM 

nating war against the Indians followed; many of thesesuui 
them were destroyed ; and the remainder were obliged 
to retire far into the wilderness. 

17. a The settlement of Virginia by the London *■<»«»«* 

/~i iii r i i J i account of 

Company had been an unprofitable enterprise, and as the causes 
he snares in the unproductive stock were now of little the awsoivr 
value, and the holders very numerous, the meetings of London 
the company, in England, became the scenes of politi- Cam P an y- 
cal debate, in which the advocates of liberty were ar- 
rayed against the upholders of royal prerogative. 
s The king disliked the freedom of debate here exhibit- 3 - wjwj <*£- 
ed, and, jealous of the prevalence of liberal sentiments, . king* 
at first sought to control the elections of officers, by 
overawing the assemblies. 

18. 4 Failing in this, he determined to recover, by a 4 ; "^/ e * < * 
dissolution of the company, the influence of which he mtnei 
had deprived himself by a charter of his own conces- 
sion. Commissioners in the interest of the king were 5 - How teas 

, j, , . , ° . - t he measure 

therefore appointed to examine the concerns ol the accom- 

corporation. As was expected, they reported in favor p ' 

of a change ; the judicial decision was soon after given ; 

the London Company was dissolved ; the king took 1624. 

into his own hands the government of the colony ; 

and Virginia thus became a royal government. 

19. 'During the existence of the London Company, 6. what 
the government of Virginia had gradually changed cnmgeshaa 
from a royal government, under the first charter, in "^ovt/n- 
which the king had all power, to a proprietary govern- yirAlua? 
ment under the second and third charters, in which all 
executive and legislative powers were in the hands of 

the company. 

20. 7 Although these changes had been made with- ' Tr, i? f ? PJ ? 

, . & . . . % , , . , the effect of 

out consulting the wishes of the colonists, and not- these chan- 

O I £CS both OW 

withstanding the powers of the company were exceed- Virginia 
ingly arbitrary, yet as the majority of its active mem- other o>io 
bers belonged to the patriot party in England, so they 
acted as the successful friends of liberty in America. 
They had conceded the right of trial by jury, and had 
given to V irginia a representative government. These 
privileges, tlius early conceded, could never be wrested 



60 COLONIAL HISTORY. ]PART U 

1624. from the Virginians, and they exerted an influence 
favorable to liberty, throughout all the colonies sub 
sequently planted. All claimed as extensive privi 
leges as had been conceded to their elder sister colony, 
and future proprietaries could hope to win emigrants, 
only by bestowing franchises as large as tho&e enjoyed 
by Virginia. 

IV. Virginia fe oi\i the Dissolution of the Lon- 
don Company in 1624, to the commencement of the 
a. what ww French and Indian War in 1754. — 1. 'The dissolu- 
o}V/ieneio tion of the London Company produced no immediate 
mnt? change in the domestic government and franchises of 
the colony. A governor and twelve counsellors, to be 
guided by the instructions of the king, were appointed 
to administer the government ; but no attempts were 
1625. made to suppress the colonial assemblies. 2 On the 
a. April 6. death 1 of James the First, in 1625, his son, Charles 
thepmcytf the First, succeeded him. The latter paid very little 
towarforir- attention to the .political condition of Virginia, but 
gintai aimed to promote the prosperity of the colonists, only 
with the selfish view of deriving profit from their in- 
dustry. He imposed some restrictions on the com- 
merce of the colony, but vainly endeavored to obtain 
for himself the monopoly of the trade in tobacco. 

1628. 2. 3 In 1628, John Harvey, who had for several 
s. wjiatjs years been a member of the council, and was exceed- 

said of i , , , ' iii-i 

Harveijj lngly unpopular, was appointed governor; but he did 
not arrive in the colony until late in the following 

1629. year. He has been charged, by most of the old histo- 
rians, with arbitrary and tyrannical conduct : but al- 
though he favored the court party, it does not appear 
that he deprived the colonists of any of their civil rights. 

4. m> ad- 3. 4 His administration, however, was disturbed by 
mi uonf' disputes about land titles under the royal grants ; and 
the colonists, being indignant that he should betray 
1635, their interests by opposing their claims, deprived him 
of the government, and summoned an assembly to re- 
ceive complaints against him. Harvey, in the mean 
time, had consented to go to England with commis- 
sioners appointed to manage his impeachment : but the 
king would not even admit his accusers to a hearing, 
1636 an< l Harvey immediately returned b to occupy his for- 
b. Jtw. mer station. * 



£KAP. I.] VIRGINIA. 61 

4. 'During the first administration of Sir William i©42. 
Berkeley, from 1642 to '52, the civil condition of the 
Virginians was much improved ; the laws and cus- 
toms of England were still farther introduced ; cruel 
punishments were abolished ; old controversies were account^ 
adjusted ; a more equitable system of taxation was in- ^■ti'admui 
troduced ; the rights of property and the freedom of """ aJiD «- 
industry were secured ; and Virginia enjoyed nearly 

aJl the civil liberties which the most free system of 
£3vernment could have conferred. 

5. £ A spirit of intolerance, however, in religious 2. what in 
matters, in accordance with the spirit of the age, was reSstovs 
manifested by the legislative assembly ; which ordered* m umm? t 
that no minister should preach or teach except in con- ^Tfl 
formity to the Church of England. 3 While puritan- * lt>4 °- 
ism and republicanism were prevailing in England, %^iafmn- 
leading the way to the downfall of monarchy, the Jy^fies 
Virginians showed the strongest attachment to the %££m 
Episcopal Church and the cause of royalty. 

6. 4 h\ 1644 occurred another Indian massacre, fol- 1644. 
lowed by a border warfare until October, 1646. when *■ Give an 
peace was again established. During several years me second 
the Powhatan tribes had shown evidences of hostility ; massacre 
but, in 1644, hearing of the dissensions in England, inwhichm 
and thinking the opportunity favorable to their designs, Vr '"i^ m 
they resolved on a general massacre, hoping to be able involved.. 
eventually to exterminate the colony. 

7. On the 28th of April, the attack was commenced 
on the frontier settlements, and about three hundred 
persons were killed before the Indians were repulsed. 

•A vigorous war against the savages was immediately 5 . whatioat 

commenced, and their king, the aged Opechancanough, nffSjeMwar z 

the successor of Powhatan, was easily made prisoner, 

and died in captivity. Submission to the English, 

find a cession of lands, were the terms on which peace 1646. 

was purchased by the original possessors of the soil. s wjiatwt* 

8. 6 During the civil war* between Charles the First *%*'"%'/ 

O Virginia- 

and his Parliament, the Virginians continued faithful faring the 

1 -1 1 a i ■ r 1 Ctv,! war m 

to the royal cause, and even after the execution 1 01 the England/ 
king, his son, Charles the Second, although a fugitive a- Feb ' 9 ' 

* Note. — The tyrannical disposition, and arbitrary measures of Charles the First, 
of England, opposed, as they were, to the increasing spirit of libert • among the people 



62 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART n. 

1652. from England, was still recognized as the sovereign 

' of "V irginia. 1 The parliament, irritated by this con- 

1. How was duct, in 1652 sent a naval force to reduce the Virgin- 

treated by ians to submission. Previous to this (in 1650) foreign 

Uament? ships had been forbidden to trade with the rebellious 

colony, and in 1651 the celebrated navigation act, 

securing to English ships the entire carrying trade 

with England, and seriously abridging the freedom of 

colonial commerce, was passed. 

1652. 9. 2 On the arrival* of the naval force of parliament 

a. March, in 1652, all thoughts of resistance were laid aside, and 

niannfJloL although the Virginians refused to surrender to force, 

^ r 8tonto U ~ y et me y voluntarily entered into a compact b with their 

^effected? 1 i nva -ders, by which they acknowledged the supremacy 

b. March 22. of parliament. s By this compact, which was faithfully 

s. What was observed till the restoration of monarchy, the liberties 

the nature „ . . . . J\ 

of vie com- oi Virginia were preserved, the navigation act itseli 
how was not enforced within her borders, and', regulated 
by her own laws, Virginia enjoyed freedom of com- 
merce with all the world. 
i. what was 10- 4 During the existence of the Commonwealth 
^Virginia Virginia enjoyed liberties as extensive as those of any 
d ZrmfJ^ En gl istl colony, and from 1652 till 1660, she was left 
wealth? almost entirely to her own independent government. 
Cromwell never made any appointments for Virginia; 
Di g g" n and but her governors, during the Commonwealth, were 
Matthews. cn0 sen by t he burgesses, who were the representatives 
1658. of the people. 'When the news of the death d of 
d. sept. i3. Cromwell arrived, the assembly reasserted their right 
5 - JJ^j 0C " of electing the officers of government, and required the 
when news governor, Matthews, to confirm it ; in order, as they 

of the death => . , ' ' . ' . ' J 

ojcrmnweu said, " that what was their privilege then, might be the 
privilege of their posterity." 



Involved that kingdom in a civil war ; arraying, on the one side, Parliament and tl<t 
Republicans ; and, on the other, the Royalists and the King. Between 1642 and 1649, 
several important battles were fought, when the king was finally taken prisoner, tried. 
condemned, and executed, Jan. 30, (Old Style) 1649. The Parliament then ruled ; bu: 
Oliver Cromwell, who had been the principal general of the Republicans, nm.lly dis- 
solved it by force, (April, 1653,) and took into his own hands the reins of government, 
With the title of " Protector of the Commonwealth." He administered the government 
with energy and ability until his death, in 1658. Richard Cromwell succeeded his 
father, as Protector, but, after two years, he abdicated the government, and quietly re- 
tired to private life. Charles the Second, a highly accomplished prince, but arbitrary 
base, and unprincipled, was then restored (in 1660) to the throne of his ancestors, by 
the general Wish of the people. 



CHAP. I.] VIRGINIA. 63 

11. l 0n the death of governor Matthews, which 1660. 
happened just at the time of the resignation of Richard, 

the successor of Cromwell, the house of burgesses, after 
enacting that " the government of the country should 
be resident in the assembly until there should arrive *■ Aitne 

c -nil --i-ii „ . , f time of the 

trom England a commission which the assembly itself resignation 
should adjudge to be lawful," elected Sir William 
Berkeley governor, who, by accepting the* office, ac- 
knowledged the authority te> which he owed his ele- 
vation. 2 The Virginians hoped for the restoration of 2. what 
monarchy in England, but they did not immediately w&hesofthe 
proclaim Charles the Second king, although the state- jllfn regard 
ment of their hasty return to royal allegiance has been mon a rehy i 
often made. 

12. 3 When the news of the restoration of Charles U7 ^ 
the Second reached Virginia, Berkeley, who was then happened at 
acting as governor elected by the people, immediately therestcra- 
disclaimed the popular sovereignty, and issued writs chariesiu 
for an assembly in the name of the king. The friends 

of royalty now came into power, and high hopes of 
royal favor were entertained. 

13. 4 But prospects soon darkened. The commer- 4 whatu 
cial policy of the Commonwealth was adopted, and cmnmCctai 
restrictions upon colonial commerce were greatly mul- ™"£ed°™% 
tiplied. The new provisions of the navigation act thecoummt 
enjoined that no commodities should be imported to 

any British settlements, nor exported from them, ex- 
cept in English vessels, and that the principal prod- 
ucts of the colonies should be shipped to no country 
except England. The trade between the colonies was 
likewise taxed for the benefit of England, and the en- 
tire aim of the colonial system was to make the colo- 
nies dependent upon the mother country. 

14. 5 Remonstrances against this oppression were of g « the 
no avail, and the provisions of the navigation act were discontent 
rigorously enforced. The discontents of the people pie, and of 
were further increased by royal grants of large tracts cuipepper 
of land which belonged to the colony, and which in- Arlington'} 
eluded plantations that had long been cultivated ; and, 

in 1673, the lavish sovereign of England, with his 1673. 
visual profligacy, gave away to Lord Culpepper and 
the Earl of Arlington, two royal favorites, " all the 



64 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART XX. 



i iSt 



I. In what 
manner 
were the lib- 
erties of the 
people 
abridged ? 

In matters 
of religion. 

By fines. 

Salaries. 



Represent- 
ative*. 



2. What was 
the effect of 

these 
grievances'! 

3. What is 

said of the 
Indian war 
which oc- 
curred at 
this time? 



1675. 



4. Of the 
iemands of 

tile people? 

1676. 

5. Of 

Berkeley ? 

6. And of 
the com- 
mencement 
of Bacon's 
rebellior. ? 



a. May. 



dominion of land and water called Virginia," for the 
space of thirty-one years. 

15. l In the mean time, under the influence of the 
royalist and the aristocratic party in Virginia, the 
legislature had seriously abridged the liberties of the 
people. The Episcopal Church had become the reli- 
gion of the state, — heavy fines were imposed upon Q.ua 
kers and Baptists, — the royal officers, obtaining thcit 
salaries by a permanent duty on exported tobacco, 
were removed from all dependence upon the people, — 
the taxes were unequal and oppressive, — and the mem- 
bers of the assembly, who had been chosen for a term 
of only two years, had assumed to themselves an in- 
definite continuance of power, so that, in reality, the 
representative system was abolished. 

16. 2 The pressure of increasing grievances at length 
produced open discontent ; and the common people, 
highly exasperated against the aristocratic and royal 
party, began to manifest a mutinous disposition. ?An 
excuse for appearing in arms was presented in the 
sudden outbreak of Indian hostilities. The Susque- 
hanna Indians, driven from their hunting grounds at 
the head of the Chesapeake, by the hostile Senecas, 
had come down upon the Potomac, and, with their 
confederates, were then engaged in a war with Mary- 
land. Murders had been committed on the soil of Vir- 
ginia, and when six of the hostile chieftains presented 
themselves to treat for peace, they were cruelly put to 
death. The Indians aroused to vengeance, and a 
desolating warfare ravaged the frontier settlements. 

17. 4 Dissatisfied with the measures of defence which 
Berkeley had adopted, the people, with Nathaniel 
Bacon for their leader, demanded of the governor per- 
mission to rise and protect themselves. 6 Berkeley, 
jealous of the increasing popularity of Bacon, refused 
permission. 6 At length, the Indian aggressions in 
creasing, and a party of Bacon's own men having been 
slain on his plantation, he yielded to the common voice, 
placed himself at the head of five hundred men, and 
commenced his march against the Indians. He was 
immediately proclaimed* traitor by Berkeley, and 
troops were levied to pursue him. Bacon continued 



CHAT. I.] VIRGINIA. 65 

his expedition, which was successful, while Berkeley 1676. 
was obliged to recall his troops, to suppress an insur- 
rection in the lower counties. 

18. 'The great mass of the people having- arisen, 1. Whatw 

r> i i u i -ill t li said of the 

Berkeley was compelled to yield ; tne odious assembly, success of 

f i i • i • i " i i i_i the po-outai 

oi long duration, was dissolved ; and an assembly, com- cause/ 
posed mostly of the popular party, was elected in their 
places. Numerous abuses were now corrected, and 
Bacon was appointed commander-in-chief. 2 Berkeley, 2. of the 
however, at first refused to sign his commission, but v c lnduc"of 
Ea:on having made his appearance in Jamestown, at Serkele » f 
the head of several hundred armed men, the commis- 
sion was issued, and the governor united with the 
assembly in commending to the king the zeal, loyalty, 
and patriotism of the popular leader. But as the army 
was preparing to march against the enemy, Berkeley 
suddenly withdrew across the York* river to Glou- 
cester,! summoned a convention of loyalists, and, even 
against their advice, once more proclaimed Bacon a 
traitor. 

19. 3 Bacon, however, proceeded against the Indians, 3 nil 
and Berkeley having crossed the Chesapeake to Acco- werem 
mact county, his retreat was declared an abdication, ami war 
Berkeley, in the mean time, with a few adherents, followed? 
and the crews of some English ships, had returned to 
Jamestown, but, on the approach of Bacon and his 
forces, after some slight resistance the royalists were 
obliged to retreat, and Bacon took possession of the 
capital of Virginia. 

20. The rumor prevailing that a party of royalists 
was approaching, Jamestown was burned, and some 
of the patriots fired their own houses, lest they might 
afford shelter to the enemy. Several troops of the 
royalists soon after joined the insurgents, but, in the 

midst of his successes, Bacon suddenly died. 1 His a. Oct 1. 
party, now left without a leader, after a few petty in- 



* York river enters the Chesapeake about 18 miles N. from James River. It is nav- 
igable for the largest vessels. '25 miles. It is formed of the Mattapony and the Paninn- 
ky The former, which is on the north, is formed of the Mat, To.. Po, and Ny rivers. 

t Gloucester county is on the N.E. siile of York River, ami borders on the Chesa- 
peake. The town is on a branch or bay of the Chesapeake. 

t Accomac county is on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. This county and 
Northampton Co. on Jhe south, constitute what is called the Eastern Shore of Virinnia 



66 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART EL 

1676. surrections dispersed, and the authority of the governor 

' was restored. 
». what is 21. l The ventre ful passions of Berkeley, however, 

said of the ° r . . r i- ■ 

cruelty of were not allayed by the submission ol his enemies. 
er i pj neg an( j con |] sca tions gratified his avarice, and exe- 
cutions were continued till twenty-two had been 
hanged, when the assembly interfered, and prayed him 
to stop the work of death. The conduct of Berkeley 
was severely censured in England, and publicly by 
the king himself, who declared, " The old fool has 
taken away more lives in that country than I for the 
murder of my father." 

2. of the 22. 2 Historians have not done justice to the princi- 
r i£eon, e and P^ es an & character of Bacon. He has been styled a 
t qfthe a ^ov !/ re ^ ' anc ^ nas Deen described as ambitious and re- 

eramenti vengeful ; but if his principles are to be gathered from 
the acts of the assembly of which he was the head, 
they were those of justice, freedom, and humanity. 
At the time of the rebellion, "no printing press was al- 
lowed in Virginia ; to speak ill of Berkeley or his 
friends was punished by fine or whipping ; to speak, 
or write, or publish any thing in favor of the rebels, or 
the rebellion, was made a high misdemeanor, and, if 
thrice repeated, was evidence of treason. It is not 
strange then that posterity was for more than a hun- 
dred years defrauded of the truth." 

3. when 23. 3 The grant of Virginia to Arlington and Cul- 
e *lnanner aC pepper has already been mentioned. In 1677 the lat- 

W wietary ter obtained the appointment of governor for life, and 

e ° ,!e hvheTt tnus Virginia became a proprietary government, with 

the administration vested in one of the proprietors. In 

1680. 1680 Culpepper arrived in the province, and assumed 

a. what is the duties of his office. 4 The avaricious proprietor 

pepper's a<i- was more careful of his own interests than of those of 

mi t 1on? a ~ the colony, and under his administration Virginia was 

s. when impoverished. 6 In 1684, the grant was recalled,— 

manner was Culpepper was deprived of his office, although he haa 

government been appointed for life, and Virginia again became a roy- 

restored? a j p r0VUlce . Arlington had previously surrendered his 

taMoftfie rights to Culpepper. *The remaining portion of the his- 

r hMon in of tor y °f Virginia, down to the period of" the French and 

Virginia? Indian war, is marked with few incidents of importance. 




GOTEENOP. WINTUEOP. 



chap, n.] 



CHAPTER II. 

MASSACHUSETTS.* 

SECT. I.— DIVISIONS. 

L Early History. — II. Plymouth Colony. — 
III Massachusetts Bay Colony. — IV. 
Union of the New England Colonies. — 
V. Early Laws and Customs. 

1. Early History. — 1. 'An ac- 
count of the first attempt of the 
Plymouth Company to form a settlement in North 1607. 
Virginia has already been given. 1 Although vessels \ s -^if s - 
annually visited the coast for the purpose of trade said of the 

J r i first at- 

with the Indians, yet little was known of the interior tempted set- 

tl€/n€)it in 

until 1614, when Captain John Smith, who had al- North vir- 
ready obtained distinction in Virginia, sailed with two whatofthe 
vessels to the territories of the Plymouth Company, g£%££$t 
for the purpose of trade and discovery. 1614. 

2. 2 The expedition was a private adventure of Smith 2. what is 
and four merchants of London, and was highly sue- expedition 
cessful. After Smith had concluded his traffic with tf s 2f" 
the natives, he travelled into the interior of the country, 
accompanied by only eight men, and, with great care, b ^nd e « 56 
explored the coast from the Penobscot b to Cape Cod. c c. Note P . 40. 
3 He prepared a map of the coast, and called the coun- 3. of the 
try JNew England, — a name which 1 nncc Oharjes teprepared) 
confirmed, and which has ever since been retained. 4 s "do/ w 

3. 4 After Smith's departure, Thomas Hunt, the ™£™« 
master of the second ship, enticed a number of natives d 1 5 1 5 
on board his vessel and carried them to Spain, where 5. 0/ 
they were sold into slavery. *In the following 11 year, S ati'em S pun 
Smith, in the employ of some members of the Ply- cs c '^' ) ',y'} a 

* MASSACHUSETTS, one of the New England States, is about 120 miles long from 
east to wes*, 00 miles broad in the eastern part, and 50 in the western, and contains an 
area of about 7,500 square miles. Several ranges of mountains, extending from Ver- 
mont and Nf w Hampshire, pass through the western part of this state into Connec- 
ticut. East of these mountains the country is hilly, except in the southern and south 
eastern portions, where it is low, and generally sandy. The northern and western por- 
tions of the sta'e have generally a strong soil, well adapted to grazing. The valleys of 
the Connecticut and Housatonic are highly fertile. The marble quarries of West 
Btockbridge, is ihr western part of the state, and the granite quarries of Quincv nine 
•Jiiles S.E. fror* F'-ston, are celebrated 



08 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART II 

1615. mouth Company, sailed with the design of establishing 

1 a colony in New England. In his first effort a violent 

a. July 4. tempest forced him to return. * Again renewing 11 the 

tecondot- enterprise, his crew became mutinous, and he was at 

tempt? i agt intercepted by French pirates, who seized his ship 

and conveyed him to France. He afterwards escaped 

alone, in an open boat, from the harbor of Rochelk,* 

and returned to England. 

4. 2 Ey the representations of Smith, the attention of 
plan's of the the Plymouth Company was again excited ; they began 
company) to form vast plans of colonization, appointed Smith ad- 
1620. miral of the country for life, and, at length, after sev- 
eral years of entreaty, obtained 15 a new charter foi 
3 or n settim o trie country. 3 The original Plymouth Com- 
counc/iof panv was superseded bv the Council of Plymouth, to 
and t/ieu- which was conveyed, in absolute property, all the ter- 
c see Maps r i t01 T tying between the 40th and 48th degrees of 
north latitude, extending from the Atlantic to the Paci- 
fic, and comprising more than a million of square miles. 
4. of what 5. *This charter was the basis of all the grants that 
charter me were subsequently made of the country of New Eng- 
5 h \vhltis l an(L 'The exclusive privileges granted by it occa- 
eaidofua sioned disputes among- the proprietors, and prevented 

( ' I'CI ifS/VG * Oil 1 i 

privileges? emigration under tl ir auspices, while, in the mean 
time, a permanent a ray was established without the 
aid or knowledge of tiie company or the king. 
WhatU II. Plymouth Colony. — 1. *A band of Puritans, 

said of the dissenters from the established Church of England, 

Puritans! 1 r- 1 • t ■ • • 1 i ■ • 

persecuted for their rengious opinions, and seeking in 

a foreign land that liberty of conscience which their 

own country denied them, became the first colonists 

ofth'ir °^ ^ ew England. 7 As early as 1603 they emigrated 

residence at to Holland, and settled, first, at Amsterdam,! and after- 

Anistcrdam , J . , ,' ' , , '• . 

andLeydeni wards at JLeyden,;); where, during eleven years, they 
continued to live in great harmony, under the charge 
of their excellent pastor, John Robinson. 

* Itnehelle is a strongly fortified town at the bottom of a small gulf on the coas of 
the Atlantic (or Bay of Biscay; in the west of France. 

t Jlmxterdum is on a branch of the Zuyiler Zee, a gulf or bay in the west of Holland 
In the I'th century it was one of the first commercial cities of Europe. 1 he soil be- 
ing marshy, the city is built mostly on oaken piles driven into the ground. Kuineious 
canals run through the city in every direction. 

X Lei/den, long famous for its University, is on one of the branches or mouths of the 
Rhine, 7 miles from the sea, and 25 miles S.W. from Amsterdam. 



5HAR n.) MASSACHUSETTS. 59 

2. l At the end of that period, the same religious 1620. 
zeai that had made them exiles, combined with the L of t ~ 
desire of improving 1 their temporal welfare, induced c , au ? n 
them to undertake a more distant migration. 2 mit, ducedth&n 
notwithstanding they had been driven from their early from Hoi- 
homes by the rod of persecution, they loved England 2 Bu( wf!at 
still, and desired to retain their mother tongue, and to dtd J^f^'j iU 
live under the government of their native land. 

3. 3 These, with other reasons, induced them to seek 3 nivther 
an asylum in the wilds of America. They obtained d! s fJ,! ie ^ r f' 
.i grant of land from the London or Virginia Company, ^ e \^f lt 
but, in vain, sought the favor of the kino-. ^Destitute o,ui they ob- 
of sufficient capital, they succeeded in forming a part- ., n - hat 
nership with some men of business in London, and, pa ^iuZ h J p 
although the terms were exceedingly severe to the S°™y tl a J ld 
poor emigrants, yet, as they did not interfere with 

civil or religious rights, the Pilgrims were contented. 
6 Two vessels having been obtained, the Mayflower 5 . whatves- 
and the Speedwell, the one hired, the other purchased, *^^ ^f 
as many as could be accommodated prepared to take w /'° ™f '' e '? 
their final departure. Mr. Robinson and the main *»>"> t0 j«- 

ii • t i 'i i main/ 

body were to remain at Leyden until a settlement 
should be formed. 

4. 6 Assembled a 'at Delft Haven,* and kneeling in a. Aug. i. 
prayer on the seashore, their pious pastor commended %?£"neai 
them to the protection of Heaven, and gave them his De! {. c en IIa ' 
parting blessing. 7 A prosperous wind soon bore the 7. what 
Speedwell to Southampton,! where it was joined by currclfrmn 
the Mayflower, with the rest of the company from untuthe 
London. After several delays, and finally being ^l^^' 
obliged to abandon the Speedwell as unseaworthy, Pilgrim 

o t i t j 7 from Ens* 

part of the emigrants were dismissed, and the remain- land! 
der were taken on board the Mayflower, which, with 
one hundred and one passengers, sailed from Plymouth;}; s. What 11 
on the 16th of September. Sw&'SSS 

5. 8 After a long and dangerous voyage, on the 19th **%%$%'/' 

* Drift Haven the port or haven of Delf\ is on the north side of the river Maese, In 
Holland, 18 miios south from Leyden, and about fifteen miles from the sea. 

t Southampton, a town of England, is situated on an arm of the sea, or of the English 
Channel. It is 75 miles S.W. from London. 

t Plymouth, a larse town of Devonshire, in England, about 200 miles S.W. from Lon- 
don, and 130 from Southampton, stands between the rivers Plym and Tamar, rear their 
entrance into the English Channel. Plymouth is an important naval station and has 
one of the best harbors in England 



70 



COLONIAL HISTORY, 



[PART IL 



1020. 



I. Where did 
they first an- 
chor, and 
w/iat were 
their first 
proceed 
ings7 
2. Their 
leading 
men 7 
3. What par- 
ties were 
sent on 
shore, and 
xohy I 
4. What 
hardships 
were en- 
dured 7 
5. What dis- 
coveries 
were made 7 



S. What is 
said of the 
landing of 
the Pil- 
grims at 
Plymouth 7 

7. Of the 

anniversary 

of this 

event 7 



of November they descried the bleak and dreary shorea 
of Cape Cod, still far from the Hudson,* which they 
had selected as the place of their habitation. But the 
wintry storms had already commenced, and the dan- 
gers of navigation on an unknown coast, at that in- 
clement season, induced them to seek a nearer resting- 
plice. 

6. 'On the 21st they anchored in Cape Cod harbor, 
but, before landing, they formed themselves into a 
body politic, by a solemn contract, and chose John 
Carver their governor for the first year. 2 Their other 
leading men, distinguished in the subsequent history 
of the colony, were Bradford, Brewster, Standish, and 
Winslow. 3 Exploring parties were sent on shore to 
make discoveries, and select a place for a settlement. 
^Great hardships were endured from the cold and 
storm, and from wandering through the deep snow 
which covered the countiy. 

7. *A few Indians were seen, who fled upon the 
discharge of the muskets of the English ; a few graves 
were discovered, and, from heaps of sand, a number 
of baskets of corn were obtained, which furnished seed 
for a future harvest, and probably saved the infant 
colony from famine. *0n the 21st of December the 
harbor of Plymouthf was sounded, and being found 
fit for shipping, a party landed, examined the soil, and 
finding good water, selected this as the place for 
a settlement. 7 The 21st of December, corresponding 
with the 1 1th of December, Old Style, is the day which 
should be celebrated in commemoration of this im- 
portant event, as the anniversary of the landing of the 
Pilgrim Fathers. 



PLYMOUTH AND VIC. 




* The Hudson River, in New York, one of the best for nav 
igation in America, rises in the mountainous regions west of 
Lake Champlain, and after an irregular course to Sandy Hill 
its direction is nearly south, 200 miles by the river, to New York 
Bay, which lies between Long Island and New Jersey. The tide 
flows to Troy, 151 miles (by the river) from New York. 

t Plymouth, thus named from Plymouth in England, is now a 
village of about 5000 inhabitants. It is pleasantly situated en 
Plymouth harbor, 38 miles S.E. from Boston. The harbor is large, 
but shallow, and is formed by a sand beach extending three 
miles N.W. from the mouth of Eel River. In 1774 a part of the 
rock on which the Pilgrims landed was conveyed from the 
shore to a square in the centre of the village. 



OHaP. n.] MASSACHUSETTS. 71 

8. ' In a few days the Mayflower was safely moo red 1620. 
in the harbor. The buildings of the settlers progressed ~Y~o7thT 
slowly, through many difficulties and discouragements, c <"""' f »«- 
for many of the men were sick with colds and con- settlement. 
sumptions, and want and exposure rapidly reduced the jenngs&u- 
numbers of the colony. The governor lost a son at jintwimer J 
the first landing ; early in the spring his own health 

sunk under a sudden attack, and his wife soon followed 

him in death. The sick were often destitute of proper 

( are and attention ; the living were scarcely able to 

I'ury the dead ; and, at one time, there were only seven 

men capable of rendering any assistance. Before 

April forty-six had died. 2 Yet, with the scanty rem- z.uowwera 

nant, hope and virtue survived ; — they repined not in 't'lonslfrTe 

all their sufferings, and their cheerful confidence in the by l^f' 

mercies of Providence remained unshaken. 

9. 'Although a few Indians had been seen at a dis- 3 Qive an 
tance hovering- around the settlement, yet during- seve- account of 

o / J o tfte first 

ral months none approached sufficiently near to hold Indian visit 
any intercourse with the English. At length the lat- onyre- 
ler were surprised by the appearance, among them, of ceive ' 
an Indian named Samoset, who boldly entered 11 their a . Mai-ch 26. 
settlement, exclaiming in broken English, Welcome 
Englishmen ! Welcome Englishmen ! He had learned 
a little English among the fishermen who had visited 
the coast of Maine, and gave the colony much useful 
information. 

10. 4 He cordially bade the strangers welcome to the 4. what m 
soil, which, he informed them, had a few years before diasamoia 
been deprived of its occupants by a dreadful pestilence glve/ 
that had desolated the whole eastern seaboard of New 
Enq-land. 'Samoset soon after visited the colony, ac- 

" * 5. TV ho dC' 

companied by Squanto, a native who had been carried companied 
away by Hunt, in 1614, and sold into slavery, but who subsequent 
had subsequently been liberated and restored to his vim 

country. %)an°chilf 

11. *By the influence of these friendly Indians, Mas- vmsnextin 

t J *f / ducsd to 

sasoit, the great Sachem of the Wampanoags, the prin- visit me 

cipal of the neighboring tribes, was induced to visit ^^y,, 

the colony, where he was received 15 with much for- 7. cave an 

mality and parade. 7 A treaty of friendship Avas soon "^treaty 
concluded, 1 " the parties promising to deliver up offend- 



with ilJossa 
sou. 



72 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

1621. ers, and to abstain from mutual injuries ; the colony 
to receive assistance if attacked, and Massasoit, if at- 
tacked unjustly. This treaty was kept inviolate during 
a period of fifty years, until the breaking out of King 
Philip's War. 
LWhatiB 12. ^ther treaties, of a similar character, soon after 
,a ireati%T r followed. A powerful chieftain within the dominions 
of Massasoit, who at first regarded the English as in- 
truders, and threatened them with hostilities, was finally 

1622. compelled to sue for peace. 2 Canonicus, the chief of 

2. oj the Narragansetts, sent to Plymouth a bundle of ar- 

rows wrapped in a rattlesnake's skin, as a token of his 
hostility. The governor, Bradford, filled the skin with 
powder and shot and returned it ; but the chieftain's 
courage failed at the sight of this unequivocal symbol, 
which was rejected by every community to which it 
was carried, until at last it was returned to Plymouth, 
with all its contents. The Narragansetts were awed 
into submission. 

3. of 13. 3 In 1622, Thomas Weston, a merchant of Lon- 
%%nyi s don, sent out a colony of sixty adventurers, who spent 

most of the summer at Plymouth, enjoying the hospi- 
tality of the inhabitants, but afterwards removed to 
4. character Weymouth,* where they began a plantation. 4 Being 
^dconduct soon reduced to necessity by indolence and disorder, 
tattlers? an d having provoked the Indians to hostilities by their 
injustice, the latter formed a plan for the destruction 
of the settlement. 

1623. 14. s But the grateful Massasoit having revealed the 
6. how were design to the Plymouth colony, the governor sent Cap- 

/r»«rie ed tain Standish with eight men to aid the inhabitants of 
struction? Weymouth. With his small party Standish intercept- 
ed and killed the hostile chief, and several of his men, 

6. miat was and the conspiracy was defeated. *The Weymouth 
thepfanta- Plantation was soon after nearly deserted, most of the 

ton? settlers returning to England. 

7. what was 15. 7 The London adventurers, who had furnished 
'ofthe n Lon- tne Plymouth settlers with capital, soon becoming dis- 
donaaven- couraged by the small returns from their investments, 

not only deserted the interests of the colony, but did 

* Weymouth, called by the Indians T} r essa<russett, is a small village between two 
uranches of the outer harbor of Boston, 12 miles S.E. from the city. (See Map, p, 74.1 



I5HAP. n.l MASSACHUSETTS. 73 

much to injure its prosperity. They refused tc furnish 1624. 
Robinson and his friends a passage to America, at- 
tempted to enforce on the colonists a clergyman more 
friendly to the established church, and even dispatched 
a ship to injure their commerce by rivalry. 'At last, 1G2G. 
the emigrants succeeded in purchasing 1 the rights of a . Nov. 
the London merchants; they made an equitable divi- i- Whatdfd 
sion of their property, which was before in common grams do, 
stDck ; and although the progress of population was said'o/the 
slow, yet. after the first winter, no fears were enter- pe 'of t Te nce 
tained of the permanence of the colony. colony? 

III. Massachusetts Bay Colony. — 1 9 In 1624, Q.mvea>i 
Mr. White, a Puritan minister of Dorchester,* in Eng- ^Smp*- 
land, having induced a number of persons to unite e ^ni% 
with him in the design of planting another colony in vapeAnn. 
New England, a small company was sent over, who 
began a settlement at Cape Ann.f This settlement, 
however, was abandoned after an existence of less than 
two years. _ 

2. 3 In 162S, a patent was obtained b from the coun- 

•i frjl Ji I 1 t I>. March 29. 

cii ol l J Iymoutn, and a second company was sent over, 3 f the 
under the charge of John Endicott, which settled at settlement 

r. i _l i ■ *? i r r . i r r-< °f Salem. 

baleiu.j to which place a few .of tae settlers of Lape c . sopt. 
Ann had previously removed. 4 In the following year 1G29. 
the proprietors received 1 ' a charter from the king, and J- March u 
were incorporated by the name of the " Governor and ^em^oe- 
Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England." tuefMmo- 
About 200 additional settlers came* over, a part of **s veari 
whom removed to and founded Charlestown.^ tf"n 

3. s During the year 1G30, the Massachusetts Bay 5 n ~„ a[ ' co . 
colony received a lar^e accession to its numbers, by ce^iois 
the arrival' of about three hundred families, mostly to thecal- 

, . ,,. t-» • i i e I omj in 1630? 

pious and intelligent Puritans, under the charge of the f . j u | y . 

* Dorchester, in England, is situated on the small river Froom, 23 miles from its en- 
trance into th; English Channel, six miles N. from Weymouth, and 120 S.W. from 
London. 

t Cape .Inn. the northern cape of Massachusetts Bay. is 31 miles N.E. from Boston. 
The cape and peninsula are now included in the town of Gloucester. Gloucester, tne 
principal village, called also the Harbor, is finely located on the south side of the pe- 
ninsula. 

t Sn/cm. called by the Indians Nn-um-keair, is 14 miles N.E. from Boston. It is built 
on a sandy peninsula, formed l>\ two inlets of the sea. called Xorth and South Rivers. 
The harbor, which is in South River, is good lor vessels druwng not more than 12 oi 11 
feet of water. (See Map, p. 74.) 

$ See Note on oage 78. Map, p. 74, and also on p. 210. 

4 



74 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART B 



1630. 

1. What 
other events 
occurred at 
the same 
time?. 
2. Where did 
the new em- 
igrants set- 
tle? 
3. What is 
said of the 
first settle- 
ment of 
Boston? 

4. Of the 

m.fferin'-'sof 
the settlers? 



5. What is 
said of those 
w/io re- 
mained? 



excellent John Winthrop. "At the same time the 
whole government of the colony was removed to New 
England, and Winthrop was chosen governor. 

4. 2 The new emigrants located themselves beyond 
the limits of Salem, and settled at Dorchester,* Rox- 
bury,| Cambridge,! and Watertown.^ 3 The acci- 
dental advantage of a spring of good water induced 
a few families, and with them the governor, to settle 
on the peninsula of Shawmut ; and Boston || thenceforth 
became the metropolis of New England. 

5. 4 Many of the settlers were from illustrious and 
noble families, and having been accustomed to a life 
of ease and enjoyment, their sufferings from exposure 
and the failure of provisions were great, and, before 
December, two hundred had died. A few only, dis- 
heartened by the scenes of woe, returned to England. 
5 Those who remained were sustained in their afflic- 
tions by religious faith and Christian fortitude ; — not a 
trace of repining appears in their records, and sickness 
never prevented their assembling at stated times for 
religious worship. 



* That part of Dorchester which was first settled, is Dorchester Neck, about four 
miles S.E. from Boston. (See Map, p. 210.) 

t Roxbury village is two miles south from Boston. Its principal street may be con- 
sidered as the continuation of Washington Street, Boston, extending over Boston Neck. 
A great part of the town is rocky land : hence the name, Rock' s-bury . (Map.) 

+ Cambridge, formerly called Newtown, is situated on the north side of Charles 
River, three miles N.W. from Boston. The courthouse and jail are at East Cambridge, 
formerly called Lcchmerc's Point, within 






laldexiV; 





^* *VSod/Qiuncyo/-J' 77 
^ VICINITY/'' '-^S n 



, -:" ; ' 1 ! 



Vf 



f 



a mile of Boston, and connected wiih it 
and Charlestown by bridges. Harvard Col- 
lege, the first established in the United 
States, is at Cambridge. (Map.) (See also 
Map. p. 210.) 

$ ffatertown village is on the north side 
of Charles River, west of Cambridge, and 
seven miles from Boston. (Map.) 

|| Boston, the largest town in New Eng- 
land, and the capital of Massachusetts, is 
situated on a peninsula of an uneven sur- 
face, two miles long and about one mile 
wide, connected with the mainland, on 
the south, by a narrow neck about forty 
rods across. Several bridges also now 
connect it with the mainland on the north- 
west, and south. The harbor, on the easl 
of the city, is very extensive, and is one 
of the best in the United States. South 
Boston, formerly a part of Dorchester, and 
East Boston, formerly Noddles Island, are 
now included within the limits of the city 
'Also see Map on p. 210.) 



CHAP n. MASSACHUSETTS. 75 

6. l In 1631 the general court, or council of the peo- 1631. 
pie, ordained 4 that the governor, deputy-governor, and * wtuaTes . 

assistants, should be chosen by the freemen alone ; but uiatton* 
ait the same time it was declared that tnose only should °a *« iscsi? 
be admitted to the full rights of citizenship, who were *• May 28- 
members of some church within the limits of the 
colony.* 2 This law has been severely censured for its 2 H owhas 
intolerance, by those who have lived in more enligrit- tnuiawof 

. ■, ■ ■ • i ■ t_ i exclusion 

cned times, bat it was in strict accordance AVith the been regard 

,. , ' .... i-ii r ed,andwhai 

pcdicy and the spirit ol the age, and with the proles- issaidofui 
sions of the Puritans themselves, and originated in the 
purest motives. 

7. 3 In 1634 the pure democratic form of government, 1634. 
which had hitherto prevailed, was changed b to a repre- ctomgetn 
sentative democracy, by which the powers of legisla- *^j£Jwb 
tion were entrusted to deputies chosen by the people. m ' 1 f 3 e i i n 
4 In the same year the peculiar tenets of Roger Wil- t>. May. 
liams, minister of Salem, be^an to occasion much ex- 4 - ^''ffJ 3 
citement in the colony. A Puritan, and a fugitive from R°? er l ™ 
English persecution, Roger Williams had sought, in 

New England, an asylum among those of his own 
creed ; but finding there, in matters of religion, the 
same kind of intolerance that prevailed in England, he 
earnestly raised his voice against it. 

8. s He maintained that it is the duty of the civil 5. of im 
magistrate to give equal protection to all religious p,inctples ' 
sects, and that he has no right to restrain or direct the 
consciences of men, or, in any way, interfere with 

their modes of worship, or the principles of their re- 
ligious faith. *But with these doctrines of religious 6 . m„ t 
tolerance he united others that were deemed subver- ¥wm&te' 
sive of good government, and opposed to the funda- advancet 
mental principles of civil society. Such were those 
which declared it wrong to enforce ;in oath of alle- 
giance to the sovereign, or of obedience to the magis- 
trate, and which asserted that the king had no right to 
usurp the power of disposing of the territory of the 
Indians, and hence that the colonial charter itself was 
invalid. 

* Note. — But when New Hampshire united with Massachusetts in 1641, not as a 
province, but on equal terms, neither the freemen nor the deputies of Ntw Hampshire 
were tequired to be church members. 



76 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART D. 

1635. 9. Such doctrines, and particularly those which 
ilidioieere related to religious toleration, were received with 
'h ! ! ,? c , ! , rinai alarm, and Roger Williams, after having been in vain 

of U iltiams * o ( / o 

revived, remonstrated with by the ruling elders of the churches, 

and what is 3 , e J , i i /- ■ i 

said of his was summoned betore the general court, and, hnaily, 
mend banished 11 from the colony. He soon after became 
a 'of "eT" tne fo un der of Rhode Island. b 

o.seep.m. 10. 2 During the same year, 1635, three thousand 

new settlers came over, among whom were Hugh 

\-}} liat i lit Peters and Sir Henry Vane, two individuals who 

ZUional set- . J , i 

tiers came afterwards acted conspicuous parts in the history of 

ovei in 1635. . . . TT r l j 

ma what is jimgiand. Sir Henry Vane, then at the age of twenty- 
8 peters five, gained the affections of the people by his integ- 
rity, humility, and zeal in religion ; and, in the fol- 
lowing year, was chosen governor. 
3. Give an 1 1- 3 Already the increasing numbers of the colo- 
r/If °e X mis°ra- n i $ts began to suggest the formation of new settle- 
tionto'the mS nts still farther westward. The clustering villages 

Connecti- i i i ° ' ° 

cut J around the Bay of Massachusetts had become too 
numerous and too populous for men who had few at- 
tachments to place, and who could choose their abodes 
from the vast world of wilderness that lay unoccupied 
before them ; and, only seven years from the planting 
c. Oct. 25. of Salem, we find a little colony branching off from 
Bee p. io . ^ e p aren t stock, and wending its way through the 
forests, nearly a hundred miles, to the banks of the 
Connecticut.* 
1636. 12. 4 Severe were the sufferings of the emigrants 
wid'of'the during the first winter. Some of them returned, 
* u fhee n m-^ through the snow, in a famishing state ; and those who 
grants? remained subsisted on acorns, malt, and grains ; but, 
during the summer following, new emigrants came in 
larger companies, and several settlements were firmly 
5. iTOa? is established. 5 The display of Puritan fortitude, enter- 
Te th£e k nfer? P r i se > anc ^ resolution, exhibited in the planting of the 
prise? Connecticut colony, are distinguishing traits of New 
England character. From that day to the present the 

* Connecticut River, the largest river in New England, has its source in the high- 
lands on the northern border of New Hampshire. Its general course is S. by W., and 
after forming the boundary between Vermont and New Hampshire, and passing through 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, it enters Long Island Sound, 100 miles N.E. from New 
York. It is not navigi ble for the largest vessels. Hartford, fifty miles from its mouth, 
Is at the head of sloop aavigation. 



CHAP. D.] MASSACHUSETTS. 77 

hardy sons of New England have been foremost among 1636. 
the bold pioneers of western emigration. 

13. 'Soon after the banishment of Roger Williams, x mm twas 
other religious dissensions arose, which again (lis- "^"/^ 
turbed the quiet of the colony. It was customary for giouaaia- 

,, i r i • ii- sensions 

the memters ot each congregation to assemble in which orou 
weekly meetings, and there debate the doctrines they 
had heard the previous Sunday, for the purpose of ex- 
tending their sacred influence through the week. As 
women were debarred the privilege of taking part in 
these debates, a Mrs. Hutchinson, a woman of elo- 
quence and ability, established meetings for those of 
her own sex, in which her zeal and talent soon pro 
cured her a numerous and admiring audience. 

14. T.iis woman, from being an expounder of the s. what 
doctrines of others, soon began to teach new ones ; she u^Huteh- 
assumed the right of deciding upon the religious faith lmonlakeJ 
of the clergy and the people, and, finally, of censuring 

and condemning those who rejected, or prolcssed them- 
selves unable to understand her peculiar tenets. 3 She 3. By whom 
was supported by Sir Henry Vane, the governor, by wa p f c e J" p ' 
several of the magistrates, and men of learning, and 
by a majority of the people of Boston. 4 She was op- 1637. 
posed by most of the clergy, and by the sedate and ^opposed? ■ 
more judicious men of the colony. 8 At length, in a 5 mat js 
general s^ nod 1 of the churches, the new opinions were "^"f]!? 
condemned as erroneous and heretical, and the general menii 
court soon after issued a decree of banishment against *• Aug- 
Mrs. Hutchinson and several of her followers. 

15. 'During the same year occurred an Indian war b 6. of the 
in Connecticut, with the Pequods, the most warlike of tomi 
the New England tribes. The Narragansetts of t. seep, 105. 

1 . . 7 Of the 

Rhode Island, hereditary enemies of the Pequods, Kanagan- 
were invited to unite with them in exterminating the 
invaders of their country; but, through the influence 
of Roger Williams, they rejected the proposals, and, 
lured by the hope of gratifying their revenge for for- 
mer injuries, they determined to assist the English 
in the prosecution of the war. The result of the 8 . what was 
brief contest was the total destruction of the Penuod J^ r £nttt$ 
nation. The impression made upon the other tribes c.see*>.io« 
secured a long tranquillity to the English settlements. 



78 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART U. 

16J87 16. ir The persecutions which the Puritans in Eng- 
1. what is ^ an( i suffered, during this period, induced large num- 
sakioft/te Ders f them to remove to New England. But the 

attempts in , ° 

England ti tealousy of the English monarch, and ot the English 

prevent etini- i . , ^ , °. ,, ', ., s - 

grationi bishops, was a length aroused by the rapid growth ol 
a Puritan colony, in which sentiments adverse to the 
claims of the established church and the prerogatives 
of royalty were ardently cherished ; and repeated at- 
tempts were made to put a stop to farther emigratior. 
As early as 1633, a proclamation to that effect was 
issued, but the vacillating policy of the king neglected 
to enforce it. 
1638. 17. 2 In 1638 a fleet of eight ships, on board of which 
%urredin were some of the most eminent Puritan leaders and 
less? patriots, was forbidden to sail, by order of the king's 
council ; but the restraint was finally removed, and 



s. what has the ships proceeded on their intended voyage. 3 It has 
ITwHhre- been asserted, and generally believed, that the dis- 
jfmnpden tinguished patriots John Hampden and Oliver Crom- 
and Jeii? n ~ we ^ were on board of this fleet, but were detained by 
4. what u special order of the king. *If the assertion be correct, 
"asfenion? m is assumption of arbitrary power by the king was a 
fatal error ; for the exertions of Hampden and Crom- 
well, in opposing the encroachments of kingly au- 
thority, afterwards contributed greatly to the further- 
ance of those measures which deprived Charles I. of 
his crown, and finally brought him to the scaffold, 
s. what is 18. 5 The settlers of Massachusetts had early turned 
ucat'lonin their attention to the subject of education, wisely judg- 
umi, ana ? of m o tnai learning and religion would be the best safe- 
togaf 1 Har- g uaras 0I * tne commonwealth. In 1636 the general 
varaoti- court appropriated about a thousand dollars for the 
purpose of founding a pxiblic school or college, and, in 
the following year, directed that it should be established 
at Newtown. In 1638, John Harvard, a worthy min- 
ister, dying at Charlestown,* left to the institution up- 
wards of three thousand dollars. In honor of this 

* Charlestown is situated on a peninsula, north of and about half as large as that of 
Boston, formed by Mystic River on the N„ and an inlot from Charles River on the S. 
The channel between Charlestown and Boston is less than half a mile across, over 
which bridges have been thrown. The United States Navy Yard, located at Charles 
town, covers about 60 acres of land. It is one of the best naval depflts in the Union. 
(See Map, p. 74, and also Map, p. 210.) 



mitted i 
1G48. 



CHAP. n.J MASSACHUSETTS. 7y 

pious benefactor the general court gave to the school 1C3§. 
the name of Harvard College ; and, in memory of the — 
place where many of the settlers of New England had 
received their education, that part of Newtown in which 
the college was located, received the name of Cam- 

Virirlo-p o- a - No,e an(1 

Ullu 6 u Map, p. 74. 

IV. Union of the New England Colonies. — 1. 'In 1643. 
1643 the colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Plym- JktonqftiH 
outh, and New Haven, formed b themselves into one ftw 

? i land Colo- • 

confederacy, hy the name of The United Colonies niesl 
of Neav England. 2 The reasons assigned for this 2 T ^ f ea 
union were, the dispersed state of the colonies; the sons /or this 
dangers apprehended from the Dutch, the French, and 
the Indians ; the commencement of civil contests in 
the parent country ; and the difficulty of obtaining aid 
from that quarter, in any emergency. 3 A few years 3. why wm 
later Rhode Island petitioned to be admitted into the a nd°mJ%- 
confederacy, but was refused, because she was un- 
willing to consent to what was required of her, an 
incorporation with the Plymouth colony. 

2. 4 By the terms of the confederacy, which existed 4. ivhat 
more than forty years, each colony was to retain its termsofthe 
separate existence, but was to contribute its proportion c,i 'aqff T ' 
of men and money for the common defence ; which, 
with all Matters relating to the common interest, was 
to be decided in an annual assembly composed of two 
commissioners from each colony. 'This transaction 5. wnatia 
of the colonies was an assumption of the powers of S natureqf 
sovereignty, and doubtless contributed to the formation th a C [[„ a ,iT 
of that public sentiment which prepared the way for 
American Independence. 

V. Early Laws and Customs. — 1. 6 As the laws e. o/em-iy 
and customs of a people denote the prevailing senti- S&»Sl 
ments and opinions, the peculiarities of early New 
England legislation should not be wholly overlooked. 

7 By a fundamental law of Massachusetts it was enacted 7. what wa» 
that all strangers professing the Christian religion, and mental law 
fleeing to the country, from the tyranny of their per- % z ^^j 
secutors, should be supported at the public charge till 

* Note. — The Plymouth commissioners, for want of authority from their general 
court, did not sign trie articles until Sept. 17th. 



1. But hoio 

was it who were subjected to banishment; and, in case of 

limited/ ■> i.i 

their return, to death. 



80 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART n 

1643. other provision could be made for tlum. 1 Yet this 
toleration did not extend to Jesuits and pcpish priests, 

Untiled i 

2 'sl)dof' 3 2. ^Defensive war only was considered justifiable ; 

'"biawke- blasphemy, idolatry, and witchcraft, were punishable 

nty," &c.J with death; all gaming was prohibited; intemper- 

" I itiee% a *' ance ) anc ^ a ^ immoralities, were severely punished : 

"Money persons were forbidden to receive interest for moi ey 

loaned." J en ^ anc { to wear expensive apparel unsuitable to their 

tiJnt'fcTi- estates: parents were commanded to instruct and cat- 

drem" echise their children and servants ; and, in all cases 

" I'M,?* in which the laws were found defective, the Bible Avas 

made the ultimate tribunal of appeal. 
3. what 3. 3 Like the tribes of Israel, the colonists of New 
C i"/w''e'ob? England had forsaken their native land after a long 
served! an j severe bondage, and journeyed into the wilderness 
4. what did for the sake of religion. 4 They endeavored to cherish 
'end^avor'l a resemblance of condition so honorable, and so fraught 
che howf" d with incitements to piety, by cultivating a conformity 
between their laws and customs, and those which had 
s. mmt?e- aistinguished the people of God. 6 Hence arose some 
hencearose? of the peculiarities which have been observed in their 
legislative code ; and hence arose also the practice of 
commencing their sabbatical observances on Saturday 
evening, and of accounting every evening the com- 
mencement of the ensuing day. 
s. mint is 9- e ' The same predilection for Jewish customs be- 
'vainL'of g at > or at least promoted, among them, the habit of 
children? bestowing significant rimes on children; of whom, 
the first three that were bap.tized in Boston church, 
received the names of Joy, Recompense, and Pity.' 
This custom prevailed to a great extent, *nd such 
names as Faith, Hope, Charity, Patience. &c, and 
others of a similar character, were long prevalent 
throughout New Eno-land. 



chap, n.] 




SECTION II. 



DIVISIONS. 

C Events from the " Union " to King 
Philip's War. — II. King Philip's 
War. — III. Controversies and Royal 
Tyranny. — IV. Massachusetts during 
King William's War. 

1. Events from the " Union" to King Philip s 
War. — 1. J In 1644 an important change took place 
in the government of Massachusetts. When repre- 
sentatives were first chosen, they sat and voted in 
the same room with the governor's council ; but it 
was now ordained that the governor and his council 
should sit apart ; and thence commenced the separate 
existence of the democratic branch of the legislature, 
or house of representatives. 2 During the same year 
the disputes which had long existed between the in- 
habitants of New England and the French settlers in 
Acadia were adjusted by treaty. 1 

2. 3 During the civil war b which occurred in Eng- 
land, the New England colonies were ardently at- 
tached to the cause of the Parliament, but yet they had 
so far forgotten their own wrongs, as sincerely to la- 
ment the tragical fate of the king. 4 After the aboli- 
tion of royalty, a requisition was made upon Massa- 
chusetts for the return of her charter, that a new one 
might be taken out under the authorities which then 
held the reins of government. Probably through the 
influence of Cromwell the requisition was not enforced. 
'When the supreme authority devolved upon Crom- 
well, as Protector of the Commonwealth of England, 
the New England colonies found in him an ardent 
friend, and a protector of their liberties. 

3. 8 In 1652 the province of Maine* was taken 



1614 

1. What 
change in 
the govern- 
ment occur- 
red in 1644 ? 



2. What dis- 
putes were 
adjusted 1 



a. Oct. 13. 
o. Note p. 6. 

3. Wiiat is 
said of Mas- 

sach uset's 
during tlie 
civil war in 
England/ 
c. 1651. 

4. After the 
abolition of 

royalty I 



5. During 

the 
Common- 
wealth > 

1652. 

6. Give an 
account of 

the early 

history cf 

Maine. 



* MAINE, the northeastern of the United States, is supposed to contain an area of 
nearly 35,01)0 square miles. In the north and northwest the country is mountainous, 
und has a poor soil. Throughout the interior it is generally hilly, and the land rises so 
rapidly from the seacoast, that the tide in the numerous rivers flows but a short distunce 
Inland. The best land In the state Is between the Penobscot and Kennebec rivt>rs, 
whore It is exeeWent. The o<»ast is lined with Islands, aiwl indented with numerous 

4 * 



62 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

1652. under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. As early as 
1626 a few feeble settlements were commenced along 
the coast of Maine, but hardly had they gained a per 
minent existence, before the whole territory, from the 
Piscatarua* to the Penobscot, was granted away by 
the Plymouth Company, by a succession of conflicting 
patents, which were afterwards the occasion cf long- 
continued and bitter controversies, 
a. April 13. 4. il n 1639 Ferdinand Gorges, a member of the 
said of got- Plymouth Company, obtained 1 a royal charter, con- 
s fci^ 'of stituting him Lord Proprietor of the country. The 
e °nmti stately scheme of government which he attempted to 
establish was poorly suited to the circumstances of the 
people ; and they finally sought a refuge from anarchy, 
and the contentions of opposing claimants to their ter- 
ritory, by taking into their own hands the powers of 
b. 1652. government, and placing b themselves under the pro- 

tection of a sister colony. 

1656. 5. 2j.n 1656 occurred the first arrival of Quakers in 
i a%lmi l of Massachusetts, a sect which had recently arisen in 
AfeSt^ England. The report of their peculiar sentiments and 
setts? actions had preceded them, and they were sent back 
by the vessels in which they came. 3 The four united 
lawsaiahist colonies then concurred in a law 6 prohibiting the in- 
c '1657. traduction of Quakers, but still they continued to arrive 
in increasing numbers, although the rigor of the law 
1658. was increased against them. At length, in 1658, by 
the advice of the commissioners of the four colonies, 
the legislature of Massachusetts, after a long discus- 
sion, and by a majority of a single vote, denounced 
the punishment of death upon all Quakers returning 
from banishment. 
4. what was 6. 4 The avowed object of the law was not to perse- 
obfeefo}7he cute the Quakers, but to exclude them; and it was 
too.fi6.58? t h ou? ht that its severity would be effectual. «But the 

6. What was ° J 

its eject? fear of death had no influence over men who believed 
they were divinely commissioned to proclaim ie sin- 
bays and inlets, which furnish mors good harbors than are found in any other state ia 
the Union. 

* The Piscataqita rises between Maine and New Hampshire, and throushout its whole 
course, of forty miles, constitutes the boundary between the two states. That part of the 
stream above Berwick Falls, is called Sa'mon Falls river. Great Bay, with its trib- 
utaries, Lamprey, Exeter, Oyster River, and other streams, ignites with it on thB south, 
five miles above Portsmouth (See Map, p. 1G1 ) 



CHAP. II.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



83 



fulness of a dying people ; and four of those who had 
been banished, were executed according to the law, — 
rejoicing in their death, and refusing to accept a par- 
don, which was vainly urged upon thern, on condition 
of their abandoning the colony for ever. 

7. l During the trial of the last who suffered, another, 
who had been banished, entered the court, and re- 
proached the magistrates for shedding innocent blood. 
2 The prisons were soon filled with new victims, who 
eageiiy crowded forward to the ranks of martyrdom ; 
but, as a natural result of the severity of the law, pub- 
lic sympathy was turned in favor of the accused, and 
the law was repealed.* The other laws were relaxed, 
as the Quakers gradually became less ardent in the 
promulgation of their sentiments, and more moderate 
in their opposition to the usages of the people. 

8. 3 Tidings of the restoration of monarchy in Eng- 
land were brought by the arrival, 13 at Boston, of two 
of the judges who had condemned Charles I. to death, 
and who now fled from the vengeance of his son. 
These judges, whose names were Edward Whalley 
and William Goffe, were kindly received by the peo- 
ple ; and when orders were sent, and messengers ar- 
rived for their arrest, they were concealed from the 
officers of the law, and were enabled to end their days 
in New England. 

9. 4 The commercial restrictions from which the 
New England colonies were exempt during the time 
of the Commonwealth, were renewed after the restora- 
tion. The harbors of the colonies were closed against 
all but English vessels ; such articles of American 
produce as were in demand in England were forbid- 
den to be shipped to foreign markets ; even the liberty 
of free trade among the colonies themselves was 
taken away, and they were finally forbidden to man- 
ufacture, for their own use, or for foreign markets, 
those articles which would come in competition with 
English manufactures. 5 These restrictions were the 
subject of frequent complaints, and could seldom be 
strictly enforced ; but England would never repeal 
them, and they became a prominent link in the chain 
of causes which led to the revolution. 



1659. 



1GG0. 

1. What oc- 
curred at tht 

trial of the 
last who buf- 
fered? 

2. What wt*i 
the. final re- 
sult of tlH.se 

proceed- 



1661. 



3. What is 

said of the 
judges of 
Charles 1. 1 

b. An?. 6, 
1660. 



1661. 



4. Give an 
account of 
Vie restric- 
tions upon 
New Eng- 
land com- 
merce. 



5. Were. Vies 
restrictions 
enforced) 



84 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1664. 

1664. 

a. Aug. 2. 
I. What is 
said of the 
arrival of 
royal com- 
missioners 

in New 
England i 
2. How J oas 

this mea- 



9. In Maine 
and N. H. 1 
In Conn., 
Plymouth, 
and R. I. } 



i. What was 
the conduct 
of Massa- 
chusetts 1 



5. What was 
the result 1 



6. What is 
said of tlie 
treatij with 
Massasoit i 
b. See p. 71. 
c. 1662. 
7. Of the 
two sons of 
Maaasoitf 



d, 1662. 

8. Wiiathas 
been said of 

Philip by 
the early N. 

England 
historians ? 



6. By later 
writersi 



10. 'In . 664 a royal fleet, destined for the reduction 
of the Dutch colonies on the Hudson, arrived 1 at Bos- 
ton, bringing - commissioners who were instructed to 
hear and determine all complaints that might exist in 
New England, and take such measures as they might 
deem expedient for settling the peace and security of 
the country on a solid foundation. 2 Most of the New 
England colonies, ever jealous of their liberties, viewed 
this measure with alarm, and considered it a violation 
of their charters. 

11. 3 In Maine and New Hampshire the commis- 
sioners occasioned much disturbance ; in Connecticut 
they were received with coldness*; in Plymouth with 
secret opposition ; but, in Rhode Island, with every 
mark of deference and attention. 4 Massachusetts 
alone, although professing the most sincere loyalty to 
the king, asserted with boldness her chartered rights. 
and declining to acknowledge the authority of the 
commissioners, protested against its exercise within her 
limits. 5 In general, but little attention was paid to the 
acts of the commissioners, and they were at length re- 
called. After their departure, New England enjoyed 
a season of prosperity and tranquillity, until the break- 
ing out of King Philip's war, in 1675. 

II. King Philip's War. — 1. 6 The treaty of friend- 
ship which the Plymouth colony made 1 ' with Massa- 
soit, the great sachem of the Wampanoags, was kept 
unbroken during his lifetime. 7 After his death, his 
two sons, Alexander and Philip, were regarded with 
much jealousy by the English, and were suspected of 
plotting against them. The elder brother, Alexander, 
soon dying,' 1 Philip succeeded him. 

2. 8 It is said by the early New England historians, 
that this chief, jealous of the growing power of the 
whites, and perceiving, in it, the eventual destruction 
of his own race, during several years secretly carried 
on his designs of uniting all the neighboring tribes in 
a warlike confederacy against the English. 9 By later, 
and more impartial writers, it is asserted that Philip 
received the news of the death of the first Englishmen 
who were killed, with so much sorrow as to cause him 
to ween : and that he was forced into the war by the 



CHAP, n.] 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



85 



a. 1674. 
1. Give an 
account of 
Hie com- 
<menceme.rH 
of King 
Philip's 
war. 



1675. 

b. July 4. 



2. Of the 
pursuit of 
the enemy. 



ardor of his young* men, against his own judgment, luff<|» 
and that of his chief counsellors. 

3. 'A friendly Indian missionary, who "had detected 
the supposed plot, and revealed it to the Plymouth 
people, was, soon after, found murdered. 11 Three In- 
dians were arrested, tried, and convicted of the murder, 
— one of whom, at the execution, confessed they had 
been instigated by Philip to commit the deed. Philip, 
now encouraged by the general voice of his tribe, and 
seeing no possibility of avoiding the war, sent his wo- 
men and children to the Narragansetts for protection, 
and, early in July, 1675, made an attack b upon Swan- 
zey,* and killed several people. 

4. 8 The country was immediately alarmed, and the 
troops of Plymouth, with several companies from Bos- 
ton, marched in pursuit of the enemy. A few Indians 
were killed, the troops penetrated to Mount Hope,t the 
residence of Philip, but he and his warriors fled at 
their approach. 3 It being known that the Narragan- 
setts favored the cause of Philip, and it being feared 
that they would join him in the war, the forces pro- 
ceeded into the Narragansett country, where they 
concluded a treaty of peace with that tribe. 

5. 4 During the same month the forces of Philip were 
attacked d in a swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton,! but 
the whites, after losing sixteen of their number, were 
obliged to withdraw. They then attempted to guard 
the avenues leading from the swamp, in the hope of 
reducing the Indians by starvation ; but, after a siege 
of thirteen days, the enemy contrived to escape in the 
night across an arm of the bay, and most of them, with 
Philip, fled westward to the Connecticut River, where 
they had previously induced the Nipmucks,§ a tribe 
in the interior of Massachusetts, to join them. 

* Swanzey is a small village of Massachusetts, on a northern branch of Mount Hope 
Bay, (part of Narragansett Hav,) and is twelve miles S.E. from Providence, and about 
thirty-live S.W. from Plymouth. (See Map p. 112,) 

f Mount Nope, or Pokanokel, is a hill of a conical form, nearly 300 feet high, in fie 
present town of Bristol, Rhode Island, and on the west shore of Mount Dope Bay. The 
hill is two miles N.E. from Bristol Courthouse. The view from its summit is highly 
beautiful. (See Map, p. 112.) 

X Tiverton is in the Stale of Rhode Island, south from Mount Hope Bay, and having 
on the west the E'ist Passage of Narnigansett Bay. A stone bridge 1000 feet long con- 
nects the village, on the south, with the island of Rhode Island. The village is thir- 
teen miles N.E. from Newport, and sixteen in a direct line S.E. from Providence. The 
Swamp on Pocassot JVcak is seven miles long. (.See Map, p. 112.) 

$ The Nijnxucks occupied the country In the central and southern parts of Worc»» 



July. 



3. mat U 

said of the 

Xarragan 

set is i 



c. July 25. 

d. July 28. 
4. Give an 
account of 

Vie events at 

Tiverton, 

and of the 

flight of 

Philip. 



86 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

10T5. 6. 'The English, in the hope of reclaiming the Nip- 

j f the mucks, had sent Captains Wheeler and Hutchinson, 

events that with a party of twenty men, into their country, to treat 

happened at 1 'mi t J t i i . J i 

BmokMid. with them. I he Indians had agreed to meet them 
near Brookfield ;* but, lurking in ambush, they fell 
upon them as they approached, and killed most of the 

a. Aug. is. party. a 

._-„,. 7. 2 The remainder fled to Brookfield, and alarmed 

2. Of tht . . ' 

Hege at-jset the inhabitants, who hastily fortified a house for their 
? ' protection. Here they were besieged during two days, 
and every expedient which savage ingenuity could 
devise was adopted for their destruction. At one time 
the savages had succeeded in setting the building on 
fire, when the rain suddenly descended and extin- 
guished the kindling flames. On the arrival of a 
party to the relief of the garrison the Indians aban- 
doned the place. 

b. sept. 5. 8. 3 A few days later, 180 men attacked b the Indians 
curred a? in the southern part of the town of Deerfield,f killing 
DeerMidi twenty-six of the enemy, and losing ten of their own 

number. On the eleventh of September DeerJSeld was 

t At Had _ burned, by the Indians. 4 On the same day HadleyJ 

fe 2/ ? was alarmed in time of public worship, and the people 

thrown into the utmost confusion. Suddenly there 

appeared a man of venerable aspect in the midst of 

the affrighted inhabitants, who put himself at their 

head, led them to the onset, and, after the dispersion of 

the enemy, instantly disappeared. The deliverer of 

Hadley, then imagined to be an angel, was General 

i. see p. 83. Goffe, c one of the judges of Charles I., who was at 

that time concealed in the town. 
b At Bloody ^- 6 On the 28th of the same month, as Captain La- 
Brook? throp and eighty young men, with several teams, were 



* Brookfield is in Worcester cof-:.ty, Massachusetts, sixty miles W. from Boston, and 
twenty-five E. from Connecticut River. This town was long a solitary settlement, be- 
ing about halfway between the old towns on Connecticut River, and those on the east 
towards the Atlantic coast. The place of ambuscade was two or three miles west from 
the village, at a narrow passage between a steep hill and a thick swamp, at the head 
of Wickaboag Pond. 

t The town of D-eerfield is in Franklin county, Massachusetts, on the west bank of 
Connecticut River. Deerfield River runs through the town, and at its N.E. extremity 
enters the Connecticut. Tbe village is pleasantly situated on a plain, bordering on 
Docrfield River, separated from the Connecticut by a range of hills. (See Map, p. 87.) 

+ Hadley is on the east side of Connecticut River, three miles N'.E. fiom Northamp- 
vdj, with which It is co ".ected by a bridge 1080 feet long. (See Map, p. 87.) 



CHAP. a. | 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



87 



transporting a quantity of grain from Deerfield to 1675. 
Hadley, nearly a thousand Indians suddenly surround- 
ed them at a place since called Bloody Brook,* and 
killed nearly their whole number. The noise of the 
firing being heard at Deerfield, Captain Mosely, with 
seventy men, hastened to the scene of action. After a 
contes< of several hours he found himself obliged to 
retreat, when a reenforcement of one hundred English 
and sixty friendly Mohegan Indians, came to his as- 
sistance, and the enemy were at length repulsed with 
a heavy loss. 

10. 'The Springfieldf Indians, who had, until this 
period, remained friendly, now united with the enemy, 
with whom they formed a plot for the destruction of 
the town. The people, however, escaped to their 
garrisons, although nearly all their dwellings wei'e 
burned. 1 2 With seven or eight hundred of his men, 
Philip next made an attack b upon Hatfield,! tne 
head-quarters of the whites, in that region, but he met 
with a brave resistance and was compel- 
led to retreat. 

11. 3 Having accomplished all that 3. what was 
could be done on the western frontier 
of Massachusetts, Philip returned to the 
Narragansetts, most of whom he indu- 
ced to unite with him, in violation of their 
recent treaty with the English. 4 An army 4. wkatwm 
of 1500 men from Massachusetts, Ply- English? 
mouth, and Connecticut, with a number 
of friendly Indians", was therefore sent 
into the Narragansett country, to crush 
the power of Philip in that quarter. 



I. At 

Springfield) 



a. Oct. 15. 
2. At Hat- 
field I 

b. Oct. 29. 



the next 
movement 
of Philip! 



* Bloody Brook is a small stream in the southern part of the town 
of Deerfield. The place where Lathrop was surprised is now the 
small village of Muddy Brook, four or five miles from the village of 
Deerfield. (See Map.) 

t Springfield is in the southern part of Massachusetts, on the east 
side of the Connecticut River, twenty-four miles N. from Hartford, 
and ninety S.W. from Boston. The main street extends alone tho 
river two miles. Here is the most extensive public armory in the U. 
States. The Chickapee River, passing through the town, enters the 
Connecticut at Cabotsville, four miles north from Springfield. ',Seo 
Map.) 

X Hatfield is on the west side of the Connecticut, four or five mile> 
N. from Northampton. (Soe Map.) 



88 



COLONIAL HIE TORY. 



[PART n. 



1675. 

1. Give an 
account of 
the Karrd- 

pansett for- 
tress. 



a. Dec. 29. 
2. Of the 

attack- by the 
English. 



3. And the 
destruction 
oj the Nar- 
ragansclts. 



12. •In the centre of an immense swamp,* in the 
southern part of Rhode Island, Philip had strongly 
fortified himself, by encompassing- an island of several 
acres with high palisades, and a hedge of fallen trees; 
and here 3000 Indians, well supplied with provisions, 
had collected, with the intention of passing the winter 
2 Before this fortress the New England forces arrived 
on a cold stormy day in the month of December. Be- 
tween the fort and the mainland was a body of water 
over which a tree had been felled, and upon this, aa 
many of the English as could pass rushed with ardor; 
but they were quickly swept off by the fire of Philip's 
men. Others supplied the places of the slain, but 
again they were swept from the fatal avenue, and a 
partial, but momentary recoil took place. 

13. 3 Mean while a part of the army, wading through 
the swamp, found a place destitute of palisades, and 
although many were killed at the entrance, the rest 
forced their way through, and, after a desperate con- 
flict, achieved a complete victory. Five hundred wig- 
wams were now set on fire, although contrary to the 
advice of the officers ; and hundreds of women and 
children, — the aged, the wounded, and the infirm, 
perished in the conflagration. A thousand Indian 
warriors were killed, or mortally wounded ; and sev- 



NARRAGANSETT FORT AND SWAMP. 



* Explanation of the Map. — The Swamp, mentioned above, is a short distance 
S.W. from the village of Kingston, in the town of South Kingston, Washington county, 
Rhode Island. 

The Fort was on an island containing four or five acres, in the N.W. part of the swamp. 

a. The place where the English formed, whence they inarched upon the fort. 

b. A place at which resided an English family, of the name of Bubcock, at the time 

of the fight. Descendants of that fam- 
ily have resided on or near the spot 
ever since. 

c. The present residence (1845) of J. 
G. Clarke, Eso,.,whose father purchased 
the island on which the fort stood, in 
the year 1775, one hundred years after 
the battle. On ploughing the land soon 
after; besides bullets, bones, and va- 
rious Indian utensils, several bushels 
of burnt corn were found, — the reliques 
of the conflagration. It is said the In- 
dians had 500 bushels of corn in the 
stack. 

d. A piece of upland of about 200 
acres. 

e. The depot of the Stotiington and 
Providence Rail Road. The Rail Road 
crosses the swamp ir a S.W . directio a. 




-J •/ « 

;S| s. * 




CHAP. H.] MASSACHUSETTS. 89 

era. hundred were taken prisoners. ! Of the English, 1675. 

eighty were killed in the fight, and one hundred and , Wlmt js 

fifty were wounded. 2 The power of the Narragan- "g a °f. l l' e 

setts was broken, but the remnant of the nation re- loss? 

paired, with Philip, to the country of the Nipmucks, rfm/anftf 

nd still continued the war. %memj 

14. 3 It is said that Philip' soon after repaired to the 1676. 
country of the Mohawks, whom he solicited to aid him 3, whither 

J i T-i i • i l -i «tt- ■ did Philip 

against the .English, but without success. 4 riis 1.1- nextrepuiri 

fiuence was felt, however, among the tribes of Maine fjjp]^ 

and New Hampshire, and a general Indian war opened extent of 

„ , _ T * _ ' . o . r „ t r . his in flu- 

upon all the iNew England settlements. fi I lie unequal ence/ 

contest continued, with the ordinary details of savage %a°hVcon- 

warfare, and with increasing losses to the Indians, 'ff^ae™ 
until August of the following year, when the finishing 
stroke was given to it in the United Colonies by the 
death of Philip. 

15. 'After the absence of a year from the home of 6 Giveen 
his tribe, during which time nearly all his warriors ac pf,J',j'S°^ 
had fallen, and his wife and only son had been taken death. ant 

* tfic close of 

prisoners, the heart-broken chief, with a fe\v followers, the war. 
returned to Pokanoket. Tidings of his arrival were 
brought to Captain Church, who, with a small party, 
surrounded the place where Philip was concealed. 

The savage warrior attempted to escape, but was shot 1 a Aug ^ 
by a faithless Indian, an ally of the English, one of 
his own tribe, whom he had previously offended. The 
southern and western Indians now came in and sued 
for peace, but the tribes in Maine and New Hampshire 
continued hostile until 1678, when a treaty was con- 

1 1 li, -a ii b. April 22, 

eluded 1 ' with them. i«-s. 

111. Controversies, and Royal Tyranny. — 1. 7 In 1677. 

1677, a controversy which had long subsisted between LJ r *^£ 

Massachusetts and the heirs of Gorges, relative to the ciniwif 

province of Maine, was decided :jn England, in favor sen* to 

of the former ; and Massachusetts then purchased the tMay4 
claims of the heirs, both as to soil and jurisdiction. 

e In 168U, the claims of Massachusetts to New Hamp- 1680. 

shire were decided aq-ainst the former, and the two ,|- To * ew 

& . , ' . , r Hampshire. 

provinces were separated, much against the wishes ol 
the people of both. New Hampshire then became a 



90 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART D. 

16§0. royai province, over which was estaDiishea the first 

' royal government in New England. 

l " %^fo H ' ~- 'Massachusetts had ever resisted, as unjust and 

commercial^ illegal, the commercial restrictions which had been 

imposed upon the colonies ; and when a custom-house 

a. Randolph; officer was sent a over for the collection of duties, he 

b' 1 1632 was defeated in his attempts, and finally returned b to 

2. of a fa- England without accomplishing his object. 2 The king 

jeaof P t>°e seized the occasion for carrying out a project which he 

king} Yiad long entertained, that of taking into his own hands 

the governments of all the New England colonies. 

th-,ob/ectac : Massachusetts was accused of disobedience to the laws 

complin Q f E n p-land. and English judges, who held their cftices 

c June 28 / J o ' 

1684. ' at the pleasure of the crown, declared that she had 

d - Jjs*; 88 ' forfeited her charter. 4 The king died' 1 before he had 

4. Did the completed his scheme of subverting the charter govern- 

kl pifte C '™~ ments of the colonies, but his plans were prosecuted 

scheme? ^.j^ arc } or ^y ^fg brother and successor, James II. 

1686. 3. 5 In 1686 the charter government of Massachu- 

e Du3!ey h setts was ta -ken away, and a President, 6 appointed by 

5. what the king, was placed over the country from Narragan- 

iomrnment sett to Nova Scotia. 6 In December of the same year 

ece w}£f m Sir Edmund Andros arrived f at Boston, with a com- 

6- } J' /! f. is mission as royal governor of all New England. 

an-imi of 'Plymouth, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and 

f Dec°3o. Rhode Island, immediately submitted ; and, in a few 

7. His juris- months, Connecticut was added to his jurisdiction. 

8. His'vjran- 4. 8 The hatred of the people was violently excited 
mmenfand a S" amst Andros, who, on account of his arbitrary pro- 

returk to ceedings, was styled the tyrant of New England ; and 

England t o 7 ^ j j o ? 

g. April u. when, early in 1 689, tidings reached 5 Boston that the 
tyranny of James II. had caused a revolution in Eng- 
land, and that the king had been driven from his 
throne, and succeeded by William of Orange, the peo- 

h. Apif.cs. pie arose in arms, seized' 1 and imprisoned Andros and 
his officers and sent them to England, and established 
their former mode of government. 

IV. Massachusetts during King William's War. 

i-Wkatwtu — 1. 9 When James II. fled from England he re- 

Kingwiir paired to France, where his cause was espoused oy the 
French monarch. This occasioned a war between 
France and England, which extended to their colonial 



CHAP. IL| 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



91 



possessions in America, and continued from 1689 to 
the peace of Ryswick* in 1697. 

2. 'The opening of this war was signalized by sev- 
eral successful expeditions of the French and Indians 
against the northern colonies. In July, a 1689, a party 
of Indians surprised and killed Major Waldron and 
twenty of the garrison at Dover,f and carried twenty- 
nine of the inhabitants captives to Canada. In the 
following month an Indian war party, starting from 
the French settlement on the Penobscot, fell upon the 
English- fort at Pemaquid,;}; which they compelled to 
surrendei b 

3. Early in the following year, 1690, Schenectady^ 
was burned ; c the settlement at Salmon Falls, || on the 
Piscataqua, was destroyed ; d and a successful attack 
was made* on the fort and settlement at Casco Bay. 11 
2 In anticipation of the inroads of the French, Massa- 
chusetts had hastily fitted out an expedition, under Sir 
William Phipps, against Nova Scotia, which resulted 
in the easy conquesf of Port Royal. 



16S9. 



1. Hltat in- 
roads of tlie 
French and 
Indians 
opened tin. 

war I 
a. July 7 



b. Au?. 12. 

1690. 

c. Feb. IS, 
see p. 129. 

d. March 28, 

e. May 27. 

2. What suc- 
cessful expe- 
dition was 
sent against 
tlia French! 
f. May. 



VIC. OF PEMAQflD FORT. 



* Jtysicick is a small town in the west of Holland, two miles S.E. from Hague, and 
thirty-five S.W. from Amsterdam. 

t (See pages 100 and 101. 

tThe farfj.lPeinaqu.id, the most noted place in the early 
history of Maine, was in the present town of Bremen, on 
the east side of, and near the mouth of Pemaquid River, 
which separates the towns of Bremen and Bristol. It is 
about eighteen miles N.E. from the mouth of Kennebec 
River, -And forty N.E. from Portland. The fort was at first 
called rort George. In 1692 it was rebuilt of stone, by Sir 
William Phipps, and named Fort, William Henry. In 
1730 it was repaired, and called Fort Frederic. Three 




miles and a quarter south from the old fort is Pemaquid KM 
Point. (See Map,) 

§ Schenectady, an early Dutch settlement, is on the S. 
bank of Mohawk River, sixteen miles N.W. from Albany. 
The buildings of Union College are pleasantly situated on 
an eminence half a mile east from the city. (See Map, 
p. IIS.) 

|| The settlement formerly called Salmon Falls, is in the town of South Berwick 
Maine, on the east side of the Piscataqua or Salmon Falls River, seventeen miles N.W 
from Portsmouth. The Indian name by which it is often mentioned in history, is JVe- 
wichnicannoc. (See Map, p. 101.) vicinity of Portland 

IF Casco Bay is on the coast of Maine. S.W. from the mouth 
of the Kennebec River. It sets up between Cape Elizabeth on 
the S.W. and Cape Small Point on the N.E.. twenty miles apart, 
and contains 300 Islands, mostly small, but generally very pro- 
ductive. In 1090 the settlements extended around the western 
shore of the bay, and were embraced in what was then called 
the town of Falmouth. The fort and settlement mentioned 
above, were on a peninsula called Casco JVecA-, the site of the 
p.esent city of Portland. The fort, called Fort Loyal, was on 
the southwesterly shore of the peninsula, at the end of the 
present King Street. (See Map,) 



VA\y :. 




92 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART EL 

1090. 4. 'Late in the same year a more important enter- 
j C{ivean prise, the conquest of Canada, was undertaken by the 
account of people of New England and New York acting- in 

the ex pall- * " Q _ - _e> 

tion against concert. An armament, designed for the reduction of 
Quebec, was equipped by Massachusetts, and the 
command, of it given to Sir William Phipps ; while a 
land expedition was to proceed from New York against 
Montreal. The fleet proceeded up the St. Lawrence, 
and appeared before Quebec about the middle of Oc- 
tober ; but the land troops of New York having re- 

a. oeep.130. turned," Quebec had been strengthened by all the 

French forces, and now bade defiance to the fleet, 
2 what is which soon returned to Boston. 2 This expedition im- 
saj-io/the posed a heavy debt upon Massachusetts, and, for the 

debts incur- x » J , .',, r -.. ' . ' , , 

red by tim payment of troops, bills of credit were issued; — the 
expe i ion £ rst em j sg j on f ^ e ] cmc i m the American colonies. 

3. \ny v& 5. 3 Soon after the return of Sir William Phipps 
wK/ll'tand/ n ' om m is expedition, he was sent to England to re- 

1691. quest assistance in the further prosecution of the war, 
and likewise to aid other deputies of Massachusetts in 
applying for the restoration of the colonial charter. 

„. , 4 But in neither of these objects was he successful. 

i. Urate p , , . J . , . 

tucctssfuii Jiaigland was too much engaged at home to expend 
"not? y her treasures in the defence of her colonies; and the 
king and his counsellors were secretly averse to the 
liberality of the former charter. 

1692. 6. 6 Early in 1692 Sir William Phipps returned 1 " 

b. May 2i. \\'\\}a. a new charter, which vested the appointment of 
account "of governor in the king, and united Plymouth, Massa- 
lilhiuent'of chusetts, Maine, and Nova Scotia, in one royal gov- 
TU eimifcnt eminent. Plymouth lost her separate government 

°jfg t l"^nJ'/ contrary to her wishes; while New Hampshire, which 
land.' had recently placed herself under the protection of 

c. seep. 102. Massachusetts, was now forcibly severed from her. 
7. 6 While Massachusetts was called to mourn the 



6. What is 
saiJ of the 
general le 



desolation of her frontiers by savage warfare, and 



nef >n grieve the abridgment of her charter privileges, a new 
and still more formidable calamity fell upon her. The 
belief in witchcraft was then almost universal in Chris- 
tian countries, nor did the Puritans of New England 
escape the delusion. The laws of England, which 
admitted the existence of witchcraft, and punished il 



CHAP, n.] MASSACHUSETTS. 93 

with death, had been adopted in Massachusetts, and in 1692. 
less tnan twenty yeirs from the founding of the colony, 
one individual was tried and executed 3 - for the supposed ^q^otI 8 ' ** 
crime. to»n. 

8. l In 1692 the delusion broke out b with new vio- °. fvb. 
lence and frenzy in Danvers,* then a part of Salem, account of 
The daughter and niece of the minister, Mr. Parris, 'Jlafanceoj 
were at first moved by strange caprices, and their sin- ^chcni/l 
gular conduct was readily ascribed to the influence of 
witchcraft. The ministers of the neighborhood held a 

ti.iy of fasting and prayer, and the notoriety which the March, 
children soon acquired, with perhaps their own belief 
in some mysterious influence, led them to accuse in- 
dividuals as the authors of their sufferings. An oil 
Indian servant in the family was whipped until she 
confessed herself a witch ; and the truth of the confes- 
sion, although obtained in such » a manner, was not 
doubted. 

9. 2 Alarm and terror spread rapidly ; evil spirits 2. what is 
were thought to overshadow the land ; and every case spreadq/tht 
of nervous derangement, aggravated by fear ; and anafts'na- 
every unusual symptom of disease, was ascribed to the m 
influence of wicked demons, who were supposed to 

have entered the bodies of those who had sold them- 
selves into the power of Satnn. 

10. 3 Those supposed to be bewitched were mostly 3 . whowen 
children, and persons in the lowest ranks of life ; and su h p S p lfedlo 
the accused were at first old women, whose ill-favored b&beiouch- 
looks seemed to mark them the fit instruments of un- tneaccusedi 
earthly wickedness. 4 But, finally, neither age, nor 4 . Finally, 
sex, nor station, afforded any safeguard against a ^ccus^ 
charge of witchcraft. Magistrates were condemned, 

and a clergyman of the highest respectability was c . Burroughs 
executed. 11 * d Aug „ 9 

11. s The alarming extent of the delusion at length . ,„„, . 
opened the eyes of the people. Already twenty per- * a }*'ff% 
sons had suff red death ; fifty-five had been tortured or deimUmi 
terrified into confessions of witchcraft ; a hundred and 

fifty were in prison ; and two hundred more had been 
accused. 'When the legislature assembled, in Octo- f„afng* 

* Danvers is two miles N.W. from Salem. The principal village Is a continuation 
of the streets of Salem, of which it Ls, virtually, a suburb. 



94 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[part a 



1692. ber, remonstrances were urged against the recent pro- 
ceedings; the. spell Avhich had pervaded the land was 
suddenly dissolved ; and although many were subse- 
quently tried, and a few convicted, yet no more were 
executed. The prominent actors in the late tragedy 
lamented and condemned the delusion to which they 
had yielded, and one of the judges, who had presided 
at the trials, made a frank and full confession of his 
error. 

12. 'The war with the French and Indians still 
continued. In 1694, Oyster River,* in New Hamp- 
shire, was attacked, 1 and ninety-four persons were 
killed, or carried away captive. Two years later, the 
English fort at Pemaquid b was surrendered to a large 
force of French and Indians commanded by the Baron 
Castine, but the garrison were sent to Boston, where 
they were exchanged^ for prisoners m the hands of the 
English. 

13. 2 In March, 1697, Haverhill,! in Massachusetts, 
was attacked, 11 and forty persons were killed, or carried 
away captive. 3 Among the captives were Mrs. Duston 
and her nurse, who, with a boy previously taken, fell 
to the lot of an Indian family, twelve in number. The 
three prisoners planned an escape from captivity, and, 
in one night, killed ten of the twelve Indians, while 
they were asleep 3 and returned in safety to their 
friends — filling the land with wonder at their success- 
ful daring. ""During the same year King William's 

war was terminated by the treaty e of 
Ryswick/ 



* Oyster River is a small stream, of only twelve 01 
fifteen miles in length, which flows from the west into 
Great Bay, a southern arm, or branch, of the Piscataqua. 
The settlement mentioned in history as Oyster River, 
was in the present town of Durham, ten miles N.W. 
from Portsmouth. (See Map, p. 101.) 

t Haverhill, in Massachusetts, is on the N. side of the 
Merrimac, at the head of navigation, — thirty miles north 
from Boston. The village of Bradford is on the opposite 
CAPT.4JN ohuruu. side of the river. 



169. 



1694. 

a. J uly 28. 
1. What 
events oc- 
curred in 
ilie war 
with the 
French and 
Indians I 

1696. 

b. Note p. 91. 
c. July 25. 

1697. 

tl. March 25. 

2. What oc- 
curred at 

Haverhill? 

3. Give an 
account of 

Mrs. Duston. 



4. When 
teas the war 
terminated? 
c. Sept. 20. 
f. See p. 91. 





CHAP. II.] 



SECTION III. 

DIVISIONS. 

I. Massachusetts during Queen Anne's War 
— //. King Geo?-ge's War. 

1. Massachusetts during Queen 
Anne's War— 1. 'After the death 
c»f James II., who clied a in France 
in 1701, the French government acknowledged his 
son, then an exile, as king of England ; which was 
deemed an unpardonable insult to the latter kingdom, 
which had settled the crown on Anne, the second 
daughter of James. In addition to this, the French 
monarch was charged with attempting to destroy the 
proper balance of power in Europe, by placing his 
grandson, Philip of Anjou,* on the throne of Spain. 
These causes led to a war between England, on the 
one side, and France and Spain on the other, which 
is commonly known in America as " Queen Anne's 
War," but, in Europe, as the " War of the Spanish 
Succession." 

2. 2 The Five Nations had recently concluded a 
treaty b of neutrality with the French of Canada, by 
which New York was screened from danger ; so that 
the whole weight of Queen Anne's war, in the north, 
fell upon the New England colonies. 3 The tribes 
from the Merrimacf to the Penobscot had assented to 
a treaty of peace with New England ; but, through 
the influence of the French, seven weeks after, it was 
treacherously broken ; d and, on'one and the same day, 
the whole frontier, from Casco| to Wells,§ was devoted 
to the tomahawk and the scalping-knife. 



16'J7. 



1701. 

a. Sept. 
1. Give an 
account of 
the causes 
which led to 

Qtieen 
Anne's war. 



b. Aug. *, 

1701. 

2. Where did 

the weight 
of this war 
fall, and 

xohy ? 
3. What is 
said of the 

Indian 
tribes from 
the Merri- 
mac to the 
Penobscot 1 

c July 1, 

1703. 
d. Aug. 20. 



* .Injmi was an ancient province in the west of France, on the river Loire. 

t The Merrimac River, in New Hampshire, is formed by the union of the Pemige 
wasset and the Winnipiseogee. The former rises near the Notch, in the White Moun- 
tains, and at Sanbornton, seventy miles below its source, receives the Winnipiseogee 
from Winnipiseogee Lake. The course of the Merrimac is then S.E. to the vicinity - of 
Lowell, Massachusetts, when, turning to the N.E., after a winding course of fifty miles, 
it falls into the Atlantic, at Newburyport. % Casco. See Casco Bay, p. 91. 

§ Wells is a '.own in Maine, thirty miles S.W. from Portland, and twenty N.E. from 
Portsmouth 



96 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART U. 

IHO^L. 3. 'In the following year, 1704, four hundred and 
Marrh u fifty French and Indians attacked Deerfield, burned* 
i. cave an the village, killed more than forty of the inhabitant?, 
vwa'mU'hn and took one hundred and twelve captives, among 
veerfi&id. wnom was me m i n i s ter, Mr. Williams, and his wife ; 
all of whom were immediately ordered to prepare for a 
n m,,,,^ lonsf march through the snow to Canada. 2 Those 

2. Wfict be- o o 

cmnt oj am who were unable to keep up with the party were slam 
by the wayside, but most of the survivors were after- 
wards redeemed, and allowed to return to their homes. 
A little girl, a daughter of the minister, after a long 
residence with the Indians, became attached to them, 
adopted their dress and customs, and afterwards mar- 
ried a Mohawk chief. 

3. what was 4. 3 During the remainder of the war, similar scenes 
Ihamc'tf'of were enacted throughout Maine and New Hampshire, 
'mfron- 11 aim prowling bands of savages penetrated even to the 

titrsi interior settlements of Massachusetts. The frontier 
settlers abandoned the cultivation of their fields, and 
collected in buildings which they fortified ; and if a 
garrison, or a family, ceased its vigilance, it was ever 
liable to be cut off by an enemy who disappeared the 
moment a blow was struck. The French often accom- 
panied the savages in their expeditions, and made no 
effort to restrain their cruelties. 
1707. 5. <In 1707 Massachusetts attempted the reduction 
. f. une '„ of Port Royal ; and a fleet conveying one thousand 

4. Give an Ji , Jo 

account of soldiers was sent against the place ; but the assailants 

til€ CVP6CLI- ^ * ' 

tioti asairm were twice obliged to raise the siege with considerable 
an^L the final loss. Not disheartened by the repulse, Massachusetts 
cot AciSL" spent two years more in preparation, and aided by a 

1710. fleet from England, in 1710 again demanded b the sur- 
b. Oct. 12. render of Port Royal. The garrison, weak and dis- 
c Oct. i3. pirited, capitulated 5 after a brief resistance ; the name 

of the place was changed to Annapolis, in honor of 
Queen Anne ; and Acadia, or Nova Scotia, was per- 
manently annexed to the British crown. 

17 1 1. q 5[ n July of the next year, a large armament under 
a. Aug. io. Sir Hovenden Walker arrived' 1 at Boston, and taking 
■. of the at- in additional forces, sailed, 15 near the middle of August, 

tBiilptSd o 7 

wnquestof for the conquest of Canada. The fleet reached f the 
f. Aug. 25. niouth of the St. Lawrence in safety, but here the ob- 



CHAP. II.] MASSACHUSETTS. 07 

stinacy of Walker, who disregarded the advice of his 1T1S. 
pilots, caused the loss of eight of his ships, and nearly 
nine hundred men. In the night* the ships were a . sept. 2, 3. 
driven upon the rocks on the northern shore and 
dashed to pieces. Weakened by this disaster, the fleet 
returned to England, and the New England troops to 
Boston. b See 

7. l A land expedition, 15 under General Nicholson, I n^ a '« & 
which had marched against Montreal, returned after s e a Jp e 'f u 'on 
learning the failure of the fleet. 2 Two years later the ^"^"l^ 
treaty of Utrecht* terminated the war between France c . April u, 
and England ; and, soon after, peace was concluded' 1 2 l Qf' the 
between the northern colonies and the Indians. close "ffi>* 

8. 3 During the next thirty years after the close of d. At Ports 

Queen Anne's Avar, but few events of general interest m 2 > 4 Ul 1 l 7i3 Uly 

occurred in Massachusetts. Throughout most of this 3 - x }' hat ara 

. 1 • i 11 tne on, 'J 

period a violent controversy was carried on between events of in- 

the representatives of the people and three successive occurred In 

royal governors, 6 the latter insisting upon receiving a sljfs during 

permanent salary, and the former refusing to comply yj^^frf 

with the demand ; preferring- to graduate the salary of e. shute, 

the governor according to their views of the justice Belcher. 

and utility of his administration. 4 A compromise was 4. how was 

at length effected, and, instead of a permanent salary, 'Ja^-t- 

a particular sum was annually voted. tledi 

II. King George's War. — 1. e In 1744, during the 1744. 
reign of George II., war again broke out 1 " between s 5 ai "'^?^ 
France and England, originating in European dis- orifmof 
putes, relating principally to the kingdom of Austria, George's 
and again involving the French and English pos- . ,., , 
sessions in America. I his war is generally known ciared i>y 
in America as " King George's War," but, in Europe, March, by 
as the ' ; War of the Austrian Succession." AprilW 

2. 'The most important event of the war in Ameri- 6 . i Vhat ,-, 
ca, was the siege and capture of Louisburg.f This sa '^{ r g° u ' 

* Utrecht is a rich anil handsome city of Holland, situated on one of the mouths of 
Ihe Rhine, twenty miles S.E. from Amsterdam. From the top of its loft> cathedral, 
380 icct high, fifteen or sixteen cities may be seen in a clear day. Vhe place Is cele- 
brated for the " Union of Utrecht," formed there in 1579. by which the United Provin- 
ces declared their independence of Spain ; — and likewise for the treaty of 1713. 

t Louisburg is on the S.E. side of the island of Cape Breton. It has an excellent 
harbor, of very deep water, nearly six miles in length, but frozen durinz the winter. 
After the capture of Louisburg in 1758 (see p.lSfi), its walls were demolished, and the 
materials of its buildings were carried away for the construction of Halifax, and other 
owns on tho coast. Only a few fishermen's huts are now found within the environs 



98 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART II 



l'S'44. place, situated on the island of Cape Breton,* had been 
fortified by France at great expense, and was regarded 
by her as the key to her American possessions. l Wil- 
liam Shirley, the governor of Massachusetts, perceiving 
the importance of the place, and the danger to which 
its possession by the French subjected the British 
province of Nova Scotia, laid* before the legislature 
of the colony a plan for its capture. 

3. 2 Although strong objections were urged, the gov- 
ernor's proposals were assented to ; Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, and New Hampshire, furnished their quotas of 
men ; New York sent a supply of artillery, and Penn- 
sylvania of provisions. 3 Commodore Warren, then in 
the West Indies with an English fleet, was invited to 
co-operate in the enterprise, but he declined doing so 
without orders from England. 4 This unexpected in- 
telligence was kept a secret, and in April, 1745, the 
New England forces alone, under William Pepperell, 
commander-in-chief, and Roger Wolcott, second in 
command, sailed 1 " for Louisburg. 

4. s At Canseauf c they were unexpectedly met by 
the fleet of Commodore Warren, who had recently 
received orders to repair to Boston and concert mea- 
sures with Governor Shirley for his majesty's service 

of the city, and so complete is the ruin, that it is with difficulty that the outlines of 
the fortifications, and of" the principal buildings, can lie traced. (See Map.) 

* Cape Breton^ called by the French Isle Hoyale, is a very irregularly shaped island, 
on the S.E. border of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and separated from Nova Scotia by the 
narrow channel of Canseau. It is settled mostly by Scotch Highlanders, together with 
a few of the ancient French Acadians. (See Slap.) 



1. Of the 
proposal to 
capture it? 



1745. 

a. Jan. 



What were 
ha prepara- 
ions for the 
gpedition ? 



3. What is 

said of 

Commodore 

Warre/i? 



4. Of the 
sailing of 

I he fleet? 



b. April i. 

S. What oc- 
curred at 
Canseau ? 

c Pronounc- 
ed Can-so, 



XOUISHUE.G 

VIC IN ITY 
17*5. 



^S* . :#"t : ".r Frencli 





I' art of A/S;^,' 



"ZTTjC'fKaTiseau .<* 



t Canseau is a small island and cape, on which is a small village, at the eastern ez 
tiemity of Nova Scotia, seventy-five miles S.W. from Louisburg. (See Map > 




CHAP. H.] MASSACHUSETTS. 99 

in North America. 'On the 11th of May the com- 1745. 
bined forces, numbering more than 4000 land troops, 
came in sight of Louisburg, and effected a landing at 
Gabarus Bay,* which was the first intimation the 
French had of their danger. 

5. 2 On the day after the landing a detachment of 
four hundred men marched by the city and approached 

the royal battery,* setting fire to the houses and stores a See Map> 
on the way. The French, imagining that the whole 
army was coming upon them, spiked the guns and 
bandoned the battery, which was immediately seized 
by the New England troops. Its guns were then 
turned upon the town, and against the island battery 2. Give an 
at the entrance of the harbor. vSfugeaL 

6. As it was necessary to transport the guns over a LouHburf. 
morass, Avhere oxen and horses' could not be used, they 

were placed on sledges constructed for the purpose, 
and the men with ropes, sinking to their knees in the 
mud, drew them safely over. Trenches were then 
thrown up within two hundred yards of the city, — a 
battery was erected on the opposite side of the harbor, 
at the Light House Point, — and the fleet of Warren 
captured 6 a French 74 gun-ship, with five hundred b. May 28. 
and sixty men, and a great quantity of military stores 
designed for the supply of the garrison. 

7. A combined attack by sea and land was planned ^J^ifihe. 
for the 29th of June, but, on the day previous, the city, ffi ^™ 
fort, and batteries, and the whole island, were surren- quUsitwn 

l j -rn, ' , • ' ••■ and of the 

clereci. 3 1 his Avas the most important acquisition attempts of 
which England made during the war, and, for its re- to recover 
covery, and the desolation of the English colonies, a p ace 
powerful naval armament under the Duke d'Anville 
was sent out by France in the following year. But 1746. 
storms, shipwrecks, and disease, dispersed and enfee- *- a "'^?^ 
bled the fleet, and blasted the hopes of the enemy. close of tho 

. T1 _.'. *. -., , - J war, anithe 

o. 4 ln 1748 the- war was terminated by the. treaty terms oj the 
of Aix la Chapelle.f The result proved that neither c _o et ,%. 

* Gabarus Bay is a deep bay on the eastern coast of Cape Breton, a short distance 
S.W. from Louisbnrg. (See Map.) 

t Jlix la Ckapelle, (pronounced A lak sha-pell,) is in the western part of Germany, near 
the line of Belgium, in the province of the Rhine, which belongs to Prussia. It is a 
very ancient city, and was long in possession of the Romans, who called it Aquaegranii. 
ts present name was given it by the French, on account of a chapel built there by Char- 
.emagne, who for some time made it the capital of his empire. It is celebrated for il» 



100 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART U 

1Y4§. party had gained any thing by the contest ; for all ac- 

quisitions made by either were mutually restored. 

i. of the l £>ut the causes of a future and more important war 

afuture stu ^ remained in the disputes about boundaries, which 

wari were left unsettled ; and the " French and Indian War" 

soon followed," which was the last struggle of the French 

fL. Sc6 D 173 ' oo 

* for dominion in America. 



Of what CHAPTER TIT 

woes Chapter \jixa.r l ajju. ill. 

III. of Vart 

ILtreat? NEW HAMPSHIRE.* 

Lwuhwiua l - 2 During the greater portion of its colonial exist- 
Ut 'ofNew ry ence 5 New Hampshire was united with Massachusetts, 
Hampshire and its history is therefore necessarily blended with 

blended? J _ . J . , 

3 why & it that oi the parent ol the INew Jbngland colonies. 3 But 
'ZZVZZSH m order to preserve the subject entire, a brief sketch 

sepal azety t x •» % j 

ol its separate history will here be given. 

1622. 2. 4 Two of the most active members of the council 
tsSlo/ of Plymouth were Sir Ferdinand Gorges and Captain 

G MasonT d J onn Mason. In 1622 they obtained of their associates 

b. Aug. 20. a grant b of land lying partly in Maine and partly in 

New Hampshire, which they called JLaconia. 5 In the 

1623. spring of the following year they sent over two small 
\e°uiements parties of emigrants, one of which landed at the mouth 
uimpshiret °^ tne Piscataqua, and settled at Little Harbor, f a short 

distance below Portsmouth \\ the other, proceeding far- 
ther up, formed a settlement at Dover. § 

hot springs, its baths, and for several important treaties concluded there. It is seventy- 
five miles E. from Brussels, and 125.S.E. from Amsterdam. 

* NEW HAMPSHIRE, one of the Eastern or New England States, lying north of 
Massachusetts, and west of Maine, is 180 miles long from north to south, and ninety 
broad in the southern part, and contains an area of about 9500 square miles. It has 
only eighteen miles of seacoast, and Portsmouth is its only harbor. The country twenty 
or thirty miles from the sea becomes uneven and hilly, and, toward the northern part, 
is mountainous. Mount Washington, a peak of the White Mountains, and, next to 
Black Mountain in N. Carolina, the highest point east of the Rocky Mountains, is G42t? 
feet above the level of the sea. The elevated parts of the state are a fine grazing coun- 
try, and the valleys on the margins of the rivers are highly productive. 

t Little Harbor, the place first settled, is at the southern entrance to the harbor of 
Portsmouth, two miles below the city, and opposite the town and island of Newcastle. 
(See L. H. in Map, opposite page.) 

t Portsmouth., in New Hampshire, is situated on a peninsula, on the south side of 
the Piscataqua, three miles from the ocean. It has an excellent harbor, which, owing 
to the rapidity of the current, is never frozen. It is fifty-four miles N. from Boston., 
and the same distance S.W. from Portland. (See Map, opposile page.) 

$ Dover village, in N. H. formerly called Cocheco, is situated on Cocheco River, fom 



chap, in.j 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



101 



3. 2 In 1629 the Rev. John Wheelright and others 1629. 

purchased" of the .Indians all the country between the " a Ma , ' 
Merrimac and the Piscataqua. 2 A few months later, i.miaipnr- 
this tract of country, which was a part of the grant to mai}e\y W Mr. 
Gorges and Mason, was given 13 to Mason alone, and it ,Uieelrl = ha 

' b Nov. 17 

then first received the name of New Hampshire. s The 2 . whatsep- 
country was divided among numerous proprietors, and SSf^Stow 
the various settlements, during several years, were Mason? 
governed separately, by agents of the different pro- the count™ 
prietors, or by magistrates elected by the people. governed 

4. 4 In 1641 the people of New Hampshire placed 1641. 
themselves under the protection of Massachusetts, in *- a ^of'the 
which situation they remained until 1680, when, after vntonwu* 

i -ill- r i» it i ■ Masaachvr 

a long- controversy with the heirs of Mason, relative to «cusi Qft/m 

*i i • /■ i -i tvt tt i • separation* 

the ownership oi the soil, JNew Hampshire was sep- iron 
arated c from Massachusetts by a royal commission, and „ Roya j 
made a royal province. 5 The new government was co ^t s ^ on ' 
to consist of a president and council, to be appointed «»• Actual 
by the king, and a house of representatives to be chosen Jan. isso. 
by the. people. 6 No dissatisfaction with the govern- Ve w«r«re* 
ment of Massachusetts had been expressed, and the Qftneneio 

, . l . > . , govern- 

change to a separate province was received with re- mena 
uctance by all. _ ££&% 

5. 7 The f.rst legislature, which assembled" 1 at Ports- the change? 
n >uth in 168U, auopbt-u a code of laws, the first of 7 xnen l did 
which declared " That no act, imposition, law, or or- f^^*/ r /„;. 
dinance, should be made, or imposed upon them, but »«»««, and 

' 7 1x7 IV fiat W6T6 

such as should be made by the assembly and approved ueproceed- 
by the president and council." 8 This declaration, so 8 . Wnat is 
worthy of freemen, was received with marked dis- S ^J{^. 
pleasure by the king ; but New Hampshire, ever after, 'JSfX? 
vicinity of Portsmouth, was as forward as any of her writ of the 
sister colonies m resisting every 
encroachment upon her just 
rights. 

6. 9 Early in the following 
year Robert Mason arrived, — as- 
serted his right to the province, 
on the ground of the early grants 

miles above its junction with the Piscataqua, and twelve 
N.VV. from Portsmouth. The first settlement in the town 
was on a beautiful pen insula between Black and Pis 
cataqus Rivers. (See Map 
q# 




people ? 



1681. 

i. Give an 
account of 
the contro- 
versy irith 
the propri- 
etor, about 
lauds. 



102 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART IL 



1«S1'. 



16S6. 

1. What is 
laid of Dud- 
ley and An- 
dres, and of 

the second 
union with 

Massachu- 
setts i 
a. Seep. 90. 

1690. 

b. March. 

2. When sep- 
arated and 

when azain 
united f 

t. Aug. 1692. 



3. Give an 

account of 
the con- 
tinuance 
and final 

settlement 
of the Maso- 

nian con- 
troversy. 



4. What is 
said of the 
final separ- 
ation from 
Massachu- 
setts i 

5. What is 
said of the 
nature of 
the union 

with Massa- 
chusetts I 



6. What is 
*aid of the 
sufferings of 
New Ha7np- 
shire during 
the Indian 
wars? 



made to his ancestor, and assumed the title of lord 
proprietor. But his claims to the so^, and his demands 
for rent, were resisted by the people. A long contro 
versy ensued ; lawsuits were numerous ; and judg- 
ments for rent were obtained against many of the ead- 
ing men in the province ; but, so general was the hos- 
tility to the proprietor, that he could not enforce them. 

7. 'In 1686 the government of Dudley, and after- 
wards that of Andros, was extended over New Hamp- 
shire. When the latter was seized 11 and imprisoned, 
on the arrival of the news of the revolution in Eng- 
land, the people of New Hampshire took the govern- 
ment into their own hands, and, in 1690, placed b them- 
selves under the protection of Massachusetts. 2 Two 
years later, they were sepavated from Massachusetts, 
contrary to their wishes, and a separate royal govern- 
ment was established over them ; but in 1699 the two 
provinces were again united, and the Earl of Bella- 
mont was appointed governor over both. 

8. 3 Tn 1691 the heirs of Mason sold their title to the 
lands in New Hampshire to Samuel Allen, between 
whom and the people, contentions and lawsuits con- 
tinued until 1715, when the heirs of Allen relinquished 
their claims in despair. A descendant of Mason, how 
ever, subsequently renewed the original claim, on the 
ground of a defect in the conveyance to Allen. The 
Masonian controversy was finally terminated by a re- 
linquishment, on the part of the claimants, of all ex- 
cept the unoccupied portions of the territory. 

9. 4 In 1741, on the removal of Governor Belcher, 
the provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire 
were separated, never to be united again, and a sep- 
arate governor was appointed over each. 6 During the 
forty-two years previous to the separation, New Hamp- 
shire had a separate legislative assembly, and the two 
provinces were, in reality, distinct, with the exception 
of their being under the administration of the same 
royal governor. 

10. s New Hampshire suffered greatly, and perhaps 
more than any other New England colony, by the 
several French and Indian wars, whose general his- 
tory has been already given. A particular recital of 



CHAP. IV.] 



CONNECTICUT. 



103 



the plundering and burning of her towns, of her ft on 1630. 
tiers laid waste, and her children inhumanly mur 
dered, or led into a wretched cap- 
tivity, would only exhibit scenes 
similar to those which have been 
already described, and we willingly 
pass by this portion of her local his- 



CHAPTER VI. . 

CONNECTICUT.* 

DIVISIONS. 

I. Early Settlements. — II. Pequod War 111. 

New Haven Colony. — IV. Connecticut under 
her own Constitution. — V. Connecticut under 
the Royci Charter. 




■WTNTHEOP THE YOUNGER. 



1. Early Settlements. — 1. 'In 1630 the soil of 
Connecticut was granted by the council of Plymouth 
to the Earl of Warwick ; and, in the following year, 
the Earl of Warwick transferred 11 the same to Lord 
Say-and-Seal, Lord Brooke and others. Like all the 
early colonial grants, that of Connecticut was to extend 
westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea : or 
the Pacific. 2 During the same year some of the peo- 
ple of Plymouth, with their governor, Mr. Winslow, 
visited the valley of the Connecticut, by invitation of 
an Indian chief, who wished the English to make a 
settlement in that quarter. 

2. 3 The Dutch at New York, apprized of the object 
of the Plymouth people, determined to anticipate them, 
and, early in 1633, dispatched a party who erected a 
fort at Hartford, f 4 In October of the same year, a 
company from Plymouth sailed up the Connecticut 



1630. 

1. Give an 
account of 
tlie early 
grants of 
Connecti- 
cut. 

1631. 

a. March 29. 



2. Of the 

visit to tlie 
country by 
the Plym- 
outh pecple 



3. Of the 
Dutch fort 

at Hartford. 

4. Of the 
English tra- 
ding-house 
at Windsor. 



* CONNECTICUT, the southernmost of the New England States, Is from ninety to 
100 miles long from E. to VV., and from fifty to seventy broad, and contains an area of 
about 4,700 square miles. The country is, generally, uneven and hilly, and somewhat 
mountainous in the northwest. The valley of the Connecticut is very fertile, but in 
most parts of the state the soil is better adapted to grazing than to tillage. An excel- 
lent freestone, much used in building, is found in Chatham and Haddam ; iron ore of a 
superior quality in Salisbury and Kent; and fine marble in Milford. 

f Hartford, one of the capitals of Connecticut, is on the W. side of the Connecticut 
River, fifty miles from its mouth, by the river's course. Mill, or Little River, passes 
through the southern part of the city. The old Dutch fort was on the S. side of Mill 
River, at Its entran;e into the Connecticut. The Dutch mantaincd their positkn until 
Mfi4. (See Map, next page ) 



104 



COLONIAL HXSTCRY. 



[PART a 



1633. 



1634. 

.. What oc- 
curred in 
Viefollow- 
ing V ear ? 

1635. 

2. Give an 
account of 

the emigra- 
tion from 
Massachu- 
setts. 

a. See p. 76. 
3. Of the 
settlement 

Of Saybrook. 



1636. 

4. WJiat is 
said of the 
Pequods t 

5. Of their 
depreda- 
tions upon 

the English? 



River, and passing the Dutch fort, erected a trading- 
house at Windsor.* The Dutch ordered Captain 
Holmes, the commander of the Plymouth sloop, to 
strike his colors, and, in case of refusal, threatened to 
fire upon him ; but he declared that he would execute 
the orders of the governor of Plymouth, and, in spite 
of their threats, proceeded resolutely onward. l In the 
following year the Dutch sent a company to expel the 
English from the country, but finding them well for- 
tified, they came to a parley, and finally returned in 
peace. 

3. 2 In the summer of 1635, exploring parties from 
Massachusetts Bay colony visited the valley of the 
Connecticut, and, in the autumn of the same year, a 
company of about sixty men, women, and children, 
made a toilsome journey through the wilderness, and 
settled* at Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfieklf 3 In 
October, the younger Winthrop, son of the governor 
of Massachusetts, arrived at Boston, with a commission 
from the proprietors of Connecticut, authorizing him 
to erect a fort at the mouth of the river of that name, 
and make the requisite preparations for planting a 
colony. Scarcely was the fort erected when a Dutch 
vessel appeared at the mouth of the river, but was not 
permitted to enter. In honor of Lord Say-and-Seal, 
and Lord Brooke, the new settlement was named Say- 
brook,! which continued a separate colony until 1644. 

II. Pequod War. — 1. 4 During the year 1636 the 
Pequods, a powerful tribe of Indians residing mostly 
within the limits of Connecticut, began to annoy the 
infant colony. 5 In July, the Indians of Block Island,^ 



VIC. OF HARTFORD 
~~Earin, 



Windsor is on the W. side of the Connecticut, seven miles N. from Hartford. The 
village is on the N. side of Farmington River. The trading-house 
erected by the Plymouth people, was below the mouth of Farming- 
ton River. The meadow in the vicinity is still called Plymouth 
Meadow. (See Map.) 

t fVcthersfield is on the W. side of the Connecticut, four miles S 
from Hartford. The river here is continually changing its course; 
by the wearing away of the land on one side, and its gradual de 
posit on the other. (See Map.) 

% Saybrook is on the west side of Connecticut River, at its en 
trance into Long Island Sound. 

§ Block Island, discovered in 1614 by Adrian Blok, a Dutch cap 
tain, is twenty-four miles S.W. from Newport. It is attached to 
Newport Co., R. I., and constitutes the township of Newshoreham. 
It has no harbor. It is eight mLes long from N. to S., and from two 
to four broad. 




unth the 
Narrazan- 



CHAP. IV.j CONNECTICUT. 105 

who were supposed to be in alliance with tne Pequods, 1636. 
surprised and plundered a trading vessel and killed the 
captain. An expedition 1 from Massachusetts was sent a. sept, am: 
against them, which invaded the territory of the Pe- 0ct ' 
quods, but as nothing important was accomplished, it 
served only to excite the Indians to greater outrages. 
During the winter, a number of whites were killed in 
the "icinity of Saybrook fort. In April following, nine 1637. 
persons were killed at Wethersfield, and the alarm 
became general throughout the plantations on the 
Connecticut. 

2. 'The Pequods, who had long been at enmity i. of then 
with the Narragansetts, now sought their alliance in a c "^'"^ d 
general war upon the English ; but the exertions' 1 of 
Roger Williams not only defeated their designs, but _»«"< 
induced the Narragansetts again to renew the war D ' oee p ' ' 7 
against their ancient enemy. 2 Early in May, the ma- 2 j- tlie 
gistrates of the three infant towns of Connecticut for- ^/J'aiim" 
mally declared war against the Pequod nation, and, in tiumt 
ten days, a little army of eighty English, and seventy 
friendly Mohegan Indians, was on its way against the 
enemy, whose warriors were said to number more than 

two thousand men. 

3. 3 The principal seat of the Pequods was near the 3. where 
mouth of Pequod River, now called the Thames,* in principal 
the eastern part of Connecticut. 4 Captain Mason sailed s p%°£dsf 
down the Connecticut with his forces, whence he pro- y^!^** 
ceeded to Narrag-ansett Bay, where several hundred $-c.,ofMa- 

o * ' . son. 

of the Narragansetts joined him. He then commenced c.xotep, in 
his march across the country, towards the principal 
Pequod fort, which stood on an eminence on the west 
side of Mysticf River, in the present town of Groton. \ 
•The Pequods were ignorant of his approach, for they 5. What an 
had seen the boats of the English pass the mouth of think of the 
their river a few days before, and they believed that Enslvsht 
their enemies had fled through fear. 

* The Pequod, or Thames River, rises in Massachusetts, and, passing sourn through 
he eastern part of Connecticut, enters Long Island Sound, below New London. It is 
generally called Quineliaug from its source to Norwich. On the west it receives She- 
tucket, Yan'ic, and other small streams. It is navigable fourteen miles, to Norwich. 

t Mystic River is a small river which enters L. I. Sound, six miles E. from the Thames. 

i The town of Oroton lies between the Thames and the Mystic, bordering on the 
Sound. The Pequod fort, above mentioned, was on Pequod Hill, In the N.E. part of 
the town, about half a mile west from Mystic River, and elgtt miles N.E. from New 
London. A Dublin roatl now crosses the hill, and a dwelling ho ise occurdes its lummiL 



106 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART H 

1637. 4. 'Early in the morning of the 5th of June, thp 
i awe. an soldiers of Connecticut advanced against the fort, while 
a< h°att\°{ t ^ e * r I n ^ an allies stood aloof, astonished at the bold- 
on the pe- ness of the enterprise. The barking of a dog betrayed 
their approach, and an Indian, rushing into the fort, 
gave the alarm ; but scarcely were the enemy aroused 
from their slumbers, when Mason and his little band 
having forced an entrance, commenced the work of 
destruction. The Indians fought bravely, but bowg 
and arrows availed little against weapons of steel. Ye* 
the vast superiority of numbers on the side of the enemy, 
for a time rendered the victory doubtful. " We must 
burn them !" shouted Mason, and applying a firebrand, 
the frail Indian cabins were soon enveloped in flame, 
s. of the. 5. 2The English now hastily withdrew and sur- 
of the rounded the place, while the savages, driven from their 
equ0 ' enclosure, became, by the light of the burning pile, a 
sure prey to the English muskets ; or, if they attempted 
a sally, they were cut down by the broadsword, or they 
fell under the weapons of the Narragansetts, who now 
rushed forward to the slaughter As the sun rose 
upon the scene of destruction it showed that the vic- 
tory was complete. About six hundred Indians,- — men, 
women, and children, had perished ; most of them in 
the hideous conflagration. Of the whole number 
within the fort, only seven escaped, and seven were 
s. Loss of the made prisoners. 3 Two of the whites were killed, and 

ng " ' nearly twenty were wounded. 
4. what was 6. 4 The loss of their principal fort, and the destruc- 
"hdory'of tion of the main body of their warriors, so disheartened 
ttepequodsi ^ e p e q U0( j Sj that they no longer made a stand against 
the English. They scattered in every direction ; strag- 
gling parties were hunted and shot down like deer in 
the woods ; their Sachem, Sassacus, was murdered by 
the Mohawks, to whom he fled for protection ; their 
territory was laid waste ; their settlements were burned, 
and about two hundred survivors, the sole remnant of 
the Pequod nation, surrendering in despair, were en- 
slaved by the English, or incorporated among their 
<if m war Indian allies. 8 The vigor with which the war had 
"tribes? been prosecuted struck terror into the other tribes of 



CHAP. IV J CONNECTICUT. 107 

New England, and secured to the settlements a sue- 1637. 
cession of many years of peace. " 

III. New Haven Colony. — 1. 'The pursuit of the l - G / ve an 
Pequods westward of the Connecticut, made the Enr- tnedistov- 
lish acquainted with the coast from Saybrook* to F? .r- dement of 
field;* and late in the year, a few men from Boston ^"^ 
explored the country, and, erecting a hut at New Ha- p^e ioi. 
ven,f there passed the winter. • 1638. 

2. In the spring of the following year a Puritan 
colony, under the guidance of Theophilus Eaton, and 
the Rev. John Davenport, who had recently arrived 

from Europe, left b Boston for the new settlement at b. April 9. 

New Haven. 2 They passed their first Sabbath under c - Ar '' '*■ 

a spreading oak,! and Mr. Davenport explained to the sau of the 

people with much counsel, adapted to their situation, afiffew" 1 

how the Son of Man was led into the wilderness to be IIaveni 
tempted. 

3. 3 The settlers of New Haven established a £ov- 3 - Give t an f , 

... . ° account of 

ernment upon strictly religious principles, making the the sovem- 
Bible their law book, and church members the only colony. 
freemen. Mr. Eaton, who was a merchant of great 
wealth, and who had been deputy-governor of the Brit- 
•ish East India Company, was annually chosen gov- 
ernor of New Haven colony during twenty years, until 
his death. 4 The colony quickly assumed a flourishing 4. wimu 
condition. The settlements extended rapidly along pfvuperityt 
the Sound, and, in all cases, the lands were honorably 
purchased of the natives. ir°Q 

IV. Connecticut under her own Constitution. — 5 WMt ^ 
1. 5 In 1639 the inhabitants of the three towns on the vonant 



events oc- 



Connecticut, who had hitherto acknowledged the au- am-erfi* 
thority of Massachusetts, assembled 11 at Hartford, and d janl's* 

* Fairfield borders on the Sound, fifty miles S.W. from the new haven. 
mouth of the Connecticut. Some of the Pequods were pursued 
to a great swamp in this town. Some were slain, and about 200 
surrendered. The town was first settled by a Mr. Ludlow and 
Dthcrs in 1639. 

t New Haven, now one of the capitals of Connecticut, called wS^ijfl* 
by the Indians Quinipiac, lies at the head of a harbor which sets -*=5J>\ 
op four miles from Long Island Sound. It is about seventy-five ' £ 
miles N.E. from New York, and thirty-four S.W. from Hartford. 
The city is on a beautiful plain, bounded on the west by West 
River, and on the east by Wallingford, or duinipiac River. Yale 
College is located at New Haven. (See Map.) 

% This tree stood near the cvuer of George and College streets. 




108 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART IL 



1639. 

I. Describe 
the first con- 
stitution of 
Connecti- 
cut. 



2. How 
many separ- 
ate colonies 
Mien existed 
in Connec- 
ticut. t What 
■mere they? 

3. What is 
said of tlie 
disputes 

with tut. 
Dutch i 



1644. 

4. Of the 
•purchase of 
Saijbrookl 

5. Of the 
treaty with 
the Dutch I 



1651. 

6. What is 

said of the 

war be- 
tween Eng- 
land and 
Holland i 

» 1653. 

7. What pre- 
vented the 

war in 
America 7 

8. What colo- 
nies applied 

to Crom- 
well, and 
what was 
tlic results 



1654. 



1660. 

fi. May. 

B. What is 
said of the 
loyalty of 
Connecti- 
cut? 



formed a separate government for themselves. l Thl 
constitution was one of unexampled liberality, guard 
ing with jealous care against every encroachment on 
the rights of the people. The governor and legisla- 
tu e were to be chosen annually by the freemen, who 
were required to take an oath of allegiance to the 
commonwealth, instead of the English monarch ; and 
in the general court alone was vested the power of 
making and repealing laws. 2 At this time three sep- 
arate colonies existed within the limits of the present 
state of Connecticut. 

2. 3 The Connecticut colonies were early involved 
in disputes with the Dutch of New Netherlands, who 
claimed the soil as far eastward as the Connecticut 
River. The fear of an attack from that quarter, was 
one of the causes which, in 1643, led to the confedera- 
tion of the New England colonies for mutual defence. 
4 In 1644 Saybrook was purchased of George Fen wick, 
one of the proprietors, and permanently annexed to the 
Connecticut colony. 5 In 1650 Governor Stuyvesant 
visited Hartford, where a treaty was concluded, deter- 
mining the line of partition between New Netherlands 
and Connecticut. 

3. *In 1651 war broke out between England and 
Holland, and although their colonies in America had 
agreed to remain at peace, the governor of New Neth- 
erlands was accused of uniting with the Indians, in 
plotting the destruction of the English. 7 The com- 
missioners of the United Colonies decided 11 in favor of 
commencing hostilities against the Dutch and Indians, 
but Massachusetts refused to furnish her quota of meiij 
and thus prevented the war. Connecticut and New 
Haven then applied to Cromwell for assistance, who 
promptly dispatched 15 a fleet for the reduction of New 
Netherlands ; but while the colonies were making 
preparations to co-operate with the naval force, the 
news of peace in Europe arrested the expedition. 

V. Connecticut under the Royal Charter. — 
1. 9 When Charles II. was restored to the throne of 
his ancestors, Connecticut declared her loyalty, and 
submission tc the king, and applied for a royal charter. 
10 Tho aged Lord Say-and-Seal, the early friend of the 



CHAP. IV.] CONNECTICUT. 109 

emigrants, now exerted his influence in their favor ; 1S60. 
while the younger Winthrop, then governor of the 10 In wha[ 
colony, went to England as its aarent. When he an- manner wa» 

-i i r i i ■ •!!••• i l tllK ro 'J al 

peared before the king with his petition, he presented cnartei oh- 
him a favorite ring which Charles I. had given to what was us 
Winthrop's grandfather. This trifling token, recalling .„„ 
to the king the memory of his own unfortunate father, 
readily won his favor, and Connecticut thereby ob- 
tained a charter, 1 the most liberal that had yet been a . j Iay 30 . 
granted, and confirming, in every particular, the con- 
stitution which the people themselves had adopted. 

2. l The royal charter, embracing- the territory from 2 - What 
the Narragansett Bay and river westward to the Pacific wasenare- 
Ocean, included, within its limits, the New Haven col- chaneri 
ony, and most of the present state of Rhode Island. 

2 New Haven reluctantly united with Connecticut in saJlf^llo 
1665. 3 The year after the grant of the Connecticut Ha ^' en ' 
charter, Rhode Island received b one which extended b ? , ' 
her western limits to the Pawcatuck* River, thus in- i663. 
eluding a portion of the territory granted to Connecti- \^%^. 
cut, and causing a controversy between the two col- lanichar- 

.' ° J . terl 

onies, which continued more than sixty years. 

3. 'During King Philip's war, which began in 1675, 1675. 
Connecticut suffered less, in her own territory, than ^u^f a con- 
any of her sister colonies, but she furnished her pro- neevcutdu 
portion ol troops lor the common defence. 5 At the Pinufs 
same time, however, she was threatened with a greater 5 . what* 
calamity, in the loss of her liberties, by the usurpations murwiiw 
of Andros, then governor of New York, who attempted °fAndros 
to extend his arbitrary authority over the country as 

far east as the Connecticut River. 

4. 'In July, Andros, with a small naval force, pro- 6 Qf.M> 
cceded to the mouth of the Connecticut, and hoisting to X connecn 
the king's flag, demanded the surrender of the fort ; CU remui* 
but Captain Bull, the commander, likewise showing c. July ai. 
his majesty's colors, expressed his determination to de- 
fend it. Being permitted to land, Andros attempted 

to read his commission to the people, but, in the king's 
name, he was sternly commanded to desist. He finally 

* The Pawcatuck, formed by the junction of Wood and Charles Rivers in Washington 
County, Rhode Island, is still, in the lower part of its course, the dividing line bouveen 
Connecticut and Rhtxle Island. 

10 



110 COLONIAL HISTORY. |PAE.T IL 

1675. retur led to New York without accomplishing hia 

object. 
1687. 5. 'Twelve years later, Andros again appeared in 
i. Give an Connecticut, with a commission from King James, ap- 
the second pointing him royal governor of all New England. 
tiros ti con- Proceeding to Hartford, he found the assembly in 
nectwut. sess j on anc [ demanded 4 the surrender of the charter, 
a. Nov. io. ' . i-i 

A discussion arose, which was prolonged until evening. 

The charter was then brought in and laid on the table. 

While the discussion was -proceeding, and the house 

was thronged with citizens, suddenly the lights were 

extinguished. The utmost decorum prevailed, but 

when the candles were re-lighted, the charter was 

missing, and could no where be found. 

■i. How was 6. 2 A Captain Wadsworth had secreted it in a hollow 

preserved? tree, blown down last year and which retains the ven- 

i.whatthen erated name of the Charter Oak. 8 Andros, however, 

was done by -, . i • i i ' '• • i • 

Andros? assumed the government, which was administered in 
1689. his name until the revolution b in England deprived 

b. see p. 9o. j ames f hi s throne, and restored the liberties of the 

people. 

c. 1889-1697. 7. ^During King William's war, c which imme- 
curredd'u- diately followed the English revolution, the people of 
mutants Connecticut were again called to resist an encroach- 

war? ment on their rights. 6 Colonel Fletcher, o-overnor of 

c \Vhftf " " • ■ " ■ . 

is said of New York, had received a commission vesting in him 

commission? the command of the militia of Connecticut. 6 This was 

e. What a power which the charter of Connecticut had reserved 

course was r , i i ' »i • i ri 

taken by the to the colony itself, and the legislature relused to com- 

tndwhatb'y ply with the requisition. Fletcher then repaired to 

, pqo Hartford, and ordered the militia under arms. 

Nov 6^ 8. 7 The Hartford companies, under Captain Wads 

7. Give an worth, appeared, and Fletcher ordered his commission 

°metchlr% and instructions to be read to them. Upon this, Cap- 

mriford. tam WadsAvorth commanded the drums to be beaten. 

Colonel Fletcher commanded silence, but no sooner 

was ihe reading commenced a second time, than the 

drums, at the command of Wadsworth, were again 

beaten with more spirit than ever. But silence was 

again commanded, when Wadsworth, with great earn 

estness, ordered the drums to be beaten, and turning 

to Fletcher, said, with spirit and meaning in his looks. 



CHAP. V.] 



RHODE ISLAND. 



Ill 



" If I am interrupted again I will make the sun shine 
through you in a moment." Governor Fletcher made 
no farther attempts to read his commission, and soon 
judged it expedient to return to New York. 

9. 'In the year 1700, several clergymen assembled 
at Branford,* and each, producing a few books, laid 
them on the table, with these words: "I give these 
books for the founding of a college in this colony." 
Such was the beginning of Yale College, now one of 
the most honored institutions of learning in the land. 
It was first established 3 - at Saybrook, and was after- 
wards removed 13 to New Haven. It derived its name 
from Elihu Yale, one of its most liberal patrons. 

10. 2 The remaining portion of the 
colonial history of Connecticut is not 
marked by events of sufficient interest 
to require any farther notice than they 
may gain in the more general history 
of the colonies. 



169$. 



1700 

\. Give an 
account of 
the estab- 
lishment of 

Tale College* 

a. 1702. 



CHAPTER V. 

RHODE ISLAND.f 




BOGKR WILLI 



1. 4 After Roger Williams had been banished from 
Massachusetts, he repaired to the country pf the Nar- 
ragansetts, who inhabited nearly all the territory which 
now forms the state of Rhode Island. 5 By the sachems 
of that tribe he was kindly received, and during four- 
teen weeks, he found a shelter in their wigwams, from 
the severity of winter. 6 On the opening of spring he 
proceeded to Seekonk,| on the north of Narragansett 



MS. 
c. Jan. 1636. 

4. What did 
Roger Wil- 
liams do af- 
ter /Us ban- 
ishment 

from Massa- 
chusetts? 

5. How was 
he received 

by the Nar- 
raganselts? 

6. Wliat did 
he do in tlie 

spring t 



* Branford is a town in Connecticut, bordering on the Sound, seven miles E. from 
New Haven. 

f RHODE ISLAND, the smallest state in the Union, contains an area, separate from 
the waters of Narragansett Bay, of about 1,2-5 square miles. In the northwestern p irt 
of the state the surface of the country is hilly, and the soil poor. In the south and 
west the country is generally level, and in the vicinity of Narragansett Bay, and on the 
islands which it contains, the soil is very fertile. 

t The town of Seckonk, the western part of the early Rehoboth, lies east of, and ad- 
joining the northern part of Narragansett Bay. The village Is on Ten Mile River, three 
*>r four miles east from Provldenra (See Map next pags.) 



112 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1636. 



!. Wliither 

was lie ad- 
vised to re- 
move, and 
why I 



a. June. 
2. Give an 
acMunt of 

lite set- 
tlement of 
providence. 



3. Wiiatwas 

t)ie settle- 
ment called? 

4. What ef- 
fect had reli- 
gious tolera- 
tion? 



5. What 
novel exper- 
iment was 

belield ? 



e. Give an 
account of 
the govern- 
ment of the 
colony. 



Bay,* and having been joined by a few faithful friends 
from Massachusetts, he obtained a grant of land from 
an Indian chief, and made preparations for a settlement. 

2. 'Soon after, finding that he was within the limits 
of the Plymouth colony, and being advised by Mr. 
Winslow, the governor, to remove to the other side of 
the water, where he might live unmolested, he resolved 
to comply with the friendly advice. 2 Embarking» 
with five companions in a frail Indian canoe, he passed 
down the Narragansett Riverf to Moshassuck, which 
he selected as the place of settlement, purchased the 
land of the chiefs of the Narragansetts, and, with un- 
shaken confidence in the mercies of Heaven, named 
the place Providence.^: 3 The settlement was called 
Providence Plantation. 

3. 4 As Roger Williams brought with him the same 
principles of religious toleration, for avowing and main- 
taining which he had suffered banishment, Providence 
became the asylum for the persecuted of the neighbor- 
ing colonies ; but the peace of the settlement was never 
seriously disturbed by the various and discordant opin- 
ions which gained admission. s It was found that the 
numerous and conflicting sects of the day could dwell 
together in harmony, and the world beheld, with sur- 
prise, the novel experiment of a government in which 
the magistrates were allowed to rule " only in civil 
matters," and in which " God alone was respected as 
the ruler of conscience." 

4. 6 The political principles of Roger Williams were 
as liberal as his religious opinions. For the purpose 




* JVarragansett Bay is in the eastern part of the state of 
Rhode Island, and is twenty-eight miles long from N. toS., 
and from eight to twelve broad. The N.E. arm of the bay 
is called Mount Hope Bay ; the northern, Providence Bay ; 
and the N. Western, Greenwich Bay. It contains a num- 
ber of beautiful and fertile islands, the principal of which 
are Rhode Island, Conanicut, and Prudence. (See Map.) 

t The northern part of Narragansett Bay was often called 
JVarratransctt River. 

t Providence, one of the capitals of Rhode Island, is in 
the northern part of the state, at the head of Narragansett 
Bay, and on both sides of Providence River, which is, prop- 
erly, a small bay, setting up N.W. from the Narragansett. 
The Pawtucket or Blackstone River falls into the head of 
Narragansett Bay, from the N.E., a little below Providence. 
Brown University is located at Providence, on the east 
side of the river. (See Map.) 



CHAP. V.] KHODE ISLAND. 113 

of preserving peace, all the settlers were required to 1636. 
subscribe to an agreement that they would submit to 
such rules, " not affecting the conscience," as should be 
made for the public good, by a majority of the inhab- 
itants; and under this simple form of pure democracy, 
with all the powers of government in the hands of the 
people, the free institutions of Rhode Island had their 
origin. l The modest and liberal founder of the state 1. wnati$ 
reserved no political power to himself, and the territory ublraihyaj 
which he had purchased of the natives he freely grant- M uimsi' 
ed to all the inhabitants in common, reserving to him- 
self only two small fields, which, on his first arrival, 
he had planted with his own hands. 

5. 2 Soon after the removal of Mr. Williams to Prov- 2. ofieim 
idence, he gave to the people of Massachusetts, who % d r !a\te 
had recently expelled him from their colony, the first JS'cau- 
intimation of the plot which the Pequods were forming 8Msi 
for their destruction. 3 When the Pequods attempted 3. mat aid 
to form an alliance with the Narragansetts, the magis- seufmiYcit 
trates of Massachusetts solicited the mediation of Mr. °f h;m/ 
Williams, whose influence was great with the chiefs 

of the latter tribe. 4 Forgetting the injuries which he 4. wimrm 
had received from those who now needed his favor, on u a r m l d l oi 
a stormy day, alone, and in a poor canoe, he set out 
upon the Narragansett, and through many dangers 
repaired to the cabin of Canonicus. 

6. 5 There the Pequod ambassadors and Narragan- s. Give an 
sett chiefs had already assembled in council, and three Mr^wu- 
days and nights Roger Williams remained with them, &£££,'% d£ 
in constant danger from the Pequods, whose hands, he ha ' s l" t i an ' 
says, seemed to be still reeking with the blood of his 
countrymen, and whose knives he expected nightly at 

his throat. But, as Mr. Williams himself writes, " God 

wonderfully preserved him, and helped him to break 

in pieces the negotiation and designs of the enemy, 

and to finish, by many travels and charges, the English 

kague with the Narragansetts and Mohegans against theHtuMgn 

the Pequods." denr^du, 

7. 6 The settlers at Providence remained unmolested ^uodwcSf 
during the Pequod war, as the powerful tribe of the *^%5 
Narragansetts completely sheltered them from the wjBawwj 

m 1 t 1 • i 1 • 1 tit itt i aid in this 

finemy. 7 buch. however, was the aid which Mr. WiJ- wart 

10* 



Hi COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART LL 

18 37. liams afforded, in bringing that war to a favorable 
1 termination, that some of the leading men in Massa- 

chusetts felt that he deserved to be honored with some 
i. why was mark of favor for his services. l The subject of recall- 
caiiedfrom ing him from banishment was debated, but his prin- 
mmti ciples were still viewed with distrust, and the fear of 
their influence overcame the sentiment of gratitude. 

1638. 8. 2 In 1638 a settlement was made a at Portsmouth,* 

a. Apni - n trie northern p ar t f the Island of Aquetneck, or 
account of Rhode Island,! by William Coddington and eighteen 
'meat of others, who had been driven from Massachusetts by 

P Tof°the' persecution for their religious opinions. 3 ln imitation 
form of goo- of the form of government which once prevailed among 

b. Nov. the Jews, Mr. Coddington was chosen b judge, and three 

elders were elected to assist him, but in the following 

1639. year the chief magistrate received the title of governor. 
*. of the set- 4 Portsmouth received considerable accessions during the 

^Newport first year, and in the spring of 1639, a number of the 

inhabitants removed to the southwestern part of the 

island, where they laid the foundation of Newport.| 

5. what *The settlements on the island rapidly extended, and 

given tattie the whole received the name of the Rhode Island 

™ZntsT Plantation. 

1643. 9. "Under the pretence that the Providence and 
6. mm were Rhode Island Plantations had no charter, and that 
tions exdu- their territory was claimed by Plymouth and Massa- 

unionof chusetts, they were excluded from the confederacy 

1643 '' which was formed between the other New England 

colonies in 1643. 7 Roger Williams therefore pro- 

1644. ceeded to England, and, in the following year, cb- 
c. March 24. tained 6 from parliament, which was then waging a 

gam of the civil war with the king, a free charter of incorporation, 
cna pa e riia mn by which the two plantations were united under the 
menti sa me government. 

* The town of Portsmouth is in the northern part of the island of Rhode Island, ati 
embraces about half of the island. The island of Prudence, on the west, is attached la 
this town. (See Mtip, p. 112.) '% 

t Rhode Island, so called from a fancied resemblance of the island of Rhodes In the 
Mediterranean, is in the southeastern part of Narragansett Bay. It is fifteen miles 
long, and has an average width of two and a half miles. The town of Portsmouth oc 
cupies the northern part of the island, Middletown the central portion, and Newport the 
southern. (See Map, p. 112.) 

t Newport is on the S.W. side of Rhode Island, five miles from the sea, and twenty- 
Sve miles S. from Providence. The town is on a beautiful declivity, and has an ex- 
cellent harbor. (See Map, p. 112.) 



CHAP. V.] 



RHODE ISLAND. 



115 



10. 'In 1647 the General Assembly of the several 
towns m H l at Portsmouth, and organized the govern- 
ment, by the choice of a president and other officers. 
A code of laws was also adopted, which declared the 
government to be a democracy, and which closed with 
the declaration, that " all men might walk as their 
consciences persuaded them, without molestation, every 
one in the name of his God." 

1 1 . 2 After the restoration b of monarchy, and the ac- 
cession of Charles II. to the throne of England, Rhode 



1647. 

a. May 29. 
I. Of the 
organiza- 
tion of the 
government 
and of the 
early laws 
of Rhode 
Inland I 



b. 1669. 

2. Of Vie 
charter 

Island applied for and obtained a charter from the Mng,an&' 
king, in which the principles of the former parliament- 
ary charter, and those on which the colony was found- 
ed, were embodied. The greatest toleration in matters 
of religion was enjoined by the charter, and the legis- 
lature again reasserted the principle. 3 It has been 
said that Roman Catholics were excluded from the r ™fmucf 
right of voting, but no such regulation has ever been 
found in the laws of the colony ; and the assertion 
that Quakers were persecuted and outlawed, is wholly 
erroneous. 

12. 4 When Andros assumed the government of the 
New England colonies, Rhode Island quietly submit- 
ted 11 to his authority ; but when he was imprisoned" 5 
at Boston, and sent to England, the people assembled* 1 
at Newport, and, resuming their 
former charter privileges, re-elected 
the officers whom Andros had dis- 
placed. Once more the free gov- 
ernment of the colony was organ- 
ized, and its seal was restored, 
with its symbol an anchor, and its 
motto Hope, — fit emblems of the 
steadfast zeal with which Rhode 
Island has ever cherished all her 
early religious freedom, and her 
eivil rights. 



principles I 
July 18, 
1663. 



and Qua- 
kers I 



4. What 
is said of 
Rhode Is- 
land daring 
and after 
the usurpa- 
tion of All/- 
drosl 




BEAi OF BHODE ISLAND. 



d. Jan. 16S7. 



e. See p. 90. 



L May 11, 1639. 




[part n. 



HEETET HUDSON. 



CHAPTER VI. 

NEW YORK.* 



SEC. I. — NEW NETIIEEI.AND8, PREVIOUS TO IIS 
CONQUEST BY THE ENGLISH IN 1664 



1. 'During the years 1607 and 
1608, Henry Hudson, an English 
mariner of some celebrity, and then 
l. rirs: two in the employ of a company of London merchants, made 
Hm^mfd- two voyages to the northern coasts of America, with 
8<mf the hope of finding a passage, through those icy seas, 
s. what did to the genial climes of Southern Asia. 2 His employers 
nl'iido? being disheartened by his failure, he next entered the 
a. April w. service of the Dutch East India Company, and in April, 
1609. 1609, sailed - on his third voyage. 
account™ %■ 3 Failing to discover a northern passage to India, 
m voyage. ne turned to the south, and explored the eastern coast, 
in the hope of finding an opening to the Pacific, 
through the continent. After proceeding south as far 
as the capesf of Virginia, he again turned north, ex- 
amined the waters of Delaware Bay,! anc b following 
\ S onhl' ^ e eastern coast of New Jersey, on the 13th of Sep- 
diicoberyof tember he anchored his vessel within Sandy Hook.§ 
River. 3. 4 Afler a week's delay, Hudson passed b through 



* NEW YORK, the most northern of the Middle States, and now the most populous 
in the Union, has an area of nearly 47,000 square miles. This state has a great variety 
of surface. Two chains of the Alleghanies pass through the eastern part of the state 
The Highlands, coming from New Jersey, cross the Hudson near West Point, and soon 
after pass into Connecticut. The Catskill mountains, farther west, and more irregulai 
in their outlines, cross the Mohawk, and continue under different names, along the 
western border of Lake Champlain. The western part of the state has generally a level 
surface, except in the southern tier of counties, where the western ranges of the Al 
leghanies terminate. The soil throughout the state is, generally, good ; and along the 
valley of the Mohawk, and in the western part of the state, it is highly fertile. 

t (Japes Charles and Henry, at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay. 

j Delaware Bay is a large arm of the sea, setting up into the land between New Jer- 
sey and Delaware; and having, at its entrance, Cape May on the north, and Caue K.t 
lopen on the south, -eighteen miles apart. Some distance within the capes the bay is 
thirty miles across. This bay has no safe natural harbor, but a good artificial harbor has 
been constructed by the general government within Cape Henlopen. It is formed by 
two massive stone piers, called the Delaware Breakwater. 

$ Sandy Bonk is a low sandy island, on the eastern coast of New Jersey, extending 
north from the N. Eastern extremity of Monmouth County, and separated from it by 
Shrewsbury Inlet. It is five miles in length, and seventeen miles S. from New York. 
At the northern extremity of the island is a light-house, but the accumulating sand is 
gradually extending the point farther north. Sandy Hook was a peninsula until 1778, 
when the waters of the ocean forced a passage, and cut it off from the mainland. In 
1800 the inlet was closed, but it was opened again in 1830, and now admits vessels 
through its channel. 



CHAP. VI. j 



NEW YORK. 



117 



the Narrows,* and, during ten days, continued to as- 
cend the noble river which bears his name ; nor was 
it until his vessel had passed beyond the city of Hud 
son,f and a boat had advanced probably beyond Al- 
bany, that he appears to have relinquished all hopes 
of being able to reach the Pacific by this inland pas- 
sage. 'Having completed his discovery, he slowly 
descended the stream, and sailing 1 for Europe, reached 
England in the November b following. The king, 
James the First, jealous of the advantages which the 
Dutch might seek to derive from the discovery, forbade 
his return to Holland. 

4. 2 In the following year, 1610, the Dutch East 
India Company fitted out a ship with merchandise, to 
traffic with the natives of the countiy which Hudson 
had explored. 3 The voyage being prosperous, the 
traffic was continued; and when Argall, in 1613, was 
returning from his excursion against the French set- 
tlement of Port Royal, he found on the island of Man- 
hattan!: a few rude hovels, which the Dutch had erected 
there as a summer station for those engaged in the trade 
with the natives. 

5. 4 The Dutch, unable to make any resistance 
against the force of Argall, quietly submitted to the 
English claim of sovereignty over the country; but, 

* The entrance to New York harbor, between Lone; Island on the east and Staten 
Island on the west, is called the Narrows. It is about one mile wide, and is nine 
miles below the city. (See Map.) 

t The city of Hudson is on the east side of Hudson River, 116 miles N. from New 
York, and twenty-nine miles S. from Al- 
bany. 

X Manhattan, or New York island, lies 
on the east side of Hudson River, at the 
head of New York harbor. It is about 
fourteen miles in length, and has an av- 
erage width of one mile and three fifths. 
It is separated from Long Island on the 
east, by a strait called the East River, 
which connects the harbor and Long Is- 
land Sound ; and from the mainland on 
the east by Haerlem River, a strait which 
connects the East River and the Hudson. 
The Dutch settlement on the southern 
part of the island, was called New Am- 
sterdam. Here now stands the city of 
New Turk, the largest in America, and 
second only to London in the amount of 
Its commerce. The city is rapidly increas- 
ing in size, although its compact parts al- 
ready have a circumfere ice of about nine 
miles (See Map.) 



1609. 



a. Oct 14. 
1. What is 

said of 

Hudson's re 

turn, and 

his treat- 

ment by tlut 

king 1 

b. Nov. 17. 



1610. 

2. What zoos 
done by the 
Dutch East 
India Com- 
pany i 

c. See p. 56. 

3. What vjas 
the. condi- 
tion of the 

Dutch settle- 
ment at tlie 
time of Ar 
gall's visit? 



4. What too* 

the result oj 

Argall's 

visit I 



NEW YORK AND VICINITY. 



ft fi 

"Wfchnivt<£iSr- 7 , 

Hq# ol<fln aj ■ ■) ;':■ , A 
■'"(no „,rt '.,fy£^~~> 

■■■. - . \tf£$' :-*-i < 

j? fj^S*/^- r °"''~ J , .■••■ 

\ M'f l^Marbor-yyp^ 
<£?. S&> , (' •' >/Flatbusl 

3 /XJJS.TIj-A.^XiL 




118 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



PART H, 



1613. 

1614. 

1. What new 
settlement 

was soo?' %f- 
ter made, 
and what 
■was the 
country 
called ? 

2. How was 
the country 
governed,— 
when actu- 
ally coloni- 
zed,— and 
when was 

the first gov- 
ernor ap- 
pointed i 

1621. 

3. What is 
said of the 
Dutch West 
India Com- 
pany? 



1623. 

4. Give an 
account of 
the attempt- 
ed settle- 
ment in the 

southern 

•part of New 

Jersey. 



5. Of sett le- 
tnentsin the 

north of 
New Jersey. 



on his departure, they continued their tramc, — passed 
the winter there, and, in the following year, erected a 
rude fort on the southern part of the island. 'In 1615 
they began a settlement at Albany,* which had been 
previously visited, and erected a fort which was called 
Fort Orange. The country in their possession was 
called New Netherlands.! 

6. 2 During several years, Directors, sent out by the 
East India Company, exercised authority over the little 
settlement of New Amsterdam on the island of Man- 
hattan, but it was not until 1623 that the actual colo- 
nizing of the country took place, nor until 1625 that 
an actual governor was formally appointed. 3 In 1621 
the Dutch West India Company was formed, and, in 
the same year, the States-General of Holland granted 
to it the exclusive privilege to traffic and plant colonies 
on the American coast, from the Straits of Magellan to 
the remotest north. 

7. 4 In 1623 a number of settlers, duly provided with 
the means of subsistence, trade, and defence, were sent 
out under the command of Cornelius Mey, who not 
only visited Manhattan, but, entering Delaware Bay, 
and ascending the river,| took possession of the coun- 
try, and, a few miles below Camden, § in the present 
New Jersey, built Fort Nassau. || The fort, however, 
was soon after abandoned, and the worthy Captain 
Mey carried away with him the affectionate regrets of 
the natives, who long cherished his memory. Prob- 
ably a few years before this, the Dutch settled at 



ALBANY AND VICINITY. 



* Jllbany, now the capital of the state of New York, is 
situated on the west hank of the Hudson River, 145 miles 
N. from New York by the river's course. It was first 
called by the Dutch Beaverwyck, and afterwards Wil- 
lianistadt. (See Map.) 

t The country from Cape Cod to the banks of the Dela- 
ware was claimed by the Dutch. 

t The Delaware River rises in the S. Eastern part ei 
the state of New York, west of the Catskill mountains. 
It forms sixty miles of the boundary line between New 
York and Pennsylvania, and during the remainder of itn 
course is the boundary between New Jersey, on the one 
side, and Pennsylvania and Delaware on the other. It is navigable for vessels of the 
largest class to Philadelphia. 

§ Camden, now a city, is situated on the east side of Delaware River, opposite to 
Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 152.) 

|| This fort was on Big Timber Creek, in the present Gloucester County, about five 
miles S. from Camden. 




CHAP. VI.] NEW YORK. 119 

Bergen,* and other places west of the Hudson, in New 1623. 
Jersey. 

8. ^n 1625 Peter Minuits arrived at Manhattan, as 1025. 
governor of New Netherlands, and in the same year \ »'>*<« 
the settlement of Brooklyn,! on Long Island,! was curved m 
commenced. 2 The Dutch colony at this time showed 2 What 
a disposition to cultivate friendly relations with the feelings 
English settlements in New England, and mutual tainea by 

• the Dutch 

courtesies were exchanged, — the Dutch cordially in- amitiie 
viting* the Plymouth settlers to remove to the more 'dndisro ' 
fertile soil of "the Connecticut, and the English ad- "%%&?* 
vising the Dutch to secure their claim to the banks of a - Oct. 
the Hudson by a treaty with England. 

9. 3 Although Holland claimed the country, on the 3. what u 
ground of its discovery by Hudson, yet it was likewise s %,po{?fiT 
claimed by England, on the ground of the first dis- cl cdunt%'? e 
covery of the continent by Cabot. 4 The pilgrims ex- i.whatai& 
pressed the kindest wishes for the prosperity of the gnmsre- 
Dutch, but, at the same time, requested them not to m vutm* 
send their skiffs into Narragansett Bay for beaver 

skins. 6 The Dutch at Manhattan were at that time 5. whatioas 
little more than a company of hunters and traders, em- fufnoffhc 
ployed in the traffic of the furs of the otter and the £$$ittL* 
beaver. 

10. 6 In 1629 the West India Company, in the hope 1629. 
of exciting individual enterprise to colonize the coun- „ C raw»/o/ 
try, promised, by "a charter of liberties," the grant of tn £' ch ? rte l 

■ J m 1 t-t-1111 ii of liberties " 

an extensive tract 01 land to each individual who should, 
within four years, form a settlement of fifty persons 
Those who should plant colonies were to purchase the 
land of the Indians, and it was likewise enjoined upon 
them that they should, at an early period, provide for 
the support of a minister and a schoolmaster, that the 
service of God, and zeal for religion, might not be 
neglected. 

* The village of Bergen is on the summit of Bergen Ridge, three miles VV frorr 
Jersey City, and four from New York. (See Map, p. 117.) 

t Brooklyn, now a city, is situated on elevated land at the west end of Long Island. 
opposite the lower part of the city of New York, from which it is separated by East 
River, three fourths of a mile wide. (See Map, p. 117.) 

J / ivg Island, forming a part of the state of New York, lies south of Connecticut, 
from which it is separated by Long Island Sound. It is 120 miles in length, and has 
an average width of about twelve miles. It contains an area of about 1,450 square 
Miles, and is, therefore, larger than the entire state of Rhode Island. The north side 
of ths island is rough and hilly, — the south low and sandy. (See Map, p. 117.) 



120 COLONIAL HISTORY. fPART tt. 

1629. 11. l Under this charter, four directors of the com- 
i whanaZ P an y> distinguished by the title of patrons or patroons, 
soiTof'ihe appropriated to themselves some of the most valuable 
direaorsof portions of the territory. 2 One* of the patroons having 

the W. India r , ,, . , J . , . r , i ,- /. ■ ° 

company) purchased" Irom the natives the southern half of the 
a. Godyn. p resen t s tate of Delaware, a colony under De Vriez 

h. June. * . . . - ' ' • J ,, , 

2. Give an was sent out, and early in lbol a small settlement was 

a? attempt formed near the present Lewistown.* 3 The Dutch 

setfkmmt now occupied Delaware, and the claims of New Neth- 

in Deia- erlands extended over the whole country from Cape 

ware. TT , , J r 

cK3>j). io. Henlopenf to Gape God. c 

1632. 12. 4 After more than a year's residence in America, 
3. wimt was D e Vriez returned to Holland, leaving his infant col- 

now the ex- * o 

tent of tiie, ony to the care of one Osset. The folly of the new 
claims? commandant, in his treatment of the natives, soon pro- 

d. Dec. voked their jealousy, and on the return d of De Vriez, 
^'thcfaUoT at me eno ^ °f me y ear ; h e found the fort deserted. In- 

ware. e coi- °-ian vengeance had prepared an ambush, and every 

onyi white man had been murdered. 5 De Vriez himself 

laidofthe narrowly escaped the perfidy of the natives, being 

De°vrte°/i saved by the kind interposition of an Indian woman, 

who warned him of the designs of her countrymen. 

1633. 'After proceeding to Virginia for the purpose of ob- 
I'^clludh ta mmg provisions, De Vriez sailed to New Amsterdam, 
next visa? where he found e Wouter Van T wilier, the second 

e. April, governor, who had just been sent out to supersede the 

discontented Minuits. 
account"*/ 1 ^ 7 A f ew months before the arrival of Van Twil- 
the first set- ler as governor, the Dutch had purchased of the na- 
aie Dutch, tives the soil around Hartford/ and had erected 3 and 
English, pi fortified a trading-house on land within the limits of 
c °cut cn ' the present city. The English, however, claimed the 
f.N.p. 103. country; and, in the same year, a number of the 
h octree Plymouth colonists proceeded up the river, and, in de- 
page 103. fiance of the threats of the Dutch, commenced 11 a set 
8. What be- tlement at Windsor. 8 Although for many years the 
Butchtra- Dutch West India Company retained possession of 
di ?ion'-F their feeble trading station, yet it was finally over- 
whelmed by the numerous settlements of the more en- 

* Lewistown is on Lewis Creek, in Sussex County, Delaware, five or six miles from 
Cape Uenlopen. In front of the village is the Delaware Breakwater, 
t Cape Uenlopen is the southern cape of the entrance into Delaware Bay. 



CHAP. VI.] 



NEW YORK. 



121 



1. What is 

said of the. 

settlements 

on Long h 

land} 



2. What 
is said of 
Gustavus 
Adolphus, 
and what 
delayed the 
execution of 
his project ( 



terprising New Englanders. 'The English likewise 163 
formed settlements on the eastern end of Long Island, 
although they were for a season resisted by the Dutch, 
who claimed the whole island, as a part of New Neth- 
erlands. 

14. 2 While the English were thus encroaching 
upon the Dutch on the east, the southern portion of 
the territory claimed by the latter was seized by a new 
competitor. Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, the 
hero of his age, and the renowned champion of the 
Protestant religion in Europe, had early conceived the 
design of planting colonies in America. Under the 
auspices of the Swedish monarch a commercial com- 
pany was formed for this purpose as early as 1626, 
but the German war, in which Gustavus was soon 
after engaged, delayed for a time the execution of the 
project. 3 After the death 1 of Gustavus, which hap- 
pened at the battle of Lutzen,* in 1633, his worthy 
minister renewed the plan of an American settlement, 
the execution of which he entrusted to Peter Minuits, 
the first governor of New Netherlands. 

15. 4 Early in the year 1638, about the same time 
that Sir William Kieft succeeded Van Twiller in the 
government of New Netherlands, the Swedish colony 
under Minuits arrived, erected a fort, and formed a set- 
tlement on Christiana Creek,f near Wilmington.^ wjth- 
in the present state of Delaware. s Kieft, considering 
this an intrusion upon his territories, sent b an unavailing 
remonstrance to the Swedes, and, as a check to their 
aggressions, rebuilt Fort Nassau on the eastern bank of 
\he Delaware. c The Swedes gradually extended their 
;ettlements, and, to preserve their ascendency over the 

Dutch, their governor estab- 
lished his residence and built c 164 



«_». 



NORTHERN PART OF DELAWARE. 



a. Nov. 86, 

1633. 
3. What WO* 
done by the 
minister of 
Gustavus? 



1638. 

4. Give an 
account of 
the settle- 
ment of Del- 
aware. 



5. Ul;at ov 

position wot 

made by the 

Dutch' 

b. May. 

6. What is 
said of the 
progress of 
the Swedish 
settlements'! 




O. 



* Lutzen is a town in Prussian Saxony, on one of 
the branches of the Elbe. Here the French, under 
Bonaparte, defeated the combined forces of Prussia 
and Russia in 1813. 

f Christiana Creek is in the northern part of the 
state of Delaware, and has its head branches in Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland. It enters the Brandywine 
River at Wilmington. (See Map.) 

I Wilmington, in the northern part of the stite of 
Delaware, is situated between Brandywine anil Chris- 
tiana Creeks, one mile above their junction, and two 
miles west from Delaware River. (See Map.) 

6 



122 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART O, 

1643. a fort on the island of Tinicum,* a few miles below 

" l Extent Philadelphia. 'The territory occupied by the Swedes, 

f, nd '!^°/ extending from Cape Henlopen to the falls in the Del- 

ttrritunjt aware, opposite Trenton,! was called New Sweden. 

2. Give an 16. 2 In 1640 the Long Island and New Jersey ln- 

fhe°i')tdian dians began to show symptoms of hostility towards the 

U whichThl n Dutch. Provoked by dishonest traders, and maddened 

D M%™ed. e D y rum ? they attacked the settlements on Staten Island,"}: 

and threatened New Amsterdam. A fruitless expedi- 

a, 1641 . tion* against the Delawares of New Jersey was the 

consequence. 3 The war continued, with various suc- 

1643. cess, until 1643, when the Dutch solicited peace ; and 

3 How was by the mediation of the wise and ffood Roger Wil- 
li truce ob- J . • . P » , 

tained,but hams, a brief truce was obtained. 1 * but confidence 

what soon -. J ■ t i i r mi iii 

after follow- could not easily be restored, for revenge still rankled 

b, April, in the hearts of the Indians, and in a few months they 

c sept, again began the work of blood and desolation. 

4. Give an 17. 4 The Dutch now engaged in their service Cap- 

m exploits tain John Underhill, an Englishman who had settled 

%nderhiiL on Long Island, and who had previously distinguished 

himself in the Indian wars of New England. Having 

raised a considerable number of men under Kieft's au- 

(i. probably thority, he defeated d the Indians on Long Island, and 

in 1645 • . 

also at Strickland's Plain, § or Horseneck, on the main- 
land. 

5. .How was is, sThe war was finally terminated by the medi- 
ae war ter- . . / . . J . 

minatedi ation oi the Iroquois, who, claiming a sovereignty over 
the Algonquin tribes around Manhattan, proposed 
e. 1645. terms of peace, which were gladly accepted 6 by both par- 
6. wtmt u ties. 6 The fame of Kieft is tarnished by the exceeding 
cruelty and cruelty which he practiced towards the Indians. The 
Kieja colonists requesting his recall, and the West India Com- 
pany disclaiming his barbarous policy, in 1647 he ein- 
1547. barked for Europe in a richly laden vessel, but the ship 

* Tinicum is a long narrow island in Delaware River, belonging to Pennsylvania 
twelve miles, by the river's course, S.W. from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 152.) 

t Trenton, now the capital of New Jersey, is situated on the E. side of Delaware 
.liver, thirty miles N.E. from Philadelphia, and fifty-five S.W. from New York. (See 
Map, p. 226, and also p. 228.) 

t Staten Island, belonging to the state of New York, is four and a half miles S.E. from 
New York city. It is about thirty-five miles in circumference. It has Newark Bay 
on the north, Raritan Bay on the south, and a narrow channel, called Staten Island 
Sound, on the west. (See Map, p. 117, and p. 226.) 

§ Strickland's Plain is at the western extremity of the state of Connecticut, in the 
present town of Greenwich. The peninsula on which the plain is situated was called 
Horseneck, because it was early used as a pasture for horses. 



CHAP. VI. J NEW YORK. 123 

was wrecked on the coast of Wales, and the unhappy 1G17. 
governor perished. " 

19. 'William Kieft was succeeded 1 by Peter Stuy- a. June, 
vesant, the most noted of the governors of New Neth- h ££%%?* 
erlands. By his judicious treatment of the Indians he so ^^ear- 
conciliated their favor, and such a change did he pro- nwntoftht 
duce in their feelings towards the Dutch, that he was 
accused of endeavoring to enlist them in a general war 
against the English. 

20. 2 After long continued boundary disputes with 2 . of ma 
the colonies of New England, Stuyvesant relinquished MeEHwif/tf 
a portion of his claims, and concluded a provisional 1650. 
treaty, b which allowed New Netherlands to extend on D . sept 
Long Island as far as Oyster Bay,* and on the main- 
land as far as Greenwich,! near the present boundary 
between New York and Connecticut. 3 For the pur- 3. of the 
pose of placing a barrier to the encroachments of the loss of Fort 
Swedes on the south, in 1651 Stuyvesant built Fort jecT 
Casimir on the site of the present town of Newcastle,^: 
within five miles of the Swedish fort at Christiana. 

The Swedes, however, soon after obtained possession ]6 _ 4 
of the fort by stratagem, and overpowered the garrison, 

21. 4 The home government, indignant at the out- i. Give an 
rage of the Swedes, ordered Stuyvesant to reduce them v^wviucm 
to submission. With six hundred men the governor sw'edin. 
sailed for this purpose in 1655, and soon compelled the 
surrender 11 of all the Swedish fortresses. Honorable a. sept, ana 
terms were granted to the inhabitants. Those who 0ct 
quietly submitted to the authority of the Dutch retained 

the possession of their estates ; the governor, Rising, 
was conveyed to Europe ; a few of the colonists re- 
moved to Maryland and Virginia, and the country was 
placed under the government of deputies of New Neth- 
erlands. 

22. s Such was the end of the little Protestant colony s. what « 

cm c\ i t i ■ • i • 1 1 • said of Vie 

of iNew Sweden, it was a religious and intelligent character of 

..i ,, • ° the Swedisr 

community, — preserving peace with the natives, ever colony! 

* Oyster Bay is on the north side of Long Island, at the N.E. extremity of Queen* 
County, thirty miles N.E. from New York city. 

t Greenwich is the S. Western town of Connecticut. Byram River enters the 3our.d 
on the boundary between Connecticut and New York. 

t Newcastle is on the west side of Delaware River, in the state of Delaware, thirty-two 
miles S.W. from Philadelphia. The northern boundary of the state is part of the cir 
cumference of a circle drawn twelve miles distant from Newcastle. (.See Map. p. 121.) 



loarl 



124 COLONIAL HISTORY. {PART H 

1655. ch< rishing a fond attachment to the mother country 
and loyalty towards its sovereign ; and long after theii 
conquest by the Dutch, and the subsequent transfer to 
England, the Swedes of the Delaware remained the 
objects of generous and disinterested regard at the 
court of Stockholm. 
.what in- 23. l While the forces of the Dutch were withdrawn 
ities occur- from New Amsterdam, in the expedition against the 
re fi»tef ls Swedes, the neighboring Indians appeared in force 
before the city, and ravaged the surrounding country. 
The return of the expedition restored confidence ; — 
peace was concluded, and the captives were ransomed, 
a. June. 24. 2 In 1663 the village of Esopus, now Kingston,* 
oiherag- was suddenly attacked 11 by the Indians, and sixty-five 
foifowed °f me inhabitants Avere either killed or carried away 
and what captive. A force from New Amsterdam beino- sent to 
suit of the their assistance, the Indians were pursued to their vil- 
lages ; their fields were laid waste ; many of their 
warriors were killed, and a number of the captives 
were released. These vigorous measures were followed 
by a truce in December, and a treaty of peace in the 
b . I664 . May following. b 
3 What u 25. 3 Although the Dutch retained possession of the 
said of the country as far south as Cape Henlopen, vet their claims 

boundaries J . i- i t-» i • ' i 

°/-^'p were resisted, both by Lord Baltimore, the proprietor 
-and of the of Maryland, and by the governor of Virginia. Hie 
th*m,teh southern boundary of New Netherlands was never 
claims? definitely settled. At the north, the subject of bounda- 
ries was still more troublesome ; Massachusetts claimed 
an indefinite extent of territory Avestward, Connecticut 
had increased her pretensions on Long Island, and 
her settlements were steadily advancing toAvards the 
Hudson. 
4. what dis- 26. 4 Added to these difficulties from Avithout, dis- 
arose "among contents had arisen among the Dutch themselves. 
the Dutch? iq ie New England notions of popular rights began to 
prevail ; — the people, hitherto accustomed to implicit 
deference to the Avill of their rulers, began to demand 
?. How were greater privileges as citizens, and a share in the gov- 
mandsmet? ernment. 5 Stuyvesant resisted the demands of the 

* Kingston, formerly called Esopus, is on the W. side of Hudson River, in Ulstei 
County, about ninety miles N. from New York city 



OHAP. VI.] NEW YORK. 125 

people, and was sustained by the home government. 1664. 
'The prevalence of liberal principles, and the unjust J rowh ~ t 
exactions of an arbitrary government, had alienated extent had 
the anections of the people, and when rumors of an tionsqfthe 
English invasion reached them, they were already pre- come alien, 
pared to submit to English authority, in the hope of 
obtaining English rights. 

27. 2 Early in 1664, during a period of peace be- 2 UJiat u 
tween England and Holland, the king of England, J^f{ a jL 
indifferent to the claims of the Dutch, granted 1 to his " D y ke k f 
brother James, the Duke of York, the whole territory a . March 22. 
from the Connecticut River to the shores of the Del- 
aware. 3 The duke soon fitted out a squadron under s. Give an 
Colonel Nichols, with orders to take possession of the meexpedi- 
Dutch province. The arrival of the fleet found New 'ois, andtha 
Amsterdam in a defenceless state. The governor, s xew"setfc 
Stuyvesant, faithful to his employers, assembled his erland3 - 
council and proposed a defence of the place ; but it 

was in vain that he endeavored to infuse his own spirit 
into his people, and it was not until after the capitu- 
lation had been agreed b to by the magistrates, that he b - Se P'- 6 - 
reluctantly signed it. c. sept. 8. 

28. 4 The fall of the capital, which now received the 4. what 
name of New York, was followed by the surrender" 1 LX«h« 
of the settlement at Fort Orange, which received the the aerV' n 
name of Albany, and by the general submission of the <i Oct 4. 
province, with its subordinate settlements on the Del- e. Oct. 11. 
aware.' 6 The government of England was acknowl- 5 th w [l e r ".^ 
edged over the whole early in October. 1664. ^ me ,"' / 

7> __,, .. .J . i tt 11 1 England ae- 

29. * i hus, while England and Holland were at knowledge* 

1 ' r ^ n . • • • 1 over the 

peace, by an act of the most flagrant injustice, the whole? 
Dutch dominion in America was overthrown after an f a i£$fthe 
existence of little more than half a century. 7 Previous ^{^'^f 
to the surrender, the Duke of York had conveyed f to guest? 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret all that por- " 7 f ty^'/' 
tion of New Netherlands which now forms the state sfmtvm 

made to 

of New Jersey, over which a separate government was verMey 
established under its proprietors. 8 The settlements on tereti 
the Delaware, subsequently called " The Territories," s l) d u /"'^ 
were connected with the province of New York until T r f^' 
their purchase 6 by William Penn in 1682, when they g . see p. 130 
wer3 icined to the government of Pennsylvania. 




PETES STUYVESANT. 



[part n. 



SECTION II. 

NEW YORK TO 1754. (DELAWARE* 
INCLUDED UNTIL 1682.) 

1. 'On the surrender of New 

Netherlands, the new name of its 

capital was extended to the whole 

territory embraced under the gov 

1664. eminent of the Duke of York. Long Island, which 

x what had been previously granted 3 - to the Earl of Sterling, 

danges was now, in total disregard of the claims of Connec- 

a/ter the ticut, purchased by the duke, and has since remained 

™™ m Ne7h£-- a part of New York. " The Territories," comprising 

tonds ' the present Delaware, remained under the jurisdiction 

a. 1623. Q £ ]sj ew York, and were ruled by deputies appointed 

by the governors of the latter. 

2. Give an 2. 2 Colonel Nichols, the first English governor of 

v^adminfs- the province, exercised both executive and legislative 

'olvernw powers, but no rights of representation were conceded 

Sichxiis. t0 ^g p e0 ple. The Dutch titles to land were held to 

be invalid, and the fees exacted for their renewal were 

a source of much profit to the new governor. The 

people were disappointed' in not obtaining a represent 

ative government, yet it must be admitted that the 

governor, considering his arbitrary powers, ruled with 

much moderation. 

3. 3 Under Lovelace, the successor of Nichols, the 

arbitrary system of the new government was more 

fully developed. The people protested against being 

taxed for the support of a government in which they 

urn of Love- had no voice, and when their proceedings were trans- 

l(LC& 

mitted to the governor, they were declared " scanda- 
lous, illegal, and seditious," and were ordered to be 
burned by the common hangman. 



1667. 



1670. 

3. Of the 
administra 



* DELAWARE, one of the Middle States, and, next to Rhode Island, the smallest in 
the Union, contains an area of but little more than 2,000 square miles. The southern 
part of the state is level and sandy; the northern moderately hilly and rough ; while 
the western border contains an elevated table land, dividing the waters which fall into 
•.he Chesapeake from those which flow into Delaware Hay. 



CHAI\ VI. j NEW YORK. 127 



1673. 

Aug. 9. 



4. l A war having broken out between England and 1672. 
Holland in 1672, in the following year the latter dis- 
patched a small squadron to destroy the commerce of 
the English colonies. Arriving at New York during i Give an 
the absence of the governor, the city was surrendered 1 $£$%£$ 
by the traitorous and cowardly Manning, without any ^^tn/bv 
attempt at defence. New Jersey made no resistance, ih f/!" !ck : 
and the settlements on the Delaware followed the ex- tmarnn to 
ample. The name New Netherlands was again re- ,r-° ~ 
vived, but it was of short continuance. In February trV< 
of the following year peace was concluded b between b Feb 19 
the contending powers, and early in November New 
Netherlands was again surrendered to the English. 

5. 2 Doubts having been raised as to the validity of 2. wnym 
the Duke of York's title, because it had been granted Yw-koVam 
while the Dutch were in full and peaceful possession f e "f^?" e 
of the country, and because the country had since been eountryi 
reconquered by them, the duke thought it prudent to 
obtain from his brother, the king, a new patent, c . July 9. 
confirming the former grant. 3 The office of gov- 3 . whowaa 
ernor was conferred 11 on Edmund Andros, who af- S^^ t 
terwards became distinguished as the tyrant of New d. July n. 
England. 

6. 4 His government was arbitrary ; no representa- ^"e^.^ 
tion was allowed the people, and taxes were levied „ %£ f n "£ nl 
without their consent. 6 As the Duke of York claimed of Andros? 
the country as far east as the Connecticut River, in the 1675. 
following summer Andros proceeded to Saybrook, and s a "qf L? 
attempted' to enforce the claim ; but the spirited re- ^f^}L 
sistance of the people compelled him to return without duke'scuum 

,.,.}. r . . r to Connec- 

accomplishing 111s object. ttcut! 

7. 6 Andros likewise attempted f to extend his juris- eJ p Iv j 09 See 
diction over New Jersey, claiming it as a dependency 6. To Net? 
of New York, although it had previously been re- f 16 ^!!.f 6S0 
granted 2 by the duke to Berkeley and Carteret. 7 In g. see p. 125 
1682 the "Territories," now forming the state of Del- "! fi L ' 
aware, were granted 11 by the Duke of York to Wil- 7 Whar ~f'„- 
liam Penn, from which time until the Revolution they theris°c.i 

• i ■ 1 t~» j • ■ i J of the nis- 

were united with Pennsylvania, or remained under ton/ cf Dei- 
the jurisdiction of her governors. h . See p.iso 

8. 'Andros having returned to England, Colonel *.who\oaa 
Thomas Dongan, a Catholic, was appointed governor, & jn&vt 



.28 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART rx 



16§3. 

1. Under 

what cir- 
cumstances 

was the 
"Charter of 

Liberties" 
established? 

a. Nov. 9. 



2. What 
were the 
provisions 

of the 
Charier? 



3. What 
treaty was 

made in 

1684? 

b. Aug. 12. 

1685. 

c. Feb. 
4. What ar- 
bitrary 
measures 
'allowed the 
accession of 
James II. ? 



5. miat is 
laid of tlie 
introduc- 
tion of the 
Catholic re- 
ligion ? 
6. What in- 
struction 
did Dongan 
receive, and 
tally did he 
resist the 
measure? 
7. What is 
sail of the 
Iroquois and 
the French i 



and arrived in the province in 1683. 'Through the 
advice of William Penn the duke had instructed Don- 
gan to call an assembly of representatives. The as- 
sembly, with the approval of the governor, established 
a " Charter of Liberties," which conceded to the 
people many important rights which they had not pre- 
viously enjoyed. 

9. 2 The charter declared that " supreme legislative 
power should for ever reside in the governor, council 
and people, met in general assembly ; — that every free 
holder and freeman might vote for representatives with 
out restraint, — that no freeman should suffer, but by 
judgment of his peers, and that all trials should be by 
a jury of twelve men, — that no tax should be assessed, 
on any pretence whatever, but by the consent of the 
assembly, — that no seaman or soldier should be quar- 
tered on the inhabitants against their will, — that no 
martial law should exist, — and that no person profess- 
ing faith in God, by Jesus Christ, should at any time, 
be in any way disquieted or questioned for any differ- 
ence of opinion in matters of religion." 3 In 1684 the 
governors of New York and Virginia met the deputies 
of the Five Nations at Albany, and renewed b with 
them a treaty of peace. 

10. 4 On the accession of the Duke of York to the 
throne of England, with the title of James II., the 
hopes which the people entertained, of a permanent 
representative government, were, in a measure, de- 
feated. A direct tax was decreed, — printing presses, 
the dread of tyrants, were forbidden in the province ; 
and many arbitrary exactions were imposed on the 
people. 

11. s It was the evident intention of the king to in- 
troduce the Catholic religion into the province, and 
most of the officers appointed by him were of that faith. 
4 Among other modes of introducing popery, James in- 
structed Governor Dongan to favor the introduction of 
Catholic priests, by the French, among the Iroquois ; 
but Dongan, although a Catholic, clearly seeing the 
ambitious designs of the French for extending their 
influence over the Indian tribes, resisted the measure. 
7 The Iroquois remained attached to the English, and 



Nicholson. 
June. 



CHAP. VI.] "NEW YORK. 1 29 

long carried on a violent warfare against the French. 16§7. 

During the administration of Dongan the French made — 

two invasions* of the territory of the Iroquois, neither a. in 16S4 

J 1 ' and 1687. 

oi which was successtul. 

12. 'Dongan was succeeded by Francis Nicholson, 1688. 
the lieutenant-general of Andros. Andros had been '^"'^{"j 
previously 11 appointed governor of New England, and °f thc au : 

f. , •> . r " ° ,, . ° . ' c tiionly of 

h's authority was now extended over the province oi Andros in 
New York. 2 The discontents of the people had been j 1 , Sec p 90 
sj-adually increasing since the conquest from the Dutch, 2. How did 

1 1 • . •.-!<- 1 c 1 ■ p the people 

and when, in 1639, news arrived 01 the accession 01 receive me 
William and Mary to the throne of England, the peo- acceponoj 
pie joyfully received the intelligence, and rose in open andiiaryi 
rebellion to the existing government. 1639. 

13. 3 0ne Jacob Leisler, a captain of the militia, *■ Give an 

ix 1 account or 

aided by several hundred men in arms, with the g;en- the proceea- 

i 1 ■ p ,, 1 ■ n .1 insrsofLeis 

era! approbation 01 the citizens took possession or the urandof 
lbrt at New York, in the name of William and Mary ; 
while Nicholson, after having vainly endeavored to 
counteract the movements of the people, secretly went 
on board a ship and sailed for England. 4 The ma- 4 wnatdit 
gistrates of the city, however, being opposed to the as- /^IsoJ^tki 
sumption of Leisler, repaired to Albany, where the city do! 
authority of Leisler was denied, although, in both 
places, the government was administered in the name 
of William and Mary. 

1 4. s Milborne, the son-in-law of Leisler, was sent to s. What u 
Albany to demand the surrender of the fort ; but, meet- %orne's em- 
ing with opposition, he returned without accomplishing "banyr 
his object. 6 In December, letters arrived from the king, 6 Wmt in . 
empowering Nimolson, or whoever administered the ^ r u e "' e °eiv- 
government in his absence, to take the chief command S l -Ij om d 
of the province. Leisler regarded the letter as ad- and how da 
dressed to himself, and assumed the title and authority gardthemi 
of lieutenant-governor. 1690. 

15. 7 King William's war having at this period bro- 7. Give an 
ken out, in February^ 1690, a party of about three thfSruc- 
hui idred French and Indians fell upon Schenectady, a tW ne°liady* 
village on the Mohawk, killed sixty persons, took thirty d - F r eb - ,8 - 
prisoners, and burned the place. 8 Soon after this event, airredsom 
the northern portion of the province, terrified by the event** 



13U 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



169©. 



1. What is 
said of tlie 
nortitcrn 
colonies, 
and of the 
enterprise 
against 
Montreal 
and Que- 
bec! 
0. May. See 
page 91. 

b. See p. 92. 



1691. 

2. What 
passed be- 
tween Leis- 
ter and In- 

goldsby ? 



d. March 29. 

3. When did 
Sloughter 

arrive, and 
what fol- 
lowed I 

4. Why did 
Leisler at 

first hesitate 
<) yield, and 
what loos 
the result ? 



recent calami/y, and troubled by domestic factions, 
yielde d to the authority of Leisler. 

16. 'The northern colonies, roused by the atrocities 
of the French and their savage allies at the commence- 
ment of King William's war, resolved to attack the 
enemy in turn. After the successful expedition 3 of Sir 
William Phipps against Port Royal, New York, Mas- 
sachusetts, and Connecticut, united for the reduction of 
Montreal and Gluebec. The naval armament sent 
against Gluebec was wholly unsuccessful. b The land 
expedition, planned by Leisler, and placed under the 
command of General Winthrop of Connecticut, pro- 
ceeded as far as Wood Creek,* near the head of Lake 
Champlain,f when sickness, the want of provisions, 
and dissensions among the officers, compelled a return. 

17. 2 Early in 1691 Richard Ingoldsby arrived at 
New York, and announced the appointment of Colonel 
Sloughter, as governor of the province. He bore a 
commission as captain, and without producing any 
order from the king, or from Sloughter, haughtily de- 
manded of Leisler the surrender of the fort. With 
this demand Leisler refused to comply. He protested 
against the lawless proceedings of Ingoldsby, but de- 
clared his readiness to yield the government to Slough- 
ter on his arrival. 

1 8. 3 At length, in March, Sloughter himself arrived," 1 
and Leisler immediately sent messengers to receive his 
orders. The messengers were detained, and Ingoldsby 
was twice sent to the fort with a verbal commission to 
demand its surrender. 4 Leisler at first hesitated to 
yield to his inveterate enemy, preferring to deliver the 
fort into the hands of Sloughter himself; but, as his 
messengers and his letters to Sloughter were unheeded, 
the next day he personally surrendered the fort, and, 



* Wood Creek, in Washington County, New York, flows north, and falls into the 
south end of Lake Champlain, at the village of Whitehall. The narrow body of water, 
however, between Whitehall and Tieonderoga, is often called South River. Through 
a considerable portion of its course Wood Creek is now used as a part of the Cham- 
plain Canal. There is another Wood Creek in Oneida County, New York. (See p. 181.) 

t Lake Champlain lies between the states of New York and Vermont, anil extends 
foui or five miles into Canada. It is about 120 miles in length, and varies from half a 
mil& to fifteen miles in width, its southern portion being the narrowest. Its outlet is 
Che Sorel or Richelieu, through which it discharges its waters into the St. Lawrence 
This lake was discovered In 1609 by Samuel Champlain, the founder of Quebec. 



CHAP. VI.J NEW YORK. 13 • 

with Milborne and others, was immediately thrown 1691. 
into prison. * 

19. 'Leisler and Milborne were soon after tried on l ac G!v f an r 
the charge of being rebels and traitors, and were con- the maianA 
demned to death, but Sloughter hesitated to put the zAier and 
sentence in execution. At length the enemies of the ■ aTm ' 
condemned, when no other measures could prevail 

with the governor, invited him to a feast, and, when 
his reason was drowned in wine, persuaded him to a - JIay 2B - 
sign the death warrant. Before he recovered from his 'oonciouh 
intoxication the prisoners were executed. a 2 Their "^fjf 
estates were confiscated, but were afterwards, on ap- 3 What 
plication to the kins:, restored to their heirs. other event * 

20. 3 In June, Slougmer met a council of the Iro- jwnedm 

„. tvt • »ii i !i Slaughter's 

quois. or rive fsations, at Albany, and renewed the administra- 
treaties which had formerly been in force. Soon after, b ^ u 2 
having returned to New York, he ended, by a sudden 4 , micU war 
death, b a short, weak, and turbulent administration. w %n C in'the 
4 In the mean time the English^ with their Indian allies, mea " u ™*> 
the Iroquois, carried on the war against the French, wimtre- 
and, under Major Schuyler, made a successful attack 1592 
on the French settlements beyond Lake Champlain. 5. what was 

21. "Benjamin Fletcher, the next governor of the ut^afv. 
province, was a man of strong passions, and of mod- Fletc,lcr? 
erate abilities ; but he had the prudence to follow the 6 'i^y^ 
counsels of Schuyler, in his intercourse with the In- /,^,7f///a r . 
dians. 'The Iroquois remained the active allies of the '"p^fj/'f 
English, and their situation in a great measure screened 1593 
the province of New York from the attacks of the 7. Whatu 
French. _ ' F ffi£. 

22. 7 Fletcher having been authorized by the crown conneca- 
to take the command of the militia of Connecticut, he c ™ t7 
proceeded to Hartford to execute his commission ; but see p. ini. 
the people resisted, and he was forced to return with- %,%££%%'. 
out accomplishing his object. 8 He labored with great "^J^* 
zeal, in endeavoring to establish the English church ; ckurchj 
but the people demanded toleration, and the assembly 1696. 
resolutely opposed the pretensions of the governor. 9 cun"d"in 
•In 1696 the French, under Frontenac, with a larq-e , l696 :„„ 

j 7 o a July — Aug. 

force, made an unsuccessful invasion* 1 of the territory 10 . wneu 
of the Iroquois. 10 In the following year King William's ""ffiT 
war wa c terminated by the peace of Ryswick.' « sept 20. 



132 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART n. 

169§. 23. 'In 1698, the Earl of Bellamont, an Irish peer, 
[ ril ~ a man of energy and integrity, succeeded 1 Fletcher in 
i. What* the administration of the government of New York, 
miwmont, and, in the following year, New Hampshire and Mas- 
KBtenfofhia sachusetts were added to his jurisdiction. 2 Piracy had 
ju thnf' at ^ S lime mcrease d to an alarming extent, infesting 
t of piracy? every sea from America to China ; and Bellamont had 
been particularly instructed to put an end to this evil 
on the American coast. 
». of Beiin- 24. 3 For this purpose, before his departure for 
forts w sup- America, in connexion with several persons of dis- 
vressi tinction he had equipped a vessel, the command of 
4 \vhatu which was given to William Kidd. 4 Kidd, himself, 
rel Km?* however, soon after turned pirate, and became the ter- 
ror of the seas; but, at length, appearing publicly at 
b. July, iG99. Boston, he was arrested, b and sent to England, where 
c. May 23, he was tried and executed. 5 Bellamont and his part- 
5. what ners were charged with abetting Kidd in his piracies, 
cka madl 0M an d sharing the plunder, but after an examination in 
against Bei- the House of Commons, nothing; could be found to crim- 
mate them. 
1701. 25. 6 On the death d of Bellamont, the vicious, haugh 
d ^whatte ty' anc ^ i nt °l eran t Lord Cornbury was appointed gov- 
said of the ernov of New York, and New Jersey was soon after- 
nor, and the wards added to his jurisdiction, — the proprietors of the 
"JurLdic- 13 latter province having surrendered their rights to the 
r?no crown m 1702. e 7 On the arrival f of Cornbury, the 
i ,',« province was divided between two violent factions, the 

e. See p. 140, £ . > 

f. May. mends and. the enemies 01 the late unfortunate Leisier ; 
7. what was and the new governor, by espousing the cause of the 
the province latter, and by persecuting with unrelenting hate all 
°'va"! 'ana 1 ' denominations except that of the Church of England, 
a°erVd r him soon rendered himself odious to the great mass of the 

OdiOUStOthe r\ar\r\]a 

people? people. 

% d Wha ih n ~ ^" 8 "^" e likewise embezzled the public money, — 

■people to re- contracted debts which he was unable to pay, — re- 

ques caiu r& ' peatedly dissolved the assembly for opposition to his 

wishes, — and, by his petty tyranny, and dissolute nab- 

its, soon weakened his influence with all parties, who 

s. \vhl?foi- repeatedly requested his recall. 9 Being deprived 5 of 

'^ii h f r Te ' k ls office, his creditors threw him into the same prison 

office? where he bad unjustly confined many worthier men, 



CHAP. VI.J NEW YORK. 133 

and where he remained a prisoner, for debt, until the 1T0§. 
death of his father, by elevating him to the peerage, — 
entitled him to his liberation. 

27. J As the history of the successive administrations i- Whati* 
of the governors of New York, from this period until T thlfouow- 
the time of the French and Indian war, would possess ■ufrat^mi 
little interest for the general reader, a few of the more 
important events only will be mentioned. 

28. 2 Q,ueen Anne's war having broken out in 1702, 1709. 
he northern colonies, in 1709, made extensive prepara- fjjffifo 
cons for an attack on Canada. While the New Ens - - vrepara- 

iii- • i ° lions for in 

land colonies were preparing a naval armament to co- vading 
operate with one expected from England, New York and why 
and New Jersey raised a force of eighteen hundred wt terprtoT 
men to march against Montreal by way of Lake Cham- abtmdonedi 
plain. This force proceeded as far as Wood Creek,* a.N.p.130. 
when, learning that the armament promised from Eng- 
land had been sent to Portugal, the expedition was 
abandoned. 

29. 3 Soon after, the project was renewed, and a large 1711. 
fleet under the command of Sir Hovenden Walker 3- Give an 
being sent from England to co-operate with the colonial the second 
forces, an expedition of four thousand men from New a emp ' 
York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, commenced its 
march towards Canada. The fleet being shattered 15 by i>. sept. % i 
a storm, and returning to England, the land expedition, ee p ' 
after proceeding as far as Lake George,* was likewise 
compelled to return. 

30. *The debt incurred by New York, in these ex- \ a ^ t t ^ 
peditions, remained a heavy burden upon her resources iebt T l ed v \ ur ' 
for many years. 6 In 1713 the Tuscaroras, having been 1713 
defeated in a war with the Carolinians, migrated to the 5. 0/ the 
north, and joined the confederacy of the Five Nations. ofvlfrZ- 
— afterwards known as the " Six Nations." TT™\\ 

31. 6 The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 c put an end to 6 . of the' 
Queen Anne's war, and, if we except the brief interval %\f^. h °{i 

* Laki George, called by the French Lac Sacrament, on account of the puritv of >(s 
waters, and now frequently called the Horicon, lies mostly between Washington and 
Warren Counties, near the southern extremity of Lake Champlain, with which Its out- 
let communicates. It is a beautiful sheet of water, 230 feet above the Hudson, and 
surrounded by high hills ; it is thirty-three miles in length, and from two to three in 
width, and is interspersed with numerous islands. Lake George was long conspicuous 
In tho early wars of the country, and several memorable battles were fonght on its bo? 
ders (See H\p, p. 1S1.) 



134 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PARI II 

1TB 3. of King George's war, 1 relieved the English coloni :s, 

a.i7M— wis. during a period of forty years, from the depredations 

1722. °f the French and their Indian allies. 'In 1722 the 

i. what governors of New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, 

was held at met the deputies of the Iroquois at Albany, for the pur 

'ir&i" 1 pose of confirming treaties, and transacting other busi- 

2. what as- ness. 2 During the same year Governor Burnett estab- 

wwrmdTat lished a trading-house at Oswego,* on the southeastern 

Oswego? shore of Lake Ontario; and in 1727 a fort was com- 

i. For what pleted at the same place. 3 The primary object of this 

oojectj f ron ti er establishment was to secure the favor of the 

Indians, by a direct trade with them, which had before 

been engrossed by the French. 

4. what 32. 4 The French, at this time, had evidently formed 

the French the scheme of confining the English to the territory 

formed? east Q f tne Alleghanies, by erecting a line of forts and 

trading-houses on the western waters, and by securing 

5 What the influence of the western tribes. s With this view, 

meemsem- m 1726 me Y renewed the fortress at Niagara,! which 

ployed? gave them control over the commerce of the remote 

1731. interior. Five years later they established a garrison 

on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, but soon after 

removed it to Crown Point,}: on the western shore. 

6. what is The latter defended the usual route to Canada, and 

possessions g ave security to Montreal. 6 With the exception of 

an of'the m l ^ e English fortress at Oswego, the French had pos- 

■ French at session of the entire country watered by the St. Law- 

r. what was rence and its tributaries, while their claims to Louisi- 

tionof The ana > on the west, embraced the whole valley of the 

«SS. Mississippi. 

Cosby? 33 7 During the administration of Governor Cosby, 

prosecution who came out in 1732, the province was divided be- 

andwtat tween two violent parties, the liberal or democratic, 

remit? arm the aristocratic party. 8 A journal of the popular 

* (See page 183. 

t This place was in the state of New York, on a point of land at the mouth of Niag 
ara River. As early as 1679 a French officer, M. de Salle, enclosed a small spot here 
with palisades. The fortifications once enclosed a space of eight acres, and it was 
long the greatest place south of Montreal and west of Albany. The American fort Ni 
Bgara now occupies the site of the old French fort. (See Map. p. 306.) 

J Crown Point is a town in Essex County, New York, on the western shore of Lake 
Champlain. The fort, called by the French Fort Frederic, and afterwards repaired and 
called Crown Point, was situated on a point of land projecting into the lake at the N.E. 
extremity of the town, ninety-five miles, in a direct line, N.E. from Albany. Its site i» 
now marked by a heap of ruins. 



CllAP. VI.] NEW YORK. 135 

party having attacked the measures of the governor 1732. 
and council with some virulence, the editor a was thrown 
into prison, b and prosecuted for a libel against the gov- 
ernment. Great excitement prevailed ; the editor was 
zealously defended by able counsel ; and an independ- 
ent jury gave a verdict of acquittal. 

34. 'The people applauded their conduct, and, to i. how did 
Andrew Hamilton of Philadelphia, one of the defend- and P , enp 




ma, 'it 



ers of the accused, the magistrates of the city of New Cardfile. 

York presented an elegant gold box, for his learned and c i'/^ d j^'°{ 
generous defence of the rightsof mankindand tlie liberty 

of the press. 2 This important trial shows the prevail- iwhatm 

ing liberal sentiments of the people at that period, and show, and 

may be regarded as one of the early germs of American refunbere* 

freedom. " sarded1 

35. 3 In 1741 a supposed negro plot occasioned great 1741. 
excitement in the city of New York. There were then 3 - what is 

, . . J . . . related of tin 

many slaves in the province, against whom suspicion negmpiot 
was first directed by the robbery of a dwelling house, 
and by the frequent occurrence of fires evidently caused 
by design. The magistrates of the city having offered 
rewards, pardon, and freedom, to any slave that would 
testify against incendiaries and conspirators, some aban 
doned females were induced to declare that the negroes 
had combined to burn the city and make one of their 
number governor. 

36. 4 There was soon no want of witnesses ; the i.ivhanoas 
number of the accused increased rapidly ; and even *^S^? 
white men were designated as concerned ir the plot. »«««*? 
Before the excitement was over more than thirty per- 
sons were executed ; — several of these were burned at 

the stake ; and many were transported to foreign parts. 

37. 'When all apprehensions, of danger had sub- 5. how was 
sided, and men began to reflect upon the madness of the gariei e 
the project itself, and the Dase character of most of the "%%%$%%* 
witnesses, the reality of the plot began to be doubted ; °{J a " u f s i 
and the people looked back with horror upon the nu- dedl 
merous and cruel punishments that had been inflicted. 

33. 6 Boston and Salem have had their delusions of s. what 
witchcraft, an. 1 New York its Negro Plot, in each of £S*$& 
which many innocent persons suffered death. These ™of%Zm 
mournful results show the necessity of exceeding cau- exci ' e>wnt 'i 



136 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PARr U 

1741. tion and calm investigation in times of great public 

excitement, lest terror or deluded enthusiasm get the 

predominance of reason, and "make madmen of us all." 

39. 'The subsequent history of New York, previous 

to the commencement of the French and Indian war. 

1745. contains few events of importance. In 1745, during 

i. what is Kino- George's war, the savages in alliance with 

thesu/>se- France made some incursions into the territory north 

w§of New of Albany, and a few villages were deserted 1 on theii 

jTnov approach. The province made some preparations to 

join the eastern colonies in an expedition against Can- 

1748. ada, but in 1748 a treaty of peace was concluded b be- 

b. Oct. is. tween the contending powers, and New York again 

enjoyed a short interval of repose, soon to be disturbed 

by a conflict more sanguinary than any which had 

preceded. A connected history of that contest, in 

which all the colonies acted in concert, is given in the 

«• Reep.i73, "French and Indian War." c 



Of what does 

Chapter 
VU. treat ? 



CHAPTER VII. 

NEW JERSEY.* 



2. in what 1. 2 The territory embraced in the present state of 
jferseyo? New Jersey was included in the Dutch province of 

jirst^inciu- ]\j ew Netherlands ; and the few events connected with 
its history, previous to the conquest by the English in 

3. Give an 1664, belong to that province. 3 In 1623 Fort Nassau 

account of ' o f 

the early was built on the eastern bank of the Delaware, but 
was soon after deserted. Probably a few years before 
this the Dutch began to form settlements at Bergen, 
and other places west of the Hudson, in the vicinity 
of New York ; but the first colonizing of the province 
dates, more properly, from the settlement of Elizabeth- 
1664, townf in 1664. 

* NEW JERSEY, one of the Middle States, bordering on the Atlantic, and lying 
south of Nev York, and east of Pennsylvania and Delaware, contains °.n area of about 
9,001) square miles. The northern part of the state is mountainous, t' e middle is diver- 
sified by hills and valleys, and is well adapted to grazing and to ..lost kinds of grain, 
while the southern part is level and sandy, and, to a great extent, barren; the natural 
growth of the soil being chiefly shrub oaks and yellow pines. 

t Elizabetiitown is situated on lillzabethtown Creek, two and a half miles from Its 



CHAP. VII. J NEW JERSEY. 137 

2. 'Soon after the grant of New Netherlands to the 16G<t. 
Duke of York, and previous to the surrender, the duke ~j~i~^ 
conveyed 3 - that portion of the territory which is bended 1. What 
on the east, south, and west, respectively, by the Hud- hate'emwy 
son, the sea, and the Delaware, and north by the 41st Dilieof 
Jegree and 40th minute of latitude, to Lord" Berkeley JwwJ^afo 

nd Sir George Carteret, who were already proprietors whomf 
of Carolina. This tract was called New Jersey, in 2 fVho[ 
compliment to Carteret, who had been governor of the r! . ame 7cas 

O £?iV€ti to tttis 

sland of Jersey, * and had defended it for the king tract, and 
luring the civil war. b b.Notep.ei 

3. 3 To invite settlers to the country, the proprietors 1665. 
soon published a liberal constitution for the colony, <=. Feb. no. 
promising freedom from taxation, except by the act of I'ajd'nf 'm 
the colonial assembly, and securing equal privileges, C f"rmui'by n 
and liberty of conscience to all. 4 In 1665 Philip Car- the J ' r ^ ri ' 
teret, the first governor, arrived, 11 and established him- a. Aug. 
self at Elizabethtown, recently settled by emigrants t^efrnt^ov- 
from Long Island, and which became the first capital ernor.and 

e , • r i ' l what «'«» 

of the infant colony. the capital 

4. 5 New York and New England furnished most inc&i 
of the early settlers, who were attracted by the salu- IJplfthe 
brity of the climate, and the liberal institutions which ea ! 'i^ s f c ' 
the inhabitants were to enioy. 6 Fearing little from 

i -it- t t i ^ i i t 6 - Of the 

the neighboring Indians, whose strength had been causes of an 
broken by long hostilities with the Dutch, and guarded wMehthn 
by the Five Nations and New York against the ap- enjoye 
proaches of the French and their savage allies, the 
colonists of New Jersey, enjoying a happy security, 
escaped the dangers and privations which had afflicted 
the inhabitants of most of the other provinces. 

5. 7 After a few years of quiet, domestic disputes 
began to disturb the repose of the colony. The pro- . fi _ 
prietors, by their constitution, had required the pay- 7 Wha ' t 
ment, after 1670, of a penny or halfpenny an acre for after afew 

' / x j i j yctiTS, di3- 

the use of land; but when the day of payment ar- twbedma 

d,, iri -t • i i repose ofthe 

, the demand of the tribute met with general op- colony? 

entrance into Staten [sland Sound, and twelve miles S.W. from New York city. II 
was named from Lady Elizabeth Carteret, wife of Sir George Carteret. (See Map, p. 
11", and p. 226.) 

* The island of Jersey is a strongly fortified island in the English Channel, seventeen 
miles from the French ccast. It is twelve miles long, end has an average width of 
about five miles. 



138 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART II 



16?0. 



I. What 
troubles fol- 
lowed I 



b 1672. 

1673. 

2 Wiial oc- 
curred in 
the follow- 
ing year I 

c. See p. 127. 

1674. 

d. J ills' 9. 
3. Relate the 
'urther pro- 
ceedings of 
the Duke of 

York. 

e. July 11. 

f. Oct. 



1674. 

4. How did 

Berkeley 
dispose of 
his terri- 
tory ? 

«. March 28. 

1675 : 

5 Give an 
account of 
the difficul- 
ties betioeen 

Carteret 
*nd Andros. 



S What dis- 
posal did 
Byllinge 

make of his 
share, and 
what was 
done by the 
issigWKsl 



position. Those who had purchased land cf the In- 
dians refused to acknowledge the claims of the pro- 
prietors, asserting that a deed from the former was 
paramount to any other title. 'A weak and dissolute 
son of Sir George Carteret was induced to assume 1 
the government, and after two years of disputes and 
confusion, the established authority was set at defiance 
by open insurrection, and the governor was compelled 
to return b to England. 

6. 2 In the following year, during a war with Hol- 
land, the Dutch regained all their former possessions, 
including New Jeisey, but restored them to the Eng- 
lish in 1674. 3 After this event, the Duke of York 
obtained 11 a second charter, confirming the former 
grant ; and, in disregard of the rights of Berkeley and 
Carteret, appointed' Andros governor over the whole 
re-united province. On the application of Carteret, 
however, the duke consented to restore New Jersey ; 
but he afterwards endeavored f to avoid the full per- 
formance of his engagement, by pretending that he 
had reserved certain rights of sovereignty over the 
country, which Andros seized every opportunity of 
asserting. 

7. 4 In 1674 Lord Berkeley sold 5 his share of New 
Jersey to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllinge 
and his assignees. 5 In the following year Philip Car- 
teret returned to New Jersey, and resumed the gov- 
ernment ; but the arbitrary proceedings of Andros long 
continued to disquiet the colony. Carteret, attempting 
to establish a direct trade between England and New 
Jersey, was warmly opposed by Andros, who claimed, 
for the duke his master, the right of rendering New 
Jersey tributary to New York, and even went so far 
as to arrest Governor Carteret and convey him prisoner 
to New York. 

8. € Byllinge, having become embarrassed in his 
fortunes, made an assignment of his share in the prov ?: 
ince to William Penn and two others, all Quakers, 
whose first care was to effect a division of the territory 
between themselves and Sir George Carteret, that they 
might establish a separate government in accordance 



CHAP. VII.] NEW JERSEY. 130 

with their peculiar relig ous principles. 'The division* 1676. 
was accomplished 1 without difficulty ; Carteret receiv- a July u ~~ 
ing the eastern portion of the province, which was 1. Whatm- 
called East Jersey; and the assignees of Byllinge thV'vroVma 
the western portion, which they named West Jersey. was " uuie! 
2 The western proprietors then gave b the settlers a free 1677. 
constitution, under the title of " Concessions," similar •>■ March 13. 
to that given by Berkeley and Carteret, granting all wwfJSnfby 
the important privileges of civil and religious liberty. £S^5iSw»? 

9. 3 The authors of the " Constitution" accompanied 3. how were 
it" publication with a special recommendation of the medto'ihe 
province to the members of their own religious fra- ^t/^'Xzf 
ternity, and in 1677 upwards of four hundred Quakers resulli 
came over and settled in West New Jersey. 4 The 4 . whatsut- 
settlers being unexpectedly called upon by Andros to jemd^Vsir 
acknowledge the sovereignty of the Duke of York, j^sforde- 
and submit to taxation, they remonstrated earnestly cimoni 
with the duke, and the question was finally referred to 

the eminent jurist, Sir William Jones, for his decision. 

10. s The result was a decision against the preten- 1680. 
sions of the duke, who immediately relinquished all %e result!— 
claims to the territory and the government. Soon after, theam£uct 
he made a similar release in favor of the representatives tfthedukei 
of Carteret, in East Jersey, and the whole province thus 1681. 

• ... 6 What 

became independent of foreign jurisdiction. were the. 

11. 6 In 16S1 the governor of West Jersey convoked *%%£$% 

the first representative assembly, which enacted sev- °f5fcjfjer-™ 
eral important laws for protecting property, punishing seyl 
crimes, establishing the rights of the people, and de- 7 n - ha[ ' was 
fining the powers of rulers. 7 The most remarkable ajemarka- 

c . ° ■ fi 1 • • 1 • . 11 blefeature 

leature in the new laws was a provision, that, in all *« the new 
criminal cases except treason, murder, and theft, the a. Dec. 1679 
person aggrieved should have power to pardon the s. What di* 

r ri , , °° r r posal was 

onenuer. made of 

12. 8 After the death d of Sir George Carteret, the andwhmfs 
trustees of his estates offered his portion of the province sa c 'ii,% S- r " 
for sale ; and in 1682 William Penn and eleven others, m %n T t a ~ 

* According to the terms of the deed, the dividing line was to run from the mos 
southerly point of the east side of Little Egs Harbor, to the Nf. Western extremity of 
New Jersey; which was declared to be a point on the Delaware River in latitude 
41° 40', which is 18- 23" farther north than the present N. Western extremity of the 
state. Several partial attempts were made, at different times, to run the line, and much 
ccatroversy arose from the disputes which these attempts occasioned. 



140 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

16§2. members of the society of Friends, purchased 1 East 
a. Feb. n, 12. Jersey, over which Robert Barclay, a Scotch gentle- 
man, the author of the " Apology for Quakers," was 
b. July 27, appointed b governor for life. During his brief ad- 
c He died in ministration the colony received a large accession of 
1690. emigrants, chiefly from Barclay's native county of 

Aberdeen, in Scotland. 
1685. 13. >On the accession of the Duke of York to the 
atxounttf throne, with the title of James II., — disregarding his 
rymmsu?M previous engagements and having formed the design 
of <jfy%rk e 0I " annu Hi n g all the charters of the American colonies. 
when he be- he caused writs to be issued against both the Jerseys, 

CCL)fl€ K'lYl rr . • . J * 

16S8 = anc ^ m 1688 the whole province was placed under the 

d. seep, 129, jurisdiction of Andros, who had already 11 become the 

and p. 90. k m g> s governor of New York and New England. 

1688-9. 14. 2 The revolution in England terminated the 

^lou-'efihe' authority of Andros, and from June, 1 689, to August, 

revolution 1692 n o regular government existed in New Jersey, 

land? and during the following ten years the whole province 

3. what remained in an unsettled condition. s Foratime New 

4otnthZ°d%- York attempted to exert her authority over New Jersey, 

proprietor? and at length the disagreements between the various 

proprietors and their respective adherents occasioned 

so much confusion, that the people found it difficult to 

ascertain in whom the government was legally vested. 

4. what His- <At length the proprietors, finding that their conflicting 

vosal did Vib ■» • • • 

proprietors claims tended only to disturb the peace of their terri- 
mi their tories, and lessen their profits as owners of the soil, 
^no made a surrender e of their powers of government to 
e Anna tne crown ; an d in 1702 New Jersey became a royal 
f. seep. 132. province, and was united 1 " to New York, under the 
w Ho j waB g overnment °f Lord Cornbury. 

then gov- 15. s From this period until 1738 the province re- 

g 1702-1708, mained under the governors of New York, but with 

see p 132. a distinct legislative assembly. 6 The administration 8 

6 ' saidof* of Lord Cornbury, consisting of little more than a his- 

L i%/s"ad- tory of his contentions Avith the assemblies of the prov- 

mi iion? a ~ ince, fully developed the partiality, frauds, and tyranny 

7. what of the governor, and served to awaken in the people a 

iomtitxawn vigorous and vigilant spirit of liberty. 7 The commis- 

ferity? sion and instructions of Cornbury formed the consti 

tution of New Jersey until the Revolution. 



CHAP. VIII.] 



MARTLAITB. 



141 



16. ] In 1728 the assembly petitioned the king to 1728 . 
separate the province from New York ; but the peti- i. separation 
tion was disregarded until 1738, when, through the ° w^/rcwT 
influence of Lewis Morris, the application was granted, N *xfi& 
and Mr. Morris himself received 
the first commission as royal gov- 
ernor over the separate province of 
New Jersey. 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

MARYLAND* 




lO&D BAJ.T1MOB2. 



1. 3 The second charter given* to the London Com- 
pany, embraced, within the limits of Virginia, all the 
territory which now forms the state of Maryland. *The 
country near the head of the Chesapeake was early 
explored 11 by the Virginians, and a profitable trade in 
furs was established with the Indians. 5 In 1631 Wil- 
liam Clayborne, a man of resolute and enterprising- 
spirit, who had first been sent out as a surveyor, by the 
London Company, and who subsequently was appoint- 
ed a member of the council, and secretary of the col- 
ony, obtained 6 a royal license to traffic with the Indians. 

2. "Under this license, which was confirmed d by a 
commission from the governor of Virginia, Clayborne 
perfected several trading establishments which he had 
previously formed ; one on the island of Kent.f nearly 



1609. 

a. June 2. 
See p. 52. 
3. In what 
wa* Mary- 
land embra- 
ced? 
b. 1627, 8, 9. 
4. By whom 

was the 
country ex- 
plored 1 
5. What is 
said of the 
license to 
Clayborne) 

c. May 26. 

1632. 

d. March 18. 
6. What set- 
tlements did 

Clayborne 
form 1 



* MARYLAND, the most southern of the Middle States, is very irregular in its out 
line, and contains an area of about 11,000 square miles. The Chesapeake Bay runs 
nearly through the state from N. to S., dividing it into two parts, called the Eastern 
Shore and the Western Shore. The land on the eastern shore is generally level and 
low, and, in many places, is covered with stagnant waters ; yet the soil possesses con 
siderable fertility. The country on the western shore, below the fills of the rivers, is 
similar to that on the eastern, but above the falls the country becomes gradually an 
even and hilly, and in the western part of the state is mountainous. Iron ore is found 
in various parts of the state, and extensive beds of coal between the mountains in the 
western part. 

t Kent, the largest island in Chesapeake Bay, lies opposite Annapolis, near the east- 
ern shore, and belongs to Queen Anne's County. It is nearly in the form of a triangle, 
and contains an area of about forty-five square miles (See Map, neit page.) 



142 



COLOOTAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1632. 

I. What is 

said of the 
claims of 
Virginia? 



8. How were 
her claipis 
defeated 2 



3. Wliat is 
related of 
Lord Balti- 
more ! 



i. What de- 
stroyed his 
hopes of a 
colony in 
Newfound- 
land 1 
a. 1628. 
5 What 
place did he 
next visit, 
and how 
was he re- 
ceived! 

6. To what 

country did 
he next turn 
his atten- 
tion, and 
what was 
the result! 

1632. 

7. By xohom 
was tlie 
charter 
drawn ? 

j. April 25. 

8. What was 
the extent 

and name of 
the territory 
granted 1 



opposite Annapolis,* in the very heart of Maryland ; 
and one near the mouth of the Susquehanna. 'Clay- 
borne had ootained a monopoly of the fur trade, and 
Virginia aimed at extending her jurisdiction over the 
large tract of unoccupied territory lying between her 
borders and those of the Dutch in New Netherlands. 
2 But before the settlements of Clayborne could be com- 
pleted, and the claim of Virginia confirmed, a new 
province was formed within her limits, and a govern- 
ment established on a plan as extraordinary as its re- 
sults were benevolent. 

3. 3 As early as 1621, Sir George Calvert, whose 
title was Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic nobleman, 
influenced by a desire of opening in America a refuge 
for Catholics, who were then persecuted in England, 
had established a Catholic colony in Newfoundland, 
and had freely expended his estate in advancing its 
interests. 4 But the rugged soil, the unfavorable cli- 
mate, and the frequent annoyances from the hostile 
French, soon destroyed all hopes of a flourishing col- 
ony. s He next visited 1 Virginia, in whose mild and 
fertile regions he hoped to find for his followers a 
peaceful and quiet asylum. The Virginians, however, 
received him with, marked intolerance, and he soon 
found that, even here, he could not enjoy his religious 
opinions in peace. 

4. 6 He next turned his attention to the unoccupied 
country beyond the Potomac ; and as the dissolution of 
the London Company had restored to the monarch his 
prerogative over the soil, Calvert, a favorite with the 
royal family, found no difficulty in obtaining a charter 
for domains in that happy clime. 7 The charter was 
probably drawn by the hand of Lord Baltimore him- 
self, but as he died b before it receiv- 
ed the royal seal, the same was made 
out to his son Cecil. 8 The terri- 



VICINITY OF ANNAPOLIS 



* Jlnnnpolis, (formerly called Providence,) now the capital 
of Maryland, is situated on the S. W. side of the River Severn, 
two miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay. It is 
twenty-five miles S. from Baltimore, and thirty-three N.E. 
from Washington. The original plan of the city was de- 
signed in the form of a circle, with the State-house on an 
eminence in the centre, and the streets, like radii, diverging 
from it. (See Map.) 




chap, vin ] 



MARYLAND. 



143 



lorj' thus granted,' extending north to the 40th degree, 
the latitude of Philadelphia, was now erected into a 
separate province, and, in honor of Henrietta Maria, 
daughter of Henry IV. king of France, and wife of the 
English monarch, was named Maryland. 

5. 'The charter granted to Lord Baltimore, unlike 
any which had hitherto passed the royal seal, secured 
to the emigrants equality in religious rights and civil 
freedom, and an independent share in the legislation 
of the province. 2 The laws of the colony were to be 
established with the advice and approbation of a ma- 
jority of the freemen, or their deputies ; and although 
Christianity was made the law of the land, yet no 
preferences were given to any sect or party. 

6. ^Maryland was also most carefully removed from 
all dependence upon the crown ; the proprietor was 
left free and uncontrolled in his appointments to office; 
and it was farther expressly stipulated, that no tax 
whatsoever should ever be imposed by the crown upon 
the inhabitants of the province. 

7. 4 U nder this liberal charter, Cecil Calvert, the son, 
who had succeeded to the honors and fortunes of his 
father, found no difficulty in enlisting a sufficient 
number of emigrants to form a respectable colony ; 
nor was it long before gentlemen of birth and fortune 
were found ready to join in the enterprise. *Lord 
Baltimore himself, having abandoned his original 
purpose of conducting the emigrants in person, ap- 
pointed his brother, Leonard Calvert, to act as his lieu- 
tenant. 

8. 6 In December, 1633, the latter, with about two 
hundred emigrants, mostly Roman Catholics, sailed b 
for the Potomac, where they arrived in March of the 
following year. In obedience to the express command 
of the king, the emigrants were welcomed with cour- 
tesy by Harvey, the governor of Virginia, although 
Vuginia had remonstrated against the grant to Lord 
Baltimore, as an invasion of her rights of trade with 
the Indians, and an encroachment on her territorial 
limits. 

9. 7 Calvert, having proceeded about one hundred 
and fifty miles up the Potomac, found on its eastern 



1632. 



a. June 38 



1. What 

were th>% 

•provisions 

of the 

charter? 



2. How wer*. 
tilt laws to 
be estab- 
lished? 



3. What fur- 
ther liberties 
were grant- 
ed to tlie 
people and 
the propri- 
etor i 



4. Give an 
account of 
the favor- 
able begin- 
ning of the 
enterprise.. 



1633. 

5. What ap- 
pointment 
was made? 



b. Dec. 2. 

1634. 

c. March 6 
6. Give in 
account of 

the depart- 
ure of the 
colon ists, 
and of their 
reception at 
Virginia. 



7. What is 
said of Col 
vert's inter- 
view with 
the Indians} 



144 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

1634. bank the Indian village of Piscataway,* the chieftain 
~7~wiiere~ of which would not bid him either go or stay, but told 
was tne first him " He might use his own discretion." 'Deeming 

settlement; . „ , a , , - , ., , 

model it unsafe, however, to settle so high up the river, he 
descended the stream, entered the river now called St. 
Mary's,! and, about ten miles from its junction with 
the Potomac, purchased of the Indians a village, where 

a. April 6. he commenced* a settlement, to which was given the 

name St. Mary's. 

s. Hmo was 10. 2 The wise policy of Calvert, in paying the In- 

%/cftta dians for their lands, and in treating them with lib- 

In cM-edf e ' erality and kindness, secured their confidence and 

Describe friendship. 3 The English obtained from the forests 

the happy abundance of game, and as they had come into pos- 

"thTcoiony. session of lands already cultivated, they looked forward 

with confidence to abundant harvests. No sufferings 

were endured, — no fears of want were excited, — and 

under the fostering care of its liberal proprietor the 

colony rapidly advanced in wealth and population. 

1635. 11- 4 Early in 1635 the first legislative assembly of 

4. what is the province was convened b at St. Mary's, but as the 

Mst legu- records have been lost, c little is known of its proceed- 

tattveassem- j n g S sNbtwithstanding the pleasant auspices under 

b. March a. w hich the colony commenced, it did not long remain 
c 'be n iiion S" wholly exempt from intestine troubles. Clayborne had, 
next pf|l fr° m & e m " st > refused to submit to the authority of Lord 

5. what Baltimore, and, acquiring confidence in his increasing 

were named strength, he resolved to maintain his possessions by 

b bo?LTi force of arms. A bloody skirmish occurred 11 on one of 

d. May. the rivers:}: of Maryland, and several lives were lost, 

s. w/mt but Clayborne's men were defeated and taken prisoners. 

proceeding 12. *Clayborne himself had previously fled to Vir- 

Tn relation ginia, and, when reclaimed by Maryland, he was sent 

to mm} gy ^ g 0vernor f Virginia to England for trial. The 

e '?63s ch ' Maryland assembly declared 15 him guilty of treason, 

* This Indian village was fifteen miles S. from Washington, on the east side of the 
Potomac, at the mouth of Piscataway Creek, opposite Mount Vernon and near the site 
of the present Fort Washington. 

t The St. Mary's River, called by Calvert St. George's River, enters the Potomac from 
the north, about fifteen miles from the entrance of the latter into the Chesapeake. It 
is properly a small arm or estuary of the Chesapeake. 

t Note. — This skirmish occurred either on the River Wicomico, or the Pocomoke, on 
the eastern shore of Maryland ; the former fifty-five miles, and the latter eighty mile* 
S.E. from the Isle of Kent. 



CHAP Vm.J MARYLAND. 145 

seized his estates, and declared them forfeited. In 163§. 
England, Clayborne applied to the king- to gain redress 
for his alleged wrongs ; but after a full hearing it was 
decided that the charter of Lord Baltimore was valid 
against the earlier license of Clayborne, and thus the 
claims of the proprietor were fully confirmed. 

13. 'At first the people of Maryland convened in 1639. 
general assembly for passing laws, — each freeman \Jw°s W atAm 
being entitled to a vote ; but in 1639 the more con- e * M %^ ni 
lenient form of a representative government was estab- ^"^mI 
iished, — the people being allowed to send as many del- made? 
egates to the general assembly as they should think 
proper. 2 At the same time a declaration of rights was 2. What 
adopted ; the powers of the proprietor were defined ; °aaZilwere 
and all the liberties enjoyed by English subjects at madn ' 
home, were confirmed to the people of Maryland. 

14. 3 About the same time some petty hostilities were 3. .jpwafc 
carried on against the Indians, which, in 1642, broke Indian war 
out into a general Indian war, that was not terminated followed? 
until 1644. 1644. 

15. 4 Early in 1645 Clayborne returned to Maryland, 1645. 
and, having succeeded in creating a rebellion, com- 4. what new 
pelled the governor to withdraw into Virginia for pro- were caused 
tection. 'The vacant government was immediately iornW' 
seized by the insurgents, who distinguished the period 5. Whatwas 
of their dominion by disorder and misrule; and not- tar and 
withstanding the most vigorous exertions of the gov- J&g&fern- 
ernor, the revolt was not suppressed until August of ^wfen^ 
the following year. 1646. 

16. •Although religious toleration had been declared, 6 . vmawm 
by the proprietor, one of the fundamental principles of fa"dt'>re- 
the social union over which he presided, yet the assem- li fj%j,f $ ' 
bly, in order to give the principle the sanction of their 
authority, proceeded to incorporate it in the laws of the 1649. 
province. It was enacted 8 that no person, professing a . niay'i. 
to believe in Jesus Christ, should be molested in respect 

of his religion, or the free exercise thereof; and that 
any one, who should reproach his neighbor with op- 
probrious names of religious distinction, should pay a 
fine to the person insulted. 

17. Thus Maryland quickly followed Rhode Island honor na\ 
in establishing religious toleration by law. While warynawu 

7 



146 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART n 

1649. at this very period the Puritans were persecuting- theii 

x What Protestant brethren in Massachusetts, and the Episco 

xmpar/snn palians were retorting the same severity on the Puri- 

js drawn be- f . . . => .J , , 

tweeniiary- tans in V rrffinia, there was tormina - , m Marylanu, a 

land and o 7 ; "' J i i 

other coio- sanctuary where all might worship, and none might 
nie& oppress ; and where even Protestants sought refuge 
from Protestant intolerance.* 

1650. 18. 2 In 1650 an important law was passed," con- 

a. April i6. firming the division of the legislative body into two 
ortant 7aw branches, an upper and a lower house ; the former 

K in i65oi d consisting of the governor and council, appointed ty 
the proprietor, and the latter of the burgesses or repre- 
3. what is sentatives, chosen by the people. 3 At the same session 
st r%}°ts'of the rights of Lord Baltimore, as proprietor, were ad- 
mor%-and mitted, but all taxes were prohibited unless they were 
of taxation? ] ev ied with the consent of the freemen. 

1651. 19. 4 In the mean time the parliament had established 
vianlier^d ^ ts supremacy in England, and had appointed 11 certain 
Parliament commissioners, of whom Clayborne was one, to reduce 

with the and govern the colonies bordering on the bay of the 
"menti Chesapeake. 5 The commissioners appearing in Mary? 

b. Oct 6. l an d Stone, the lieutenant of Lord Baltimore, was at 

c April 8 . ' 

d. July 8. m * st removed from his office, but was soon after re- 
1654. stored. d In 1654, upon the dissolution of the Long 
5. wimt Parliament, from which the commissioners had xe.- 

cunedbe- ceived their authority, Stone restored the full powers 

timfand!aie of the proprietor ; but the commissioners, then in Vir- 
removal of g w ^ again entered the province, and compelled Stone 
Gov. stone? to surreri (ler his commission and the government into 

e. Aug. i. their hands. e 

s. What use 20. «Parties had now become identified with ren- 
. testm^a"" gious sects. The Protestants, who had now the power 
the'ir'Zcen- m their own hands, acknowledging the authority of 
dency? Cromwell, were hostile to monarchy and to an hered- 
itary proprietor ; and while they contended earnestly 
for every civil liberty, they proceeded to disfranchise 
those who differed from them in matters of religion. 
Dee. -Nov. Catholics were excluded from the assembly which was 
then called ; and an act of the assembly declared that 

* NrTE. — Boiman, in his History of Maryland, il. 350 — 356, dwells at considcra'al« 
.ength upon these laws ; but he maintains that a majority of the members of the a» 
xemt.lv of 1649 were Protestants. 



CHAP. Vni.J MARYLAND. 147 

Catholics were not entitled to the protection of the 1654. 
laws of Maryland. 

21. 'In January of the following year, Stone, the 1655. 
lieutenant of Lord Baltimore, reassumed his office of ,) ie l x ^f es 
governor, — organized an armed force, — and seized the were taken 

b • i i „^<- -i r n i m li- by the licu- 

provincial records. 2 Givii war followed. Several skir- tenant of 
mishes occurred between the contending parties, and more/ 
at length a decisive battle* was fought, 1 which resulted ^fnmohick 
in the defeat of the Catholics, with the loss of about followed. 
fifty men in killed and wounded. Stone himself was a - Apnl4 - 
taken prisoner, and four of the principal men of the 
province were executed. 1656 

22. 3 In 1656 Josiah Fendall was commissioned 1 * 3 ipjJJJ^Jj. 
governor by the proprietor, but he was soon after ar- ther disturb- 

° iii-n r AC 1-111 anCeS t00ic 

rested by the Protestant party. Alter a divided rule place, and 

~ . J ii j ■ • how were 

oi nearly two years, between the contending parties, they compo- 
Fendall was at length acknowledged' 1 governor, and c s Aug 
the proprietor was restored to the full enjoyment of his 1658 
rights. 4 Soon after the death* of Cromwell, the Pro- d. April 3. 
tector of England, the Assembly of Maryland, fearing e Se P'- 1658 
a renewal of the dissensions which had long distracted to fhedimo- 
the province, and seeing no security but in asserting %££{ r m 
the power of the people, dissolved the upper house, to « e? 
consisting of the governor and his council, and assumed 1 " °^- 

f Alarrh 24 

to itself the whole legislative power of the state. s WHat 

23. s Fendall, having surrendered the trust which ^keVby 
Lord Baltimore had confided to him, accepted from the ven&am 

ii • -T-i j. ±1 g. June, 1660. 

assembly a new commission as governor. *But on the 6 n - ha , oc . 
restoration 5 of monarchy in England, the proprietor was ^ r .^ to on 
re-established, in his rights, — Philip Calvert was ap- #° n of man, 
pointed governor, — and the ancient order of things 7 IJnw wen 
was restored. 7 Fendall was tried for treason and found vouncaiof- 

., , , . , i-i fenders then 

guilty ; but the proprietor wisely proclaimed a general treated, and 
pardon to political offenders, and Maryland once more tLeJaea 
experienced the blessings of a mild government, and 1675. 
internal tranquillity. h - ^ ec - 10 - 

24. 8 0n the death h of Lord Baltimore, in 1675, his ceededi.org 
son Charles, who inherited his father's reputation for and what 
virtue and ability, succeeded him as proprietor. He tepursu^f 

* Note.— The place where this battle was fought was on the sonth side of the small 
treefe which forms the southern boundary of the peninsulr- on which Annapolis, tha 
capital of Maryland now stands. (See Map, p. 142.) 



148 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

1675. confirmed the law which established an absolute po- 
litical equality among all denominations of Christians, 
— caused a diligent revision of the laws of the province 
to be made, and, in general, administered the govern- 
ment with great satisfaction to the people. 
1689. 25. 'At the time of the revolution in England, the 
Ivcn'TL re P°se of Maryland was again disturbed. The depu- 
fmoweTthe ^ es °^ ^ e P ro P rietor having hesitated to proclaim the 
revolution new sovereigns, and a rumor having gained preva- 
il? lence that the magistrates and the Catholics had formed 
a league with the Indians for the massacre of all the 
Protestants in the province, an armed association was 
formed for asserting the right of King William, and 
sept. for the defence of the Protestant faith. 
s 'thfn a donT 26. 2 The Catholics at first endeavored to oppose, by 
hy "it T t/l ' f° rce ) tne designs of the association ; but they at length 
s. how was surrendered the powers of government by capitulation. 
th vwnt e 'od'- 3 A convention of the associates then assumed the gov- 
Z l ntu[%n d ernr nent, which they administered until 1691, when 
and xohat the kin°\ by an arbitrary enactment* deprived Lord 

Change then . . &' •> . -,..,-'.. ' . * . 

took place i Baltimore or his political rights as proprietor, and con- 

a. June li. stituted Maryland a royal government. 

1692. 27. 4 In the following year Sir Lionel Copley ar- 
acemmtof rived as royal governor, — the principles of the pro- 
istrationof prietary administration were subverted, — religious tol- 
S copiey. el erat iori was abolished, — and the Church of England 

was established as the religion of the state, and was 

supported by taxation. 
s. What u 28. 6 After an interval of more than twenty years, 

said of the . . . . . . . . J J , ' 

remaining the legal proprietor, in the person ol the miant heir of 

Maryland, Lord Baltimore, was restored 1 * to his rights, and Mary- 

^herevoiu- land again became a proprietary government, under 

u tit? I, which it remained until the Revolution. Few events 

b. 1715-16. . . . , . . 

ol interest mark its subsequent history, until, as an in- 
dependent state, it adopted a constitution, when the 
claims of the proprietor were finally rejected. 

* PENNSYLVANIA contains an area of about 46,000 square miles. The central 
part of the state is covered by the numerous ridges of the Alleghanies, running N.E. 
and S.W., but on both sides of the mountains the country is either level or moderately 
hilly, and the soil is generally excellent. Iron ore is widely disseminated in Pennsyl- 
vania, and the coal regions are very extensive. The bituminous, or soft coal, is found 
In inexhaustible quantities west of the Alleghanies, and anthracite or hard coal on the 
east, particularly between the Blue Ridge and the N. branch of the Susquehanna. 
The principal coal-field is -ixty-five miles in length, with an average brefidth of about 
five miles 



OHAP. IX.] 



149 



CHAPTER IX. 



PENNSTLTANI A.* 



I. 'As early as 1643 the Swedes, 
who had previously settled 3 - near 
Wilmington, in Delaware, erected 
a fort on the island of Tinicum, a 
few miles below Philadelphia ; 
and here the Swedish governor, 
John Printz, established his residence 




■VILLIAM PENN. 



1643. 

Settlements L ^ M M 



clustered along the western bank of the Delaware, %™ '%%■$ 
and Pennsylvania was thus colonized by Swedes, ^(^ £*" 
nearly forty years before the grant of the territory Pennsyiea- 
to William Penn. > ». see p.m. 

2. 2 In 1681, William Penn, son of Admiral Penn, a 1681. 
member of the society of Friends, obtained b of Charles 
II. a grant of all the lands embraced in the present 
state of Pennsylvania. 3 This grant was given, as ex- 
pressed in the charter, in consideration of the desire of 
Penn to enlarge the boundaries of the British empire, 
and reduce the natives, by just and gentle treatment, 
to the love of civil society and the Christian religion ; 
and. in addition, as a recompense for unrequited services 
rendered by his father to the British nation. 

3. *The enlarged and liberal views of Penn, how- 
ever, embraced objects of even more extended be- 
nevolence than those expressed in the royal char- 
ter. His noble aim was to open, in the New World, i^-l «'n<t 
an asylum where civil and religious liberty should "unevu 
be enjoyed ; and where, under the benign influ 

ence of the principles of Peace, those of every sect, 
color, and clime, might dwell together in unity 
and love. 5 As Pennsylvania included the principal 
settlements of the Swedes, Penn issued a procla- 
mation to the inhabitants, in which he assured them 
of his ardent desire for their welfare, and prorn- 



2. What 

grant did 
H'il Ham 
Penn ob- 
tain ? 
). March 14 
;. In crmnid 
eration of 
what iiias 
this grant 
given? 



4. What, 
however, 
did the 
views of 



c. April 

5. in at 

'proclama 
tion was 
made by 
Perm? 



150 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

16§1. ised that they should live a free people, and be gov- 

~ erned by laws of their own making. 

i. now were 4. iPenn now published a flattering account of the 

settlers in»l- . . *. ° i i • 

ted,and province, and an invitation to purchasers, and during 

what is said 5 i i ■ ■ i • i 

of tke Jim the same year three ships, with emigrants, mostly 

Tiway and Q- Ua k er3 ) sailed 1 for Pennsylvania. 2 In the first came 

Oct. William Markham, agent of the proprietor, and deputy- 

\truaiom governor, who was instructed to govern in harmony 

t °to re Mark n wmi ^ aw ) — to confer with the Indians respecting their 

ham/ lands, — and to conclude with them a league of peace. 

b. Oct. 28. s\ n the same year Penn addressed 15 a letter to the na- 

pJnn'writl tives, declaring himself and them responsible to the 

to tivesT~ same God, who had written his law in the hearts of 

all, and assuring them of his " great love and regard 

for them," and his " resolution to live justly, peaceably, 

and friendly" with them. 

1682. 5. <Early in the following year Penn published a 

TwAat&ti " f rame °f government," and a code of laws, which 

Penn pub- were to be submitted to the people of his province for 

lis/imthe i tt r i • i . r i 

fo'iowins their approval. 6 He soon alter obtained 11 irom the 

d-A^s- 31. Duke of York a release of all his claims to the terri- 

b. what re- tory of Pennsylvania, and likewise a grant e of the 

Icctse. and *j j j o 

sram did present state of Delaware, then called The Terri- 

tain ? Tories, or, " The Three Lower Counties on the Dela- 

e. Sept. 3. -ware." 6 In September Penn himself, with a large 

«. When did i_ r • r t • I- • • 

he visit number 01 emigrants of his own religious persuasion, 

■nurwa Sil ilod for America, and on the sixth of November fol- 
lowing landed at Newcastle. 

Zvents'oc- ®- T O n me ^ a y a ^ ter n ^ s arr i va l he received in pub- 

curredim- 1J C from the agent of the Duke of York, a surrender' 

after his of "The Territories;" — made a kind address to the 

f. Nov. 7. people, — and renewed the commissions of the former 
s. what re- magistrates. 8 In accordance with his directions a 

lations had r-n n iit i ■ i i 

already been friendly correspondence had been opened with the 

^wi'rhthe neighboring tribes of Indians, by the deputy-governor 

9 In a, a v 7L Mark ham; they had assented to the form of a treaty 

a.-.coitntof and they were now invited to a conference for the pur 

t'./s /it"''' ■ ')l ET J - r 

the Indiana pose of giving it their ratification. 9 At a spot which 

ton. 1 " is now the site of Kensington,* one of the suburbs of- 



* Kensington constitutes a suburb of Philadelphia, in the N.E. pan of the city., bor- 
dering on the Delaware ; and, though it has a separate government of its own, it should 
bo legarded as a part of the city. (See Map, p. 152.) 



CHAP. IX.] PENNSYLVANIA. 151 

Philadelphia, the Indian chiefs assembled at the head 1682. 
of their armed warriors ; and here they were met by ' 

William Penn, at the head of an unarmed train of 
his religious associates, — all clad in the simple Quaker 
garb, which the Indians long after venerated as the 
habiliments of peace. 

7. 'Taking? his station beneath a spreading elm, 1. Whattom 

o t l t o i Perm's &1- 

Penn addressed the Indians through the medium of an dress to 
interpreter. He told them that the Great Spirit knew tie,n 
with what sincerity he and his people desired to live 
m friendship with them. " We meet," such were his 
words, " on the broad pathway of good faith and good 
will ; no advantage shall be taken on either side ; dis- 
putes shall be settled by arbitrators mutually chosen ; 
and all shall be openness and love." 2 Having paid *.whatu 
the chiefs the stipulated price for their lands, he de- record of t/u 
livered to them a parchment record of the treaty, tr y 
which he desired that they would carefully preserve, 
for the information of their posterity, for three genera- 
tions. 

8. 3 The children of the forest cordially acceded to 3 ^ 1Mdili 
the terms of friendship offered them, and pledged them- '^"^T 
selves to live in love with William Penn and his chil 

dren, as long as the sun and moon should endure. 
4 The friendship thus created between the province and 4. maw were 
the Indians continued more than seventy years, and "j}S| 
was never interrupted while the Quakers retained the Fen ^yJ" d ' 
control of the government. Of all the American col- 
onies, the early history of Pennsylvania alone is wholly 
exempt from scenes of savage warfare. The Quakers 
came without arms, and with no message but peace, 
and not a drop of their blood was ever shed by an 
Indian. 

9. 5 A few months after Penn's arrival, he selected 1683. 
a place between the rivers Schuvlkill* and Delaware, s. Givean 
tor the capital 01 his province, — purchased the land 01 mfuunt^ 
the Swedes, who had already erected a church there, adeiphia. 
tnd having regulated the model of the future city by a 



* The Schuylkill River, in the eastern part of Pennsylvania, rises by three principal 
branches in Schuylkill County, and pursuing a S.E. course, enters Delaware River five 
miles below Philadelphia. Vessels of from 300 to 400 tons ascend it tf. the western 
wharves of Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 152.) 



152 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART IL 



16§3. map, named it Philadelphia,* or the city of " Brotherly 
"', What is Love." ir rhe groves of chestnut, walnut, and pine. 
said of the which marked the site, were commemorated bv the 

names of the . . ' . j 

streets? names given to the principal streets. 2 At the end 01 a 

2. Of the 
growth of 
the city/ 



i.When and 
where was 
the second 
assembly 
held, and 
how were 
the laws 
amended ? 



year the city numbered eighty dwellings, and at the 
end of two years it contained a population of two thou- 
sand five hundred inhabitants. 

10. 3 The second assembly of the province was neld 

in the infant city in March, 1683. The "frame of 

government," and the laws previously agreed upon. 

were amended at the suggestion of Penn ; and, w 

their place, a charter of liberties, signed by him, was 

a. April 12. adopted,* which rendered Pennsylvania, nearly all but 

4 what is ni name i a representative democracy. 'While in the 

said of other colonies the proprietors reserved to themse/ves 

Penn's lib- , . p r . r . .. . , , . _, 

irautytothe the appointment oi the judicial and executive omcers, 
peap c William Penn freely surrendered these powers to the 
people. His highest ambition, so different from that 
of the founders of most colonies, was to do good to the 
people of his care ; and to his dying day he declared 
that if they needed any thing more to make them hap- 
pier, he would readily grant it. 
1684. 11. s In August, 1684, Penn sailed for England, 

5. now was having first appointed five commissioners of the pro- 
mentad- vincial council, with Thomas Lloyd as president, to 
administer the government during his absence. 'Little 
occurred to disturb the quiet of the province until 1691, 
when the " three lower counties on the Delaware," 
dissatisfied with some pro- 

withdrawal ceedmgs oi a majority ol 

^frwnth™ the council, withdre\v b 
from the Union, and, 
with the reluctant con- 
sent of the proprietor, I] x ' 1 ^'^|ijfe'* \A' < - 

FHir^DEtlrH! \, ■'■'• ' " 

Hamilton ~' ' J 1 -\i-.unileii 

' ? If' 



* Philadelphia City, now the second in size 
and population in the United States, is situa- 
ted between the Delaware and the Schuylkill 
Rivers, five miles above their junction, and 
120 miles, by the Delaware River, from the 
ocean. It is about eighty miles, in a direct 
line, S.W. from New York, and 125 N.E. from 
Washington. The compact part of the city is 
now more than eight miles in circumference. 
■ See Map.) 



ministered 

after Penn's 

return to 

England ? 

1691. 

6. What is 
said of the 



Union? 
b. April 11. 



PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY. 






CHAr. IX.] PENNSYLVANIA. 153 

a separate leputy governor was then Lppointed over 1691. 
them. 



12. ! In the mean time James II. had been driven u *$%jP 
from his throne, and William Penn was several times Perm's tm- 

..',,. c , . prVrniuenl 

imprisoned in England, in consequence 01 ins sup- wBngian& 
posed adherence to the cause of the fallen monarch, taqq 
s In 1692 Penn's provincial government was taken a 0ct 3 j 
frcm him, by a royal commission 1 to Governor Fletcher, 2. when mat 
of New York ; who, the following year, reunited b Del- 'mentl/his 
ov, are to Pennsylvania, and extended the royal author- ^Z'frlm' 
:ty over both. Soon after, the suspicions against Penn J^iVvmts 
were removed, and in August, 1694, he was restored foiimoedi 

, , • • ' • , , b ' ' b. May. 

to his proprietary rights. c Aug 30 . 

13. 3 In the latter part of the year 1699 Penn again 1(399. 
visited J his colony, but instead of the quiet and repose d. Dec. 10. 
which he expected, he found the people dissatisfied, p^nretlsu 
and demanding still further concession.? and privileges. /tis w° v - 

, TT , /. t , , , r wce.and 

'He tnerelore presented' them another cnarter, or frame tohatwwats 

c *■ i-i 1 1 1 r 1 condition/ 

01 government, more liberal than the former, ana con- e Nov 7> 
ferring greater powers on the people ; but all his efforts 170L 

could not remove the objections of the delegates of the heiabo/to- 

lower counties, who had already withdrawn' from the people! and 

assembly, and who now refused to receive the charter w s 'uccessf 

continuing their union with Pennsylvania. ».In the i- Oct 20. 
following year the legislature of Pennsylvania was 1702. 

convened apart, and in 1703 the two colonies agreed twiuu 

i . ' . . o . final sevar- 

to the separation. Thev were never again united in ation occur- 

1 . , . • , . , , J ° ... . , red in 17031 

legislation, although the same governor still continued 
to preside over both. 

14. 'Immediately after the grant of the last charter, 6 . whatr* 
Penn returned 5 to England, where his presence was Pe %% e v d ret 
necessary to resist a project which the English min- ^f a ' n n d? 
isters had formed, of abolishing all the proprietary gov- g . Dec. 1-01. 
ernments in America. 7 He died in England in 1718, 1718. 
leaving his interest in Pennsylvania and Delaware to 7. When da 
his sons John, Thomas, and Richard Penn, who con- ^ndwhat 
tinued to administer the government, most of the time 'gf^ 
by deputies, until the American revolution, when the ^} a P ^°rf. 
commonwealth purchased all their claims in the prov vantai 
ince for about 580,000 dollars. 

7* 



[54 [part n. 

1630. 

CHAPTER X. 

Of xchat does 
Chapter 

x.treati ]\ O R T H CAROLINA.* 

^sefp 3s 7 ' '• The early attempts* of the English, under Sir 

i. What u Walter Raleigh, to form a settlement on the const of 

"cmiyai 6 North Carolina, have already been mentioned. 1 2 Abou 

tettle'sonh forty years later, the king of England granted b to Sir 

caruinmi Robert Heath a large tract of country lying betweer 

i. of tin the 30th and 36th degrees of north latitude, which was 

rra Robe°T? tr erected into a province by the name of Carolina. 3 No 

BeeahJ settlements, however, were made under the grant, 

3. #1 hy 0.6- 11 O b 7 

ciared void? which, on that account, was afterwards declared void. 
4 'a" ''whom* 2. '•Between 1640 and 1650 exploring parties from 
X^frft'ex- Virginia penetrated into Carolina, and from the same 
piored and source came the first emigrants, who soon after settled 6 

settled f i - ) ' , 

c.Tiiepar- near the mouth of the Chowan, f on the northern shore 
tic t'not ar of Albemarle Sound. «In 1663 the province of Car- 

known. olina Avas granted'' to Lord Clarendon and seven 
lowhomums others, and in the same year a government under Wil- 
Jmiftmade, li am Drummond was established over the little settle- 
govirnment ment cm me Chowan, which, in honor of the Duke of 

w iZhed a t Albemarle, one of the proprietors, was called the Al- 

d. April 3. bemarle County Colony. 

1665. 3. 6 Two years later, the proprietors having learned 

e. July io. that the settlement was not within the limits of their 
tension was charter, the grant was extended, 15 so as to embrace the 
B %?ann he half of Florida on the south, and, on the north, all 

Jsh VtMt A W ^^ m tne present limits of North Carolina, and west- 
rowers were ward to the Pacific Ocean. 7 The charter secured re- 
the U charteri ligious freedom to the people, and a voice in the legis- 

* NORTH CAROLINA, one of the Southern States, lying next south of Virginia, 
contains an area of nearly 50,000 square miles. Along the whole coast is a narrow 
ridj»e of sand, separated from the mainland in some places by narrow, and in other 
places by broad sounds and bays. The country for more than sixty miles from the 
coast is a low sandy plain, with many swamps and marshes and inlets from the sea 
The natural growth of this region is almost universally pitch pine. Above the falls 
of the rivers the country becomes uneven, and the soil more fertile. In the western 
part of the state is an elevated table land, and some high ranges of the Alleghanies. 
Black Mountain, the highest point in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, 
is 6,476 feet high, The gold region of North Carolina lies on both sides of the Blue 
Ridge, in the S. Western part of the state. 

t The Chowan River, formed by the union of Nottoway, Meherrin, and Blackwatef 
Rivers, which rise and run chiefly in Virginia, flows into Albemarle Sound, a little 
north of the mouth of the Roanoke. The first settlements were on the N.E. stieof 
the Chowan, near the present village of Eden ton. 



CHAP. X.| 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



155 



iation of the colony ; but granted to the corporation of 
eight, an extent of powers and privileges, that made it 
evident that the formation of an empire was contem- 
plated. 

4. 'During the same year tha' the grant to Claren- 
don was extended, another colony was firmly estab- 
lished within the present limits of North Carolina, 
In 1660 or 1661, a band of adventurers from New 
England entered Cape Fear River,* purchased a tract 
of land from the Indians, and, a few miles below Wil- 
mington,! on Old Town Creek,| formed a settlement. 
The colony did not prosper. The Indians became 
hostile, and before the autumn of 1663, the settlement 
was abandoned. Two years later a number of plant- 
ers from Barbadoes^ formed a permanent settlement 
near the neglected site of the New England colony, 
and a county named Clarendon was established, with 
the same constitution and powers that had been 
granted to Albemarle. 2 Sir John Yeamans, the 
choice of the people, ruled the colony with prudence 
and affection. 

5. 3 As the proprietors of Carolina anticipated the 
rapid growth of a great and powerful people within 
the limits of their extensive and fertile territory, they 
thought proper to establish a permanent form of gov- 
ernment, commensurate, in dignity, with the vastness 
of their expectations. 4 The task of framing the con- 
stitution was assigned to the Earl of Shaftesbury, one 
of the number, who chose the celebrated philusopher, 
John Locke, as his friend and adviser in the work of 
legislation. 



1C65. 



1. Give an 

account of 
the establish- 
It tent of the 

Clarendon 
tilony. 



2. Win. be 
came gov- 
ernor l 

3. What dii 
the propri$- 

turs antici- 
pate, and 
what did 
they think 
proper to dot 

4. Who were 
the f ramers 

of the con- 
stilutiont 



* Cape Fear River, in North Carolina, is formed by the vie. of Wilmington, n. c 
union of Haw and Deep Rivers, about 125 miles N.W. from 
Wilmington. It enters the Atlantic by two channels, one 
on each side of Smith's Island, twenty and twenty-five miles 
below Wilmington. (See the Map.; 

t Wilmington, the principal seaport in North Carolina, Is 
situated on the east side of Cape Fear River, twenty-five 
miles from the ocean, bv way of Cape Fear, and 150 miles 
N.E. from Charleston. See Map.) 

| Old Town Greek is a small stream that enters Cape Fear 
River from the W. eight miles below Wilmington. (Map.) 

§ Barbadoes is one of the Caribbee or Windward Islands, 
end the most eastern of the West Indies. It is twenty miles 
long, and contains an area of about 150 square miles. The 
Island was granted by James I. to the Earl of Marlborough 
In 1624. 




156 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



JPAK.T II 



1669. 

a. Constitu- 
tions signed 
March 11. 

1. What was 
the object of 
the proprie- 
tors ? 

2. What was 
the nature 
of the con- 
stitution 
adopted ? 



1670. 

3. What is 
said of the 
attempt to 
establish the 
constitution 
—and what 
teas the re- 
sult 1 



1671. 

c. Aug. 
4. What cir- 
cumstances 
retarded, 
andjinally 
defeated the 
settlement 
of Claren- 
don! 
d See p, 160, 



5. What is 
said of dis- 
sensions in 
the Albe- 
marle col- 
ony} 



1676. 



1677. 

Dec 



6. 'The object of the proprietors, as expressed* by 
themselves, was " to make the government of Carolina 
agree, as nearly as possible, to the monarchy of which 
it was a part ; and to avoid erecting a numerous 
democracy." 2 A constitution of one hundred and twenty 
articles, called the " Fundamental Constitutions," was 
adopted, establishing a government to be administered 
by lords and noblemen ; connecting political power 
with hereditary wealth ; and placing nearly every of- 
fice in the government beyond the reach of the people. 

7. 3 The attempt to establish the new form of gov- 
ernment proved ineffectual. The former plain and 
simple laws were suited to the circumstances of the 
people, and the magnificent model of government, with 
its appendages of royalty, contrasted too ludicrously 
with the sparse population and rude cabins of Carolina. 
After a contest of little more than twenty years, the 
constitution, which was never in effectual operation, 
and which had proved to be a source of perpetual dis- 
cord, was abrogated 6 by the proprietors themselves. 

8. 4 The Clarendon county colony had never been 
very numerous, and the barrenness of the soil in its 
vicinity, offered little promise of reward to new adven- 
turers. In 1671 Sir John Yeamans, the governor, 
was transferred from the colony to the charge of an- 
other which had recently been established 41 in South 
Carolina. Numerous removals to the south ward greatly 
reduced the numbers of the inhabitants, and nearly the 
whole country embraced within the limits of the Oar 
endon colony was a second time surrendered to the 
aborigines before the year 1690. 

9. 6 Domestic dissensions long retarded the prosperity 
of the Albemarle or northern colony. Disorder arose 
from the attempts of the governors to administer the 
government according to the constitution of the pro- 
prietors ; excessive taxation, and restrictions upon the 
commerce of the colony, occasioned much discontent ; 
while numerous refugees from Virginia, the actors in 
Bacon's rebellion, friends of popular liberty, being 
kindly sheltered in Carolina, gave encouragement to 
the people to resist oppression. 

10. *The very year after the suppression of Bacon's 



CHAP. X.] NORTH CAROLINA. 157 



rebellion in Virginia, a revolt occurred in Carolina, 16"??. 
occasioned by an attempt to enforce the revenue laws 6 of the 
against a vessel from New England. The people took g£*£*jj 
arms in support of a smuggler, and imprisoned the a "g°fJ<f 
president of the colony and six members of his council. 
John Culpepper, who had recently fled from South 
Carolina, was the leader in the insurrection. 'During 1. now was 
several years, officers chosen by the people adminis- rmmeda% 
tered the government, and tranquillity was for a time P resarwdi 
estored. The inhabitants were restless and turbulent 
under a government imposed on them from abroad, 
but firm and tranquil when left to take care of them- 
selves. 

11. 2 In 16S3 Seth Sothel, one of the proprietors, 1683. 
arrived as governor of the province. Beinsr exceed- V^TJ?" 1 

i i i Sothel be- 

kiifflv avaricious, he not only plundered the colonists, came. goner- 

o j i j ± I nor (tnd 

but cheated his proprietary associates. He valued his what was 

office only as the means of gaining wealth, and in the uri 
pursuit of his favorite object, whether as judge or ex- 
ecutive, he was ever open to bribery and corruption. 

3 A historian of North Carolina remarks, that "the dark 3. What is 

shades of his character were not relieved by a single rem hHmJ 

ray of virtue." 4 The patience of the inhabitants being Whatis 

exhausted after nearly six years of oppression, they sahiof/as 

seized their governor with the design of sending him triatf 

to England; but, at his own request, he was tried by 1683. 

the assembly, which banished him from the colony. 16S9. 

12. 5 Lud well, the next governor, redressed the frauds, lJa h f t ^ e 
public and private, which Sothel had committed, and ^'/" "/*^ 
restored order to the colony. c In 1695 Sir John Arch- weiu 
dale, another of the proprietors, a man of much saga- ***' 
city and exemplary conduct, arrived as governor of arrival and 
both the Carolinas. 7 In 1698 the first settlements Ar&ue°i 
were made on Pamlico or Tar* River. The Pam- !„?£«/« 
lico Indians in that vicinity had been nearly destroyed, n g' m ™ 
two years previously, by a pestilential fever ; while River, ana 
another numerous tribe had been greatly reduced by %areitL 
the arms of a more powerful nation. w mmV 



* Tar River, in the eastern part of North Carolina, flows 3.E., and enters Pamlico 
Sound. It is the principal river next south of the Roanoke. It expands into a wide 
estuary a short distance below the village of Washington, from which place to Pamlico 
Sound, a distance of forty miles, it is called Pamlioo En er. 



155 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART L» 

lYOT. IS. -The want of harmony, which generally pre- 
, What to vailed between the proprietors and the people, did not 
said of the check the increase of population. 2 In 1707 a companv 

increase of p . "L " " . . , . , 1 i • 

population? ot r rench Protestants, who had previously settled in 
arrival of Virginia, removed to Carolina. Two years later, they 
migrants? were followed by a hundred German families from the 
1709. Rhine;* who had been driven in poverty, from their 
homes, by the devastations of war, and religious per- 
>. w?unpr> sedition, 3 The proprietors assigned to each family 
Slforuie tw o hundred and fifty acres of land ; and generous 
emigrants? contributions in England furnished them with pro- 
visions and implements of husbandry, sufficient for 
their immediate wants. 
4. what 14. 4 A great change had fallen upon the numerous 
fafienZpon Indian tribes on the seacoast, since the time of Sir 
the Indian Walter Raleigh's attempted settlements. One tribe. 

tribes since £> f .# 

the time of which could then bring- three thousand bowmen into 

Sir ( VoXt&t 

Raleigh? the field, was now reduced to fifteen men ; another had 
entirely disappeared ; and, of the whole, but a remnant 
remained. After having sold most of their lands, their 
reservations had been encroached upon ; — strong drink 
had degraded the Indians, and crafty traders had im- 
poverished them ; and they had passed away before the 
march of civilization, like snow beneath a vertical sun. 
6. what i» 15. 5 The Tuscaroras and the Corees, being farther 
^ca/ofa^ inland, had held little intercourse with the whites ; but 
career mev h a d observed, with jealousy and fear, their grow- 
ing power, and the rapid advance of their settlements, 
1711. and with Indian secrecy they now plotted the exter- 
6. Give an mination of the strangers. *A surveyor, who was 
a th° U mm- found upon their lands with his chain and compass, 
ZPhZtu- was the fi rst victim. 1 Leaving their fire-arms, to avoid 
ties. suspicion, in small parties, acting in concert, they ap- 
b. Oct. 2. proached the scattered settlements along Roanokef 
gerMefof ^ lver an & Pamlico Sound ; and in one night, b one 
coi. Barn- hundred and thirty persons fell by the hatchet. 
I** Indiana. 16. 7 Colonel Barn well, with a considerable body of 

* The Rhine, one of the most important rivers in Europe, rises in Switzerland, passes 
through Lake Constance, and after flowing N. and N.W. through Germany, it turns to 
the west, and, through several channels, enters the North Sea or German Ocean, be 
tween Holland and Belgium, 

t Roanoke River, formed by the junction of Staunton and Dan Rivers, near the south 
Doundary of Virginia, flows S.E. through the northeastern part of North Carolina, and 
enters the head of Albemarle Sound 



CHAP. X.J NORTH CAROLINA. 159 

friendly Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas, was sent 17 12. 
from South Carolina to the relief of the settlers, and " 
having defeated the enemy in different actions, he pur- 
sued them to their fortified town,* which capitulated, 
and the Indians were allowed to escape. 'But in a i. of the 
few days the treaty was broken on both sides, and the gtess,mi 
Indians renewed hostilities. At length Colonel Moore, t the wa r. 
of South Carolina, arrived," with forty white men and % Dec 
eight hundred friendly Indians: and in 1713 the Tus- 1713, 
caroras were besieged in their fort,f and eight hun- 
dred taken prisoners. b At last the hostile part of the j. April 5 
tribe migrated north, and, joining their kindred in 
New York, became the sixth nation of the Iroquois 
confederacy. In 1715 peace was concluded with the 1715. 
Corees. c - Feb - 
17. 2 In 1729, the two Carolinas, which had hitherto 1729. 
been under the superintendence of the same board of 2 - H ^?°" 
proprietors, were finally separated; 11 and royal govern- 1729.' 
ments, entirely unconnected, were established 6 over • d y- 

* , . . e Sept 

them. 3 From this time, until the period immediately 3. Give an 

preceding the Revolution, few events occurred to dis- ^"oijiiI- 

turb the peace and increasing prosperity of North Car- Jj%? r %f f 

olina. In 1744 public attention was turned to the de- Npftkcar- 

r . r . . ohnafrom 

lence 01 the seacoast, on account 01 the commencement w> time, m 
of hostilities between England and Spain. About the tton. 
time of the commencement of the French and Indian 
war, the colony received large accessions to its num- 1754. 
bers, by emigrants from Ireland and Scotland, and 
thus the settlements were extended into the interior, 
where the soil was far more fertile than the lands pre 
viously occupied. 



* This place was near the River Neuse, a short distance above Edenton, '.n Craven 
County. 

\ This place was in Greene County, on Cotentnca (orCotechney) Creek, a dort dis- 
tance above its entrance into the River Neuse. 



IbO ,'PART il. 

1670. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Of what 
ioes Chapter 

f"-** SOUTH CAROLINA* 

1. \vimt is 1. 'The charter granted to Lord Clarendon and 
"charter 'to others, in 1663, embraced, as has been stated,* a large 
clarendon? extent f territory, reaching- from Virginia to Florida. 

a. Sec p. 154. J ' " ° 

1 670 2 After the establishment of a colony in the northern part 

x cave, an of their province, the proprietors, early in 1670, fitted 

planting out - several ships, with emigrants, for planting a south-* 

- 'colony in ern colony, under the direction of William Sayle, who 

southCaro- had previously explored the coast. The ships which. 

bore the emigrants entered the harbor of Port Royal, 

near Beaufort,! whence, after a short delay, they sailed 

into Ashley;); River, on the south side of which the 

settlement of Old Charleston was commenced. The 

colony, in honor of Sir George Carteret, one of the 

proprietors, was called the Carteret County Colony. 

1671. 2. 3 Early in 1671 Governor Sayle sunk under the 

3. what oc- diseases of a sickly climate, and the council appointed 

i67i? Joseph West to succeed him, until they should learn 

the will of the proprietors. In a few months, Sir John 

b. Dec. Yeamans, then governor of Clarendon, was appointed" 
4 how was governor of the southern colony. 4 From Barbadoes 

ike colony he brought a number of African slaves, and South 
wu/iiabor- Carolina was, from the first, essentially, a planting 
5. what is state, with slave labor. s Representative government 
government was ear ^y established by the people, but the attempt 
of the cot- to carry out the plan of government formed by the pro- 

c. 16-1-2. pnetors proved ineffectual. 



* SOUTH CAROLINA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of nearly 33,000 
square miles. The seaeoast is bordered with a ch«in of fertile islands. The I,ow Coun- 
try, extending from eighty to 100 miles fcom the coast, is covered with forests of pitch 
pine, tailed pine barrens, interspersed with marshes and swamps, which form excellent 
rice plantations. Beyond this, extending fifty or sixty miles in width, is the Middlt 
Country, composed of numerous ridges of sand hills, presenting an appearance which 
has been compared to the waves of the sea suddenly arrested in their course. Beyond 
these sand hills commences the Upper Country, which is a beautiful and healthy, and 
generally fertile region, about 800 feet above the level of the sea. The Blue Ridge, a 
branch of the Alleghanies, passes along the N. Western boundary of the state. 

t Beaufort, in South Carolina, is situated on Port Royal Island, on the W. bank of 
Port Royal River, a narrow branch of the ocean. It is sixteen miles from the sea, and 
about thirty-six miles, in a direct line, N.E. from Savannah. (See Map, p. 35.) 

t dshley River rises about thirty miles N.W. from Charleston, and, passing along the 
west side of the city, enters Charleston Harbor seven mites from the ocean. (See Map, 
next page.) 



CHaP XI.] 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



161 



3. 'Several circumstances contributed to promote the 
early settlement of South Carolina. A long and bloody- 
war between two neighboring Indian tribes, and a fatal 
epidemic which had recently prevailed, had opened the 
way for the more peaceful occupation of the country by 
the English. The recent conquest of New Nether- 

ands induced many of the Dutch to emigrate, and 
several ship loads of them were conveyed" to Carolina, 
by the proprietors, free of expense. Lands were as- 

igned them west of the Ashley River, where they 
formed a settlement, which was called Jamestown. 
The inhabitants soon spread themselves through the 
country, and in process of time the town was deserted. 
Their prosperity induced many of their countrymen 
from Holland to follow them. A kw years later a 
company of French Protestants, refugees from their 
own country, were sent b over by the king of England. 

4. 8 The pleasant location of " Oyster Point," between 
the rivers Ashley and Cooper,* had early attracted the 
attention of the settlers, and had gained a few inhab- 
itants ; and in 1 680 the foundation of a new town was 
laid there, which was called Charleston.! It was im- 
mediately declared the capital of the province, and 
during the first year thirty dwellings were erected. 
3 In the same year the colony was involved in difficul- 
ties with the Indians. Straggling parties of the Wes- 
toes began to plunder the plantations, and several 
Indians were shot by the planters. War immediately 
broke out ; a price was fixed on Indian prisoners ; and 



1671. 

1. What cir- 
cumstances 
favored the 

settlement 

and groioth 

of St uth 

Carolina? 



b. 167». 

2. Give an 

account of 
the settle- 
vient and 
■progress of 
Charleston, 

1680. 



3. Of the 
first war 

with the In 
dians, and 
its termina- 
tion. 



* Cooper River rises about thirty-five miles 
N.E. from Charleston, and passing along the 
East side of the city, unites with Ashley River, 
to form Charleston Harbor. Wando River, a 
short but broad stream, enters the Cooper from 
the east, four miles above the city. (See Map.; 

t Charleston, a city and seaport of S. Carolina, 
is situated on a peninsula formed by the union 
of Ashley and Cooper Rivers, seven miles from 
the ocean. It is Only about seven feet above 
) ish tide; and parts of the city hive been over- 
timed when the wind and tide have combined 
to raise the waters. The harbor, below the city, 
s about two miles in width, and seven in length, 
'.cross the mouth of which is a sand bar, having 
lour passages, the deepest of which, near Sulli- 
ran's Island, has seventeen feet of water, at high 
tide. During the summer months the city is 
more healthy than the surrounding country 



VICINITY OF CHARLESTC 






T, 
■rcuHrieY^\ 




tt)2 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART IL 



1634. 

1. What oc- 
curred at 

Port Royalt 

1686. 

b. 1635. 

2. What in- 
duced the 

Huguenots 
to remove to 

America? 
I. Where did 
t/iey settle I 
I. How were 
they at first 

regarded, 

and how 
treated by 

Vie Eng- 
lish 1 



5. 1686-90. 

S What 
events oc- 
curred du- 
ring Gov. 
Colleton's 
adminis- 
tration 1 



1690. 

6. Give an 
account of 
Sothel's ad- 
ministra- 
tion. 
tl.Seep. 157. 



many of them were sent to the West Indies, and sold 
for slaves. The following year 1 peace was concluded, 
and commissioners were appointed to decide all com- 
plaints between the contending - parties. 

5. L In 1634 a few families of Scotch emigrants settled 
at Port Royal ; but two years later, the Spaniards of 
St. Augustine, claiming the territory, invaded the set- 
tlement, and laid it waste. 2 About this time the revo- 
cation 6 of the edict of Nantes,* induced a large num- 
ber of French Protestants, generally called Huguenots, 
to leave their country, and seek an asylum in America. 
3 A few settled in New England ; others in New York; 
but South Carolina became their chief resort. ''Al- 
though they had been induced, by the proprietors, to 
believe that the full rights of citizenship would be ex- 
tended to them here, yet they were long viewed with 
jealousy and distrust by the English settlers, who were 
desirous of driving them from the country, by enforcing 
against them the laws of England respecting aliens. 

6. 6 The administration of Governor Colleton was 
signalized by a continued series of disputes with the 
people, who, like the settlers in North Carolina, re- 
fused to submit to the form of government established 
by the proprietors. An attempt of the governor to col- 
lect the rents claimed by the proprietors, finally drove 
the people to open rebellion. They forcibly took pos- 
session of the public records, held assemblies in oppo- 
sition to the governor and the authority of the pro- 
prietors, and imprisoned the secretary of the province. 
At length Colleton, pretending danger from Indians or 
Spaniards, called out the militia, and proclaimed the 
province under martial law. This only exasperated 
the people the more, and Colleton was finally im- 
peached by the assembly, and banished from ths 
province. 

7. 'During these commotions, Seth Sothel, who had 
previously been banished d from North Carolina, arrived 
in the province, and assumed the government, with 



* JVantes is a large commercial city in the west of France, on the N. side of the Rive! 
Loire, thirty miles from its mouth. It was in this place that Henry IV. promulgated the 
famous edict in 1598, in favor of the Protestants, granting them the free exercise of 
their religion. In 1685 this edict was revoked by Louis XIV. ; — a violent persecution of 
tile Protestants followed, and thousands of them fled from the kingdom. 



«HAP. XI.J SOUTH CAROLINA. 1 63 

the consent of the people. But his avarice led him to 1 G&O. 

trample upon every restraint of justice and equity ; and 
after two years of tyranny and misrule, he likewise 
was deposed, and banished by the people. 'Philip , of Ltt & 
Ludwell. for some time governor of North Carolina, %$%££?. 
was then sent to the southern province, to re-establish ti0 >\ 
the authority of the proprietors. But the old disputes 16j~. 
revived, and after a brief, but turbulent administration, 
he gladly withdrew into Virginia. 

8. a In 1693, one cause of discontent with the people 1693. 
was removed by the proprietors ; who abolished the ^?S!m 
u Fundamental Constitution," and returned to a more 1693 } 
simple and more republican form of government. 3 But i. why did 
contentions and disputes still continuing, John Arch- camtuoer, 
dale, who was a Quaker, and proprietor, came over in a ^ d w f a n S 
1695 ; and by a wise and equitable administration, did a&ministra- 

i ii • • i i non} 

much to allay private animosities, and remove the 

causes of civil discord. ^Matters of general moment 4 niuuia 
were settled to the satisfaction of all, excepting the |yjf„$j^. 
French refugees ; and such was the antipathy of the «seeai 
English settlers against these peaceable, but unfortu- 
nate people, that Governor Archdale found it necessary 
to exclude the latter from all concern in the legislature. 

9. 6 Fortunately for the peace of the colony, soon 1696. 
after the return of Archdale, all difficulties with the s. Give an 

tt -iiii mi • ■ i account of 

Huguenots were amicably settled. iheir quiet and thetermina 
inoffensive behavior, and their zeal for the success of ameuuaa 
the colony, had gradually removed the national an- wUhthtm - 
tipathies ; and the general assembly at length admit- 1697. 
ted 1 them to all the rights of citizens and freemen. a.March. 
The French and English Protestants of Carolina have 
ever since lived together in harmony and peace. 'In 1702. 
1 702, immediately after the declaration b of war, by 6 j"J?,^. r " 
England, against France and Spain, Governor Moore u ^f 1 7 '^' 
proposed to the assembly of Carolina an expedition governor in 
against the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, in b . Mayi 
Florida. 7 The more considerate opposed the project, „ 
but a majority being in favor of it, a sum of about nine « received? 
thousand dollars was voted for the war, and 1200 men 8 ( n ve an 
were raised, of whom half were Indians. matspedtt- 

10. 8 While Colonel Daniel marched against St. tfon again* 
Augustine by land, the governor proceeded witn the ' nnl 



164 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART II 

1Y02, main body by sea, and blocked up the harbor, The 
Spaniards, taking with them all their most valuable 
effects, and a large supply of provisions, retired to their 
castle. As nothing could be effected against it, for the 
want of heavy artillery, Daniel was despatched to Ja- 
maica,* for cannon, mortars, &c. During his absence, 
two Spanish ships appeared off the harbor ; when 
Governor Moore, abandoning his ships, made a hasty 
retreat into Carolina. Colonel Daniel, on his return, 
standing in for the harbor, made a narrow escape from 
the enemy. 
i.what debt 1 1. 'The hasty retreat of the governor was severely 
red^andhow censured by the people of Carolina. This enterprise 
defrayed} loaded the colony with a debt of more than 26,000 dol- 
lars, for the payment of which bills of credit were 

1703. issued; the first paper money used in Carolina. 2 An 
account 1 "/ expedition which was soon after undertaken* against 

wmt'heAp- tne Apalachian Indians, who were in alliance with the 

aiachians. Spaniards, proved more successful. The Indian towns 

a. Dec. between the rivers Altamahaf and SavannahJ were 

laid in ashes ; several hundred Indians were taken 

1704. prisoners; and the whole province of Apalachia was 
obliged to submit to the English government. 

\^bLn a a ^" 3 T ne establishment of the Church of England, 

favorite ob- in Carolina, had long been a favorite object with sev- 

proprietors, eral of the proprietors, and during the administration 

did they sS of Sir Nathaniel Johnson, who succeeded 6 Governor 

iTi™ Moore, their designs were fully carried out ; and not 

only was the Episcopal form of worship established, as 

the religion of the province, but all dissenters were 

varu^amint excluded from the colonial legislature. 4 The dissent- 

thfsmatteri ers tnen carried their cause before the English par- 

5. what liament, which declared that the acts complained of 

change was ' ., .__,.. r 

then made) were repugnant to the laws of England, and contrary 
1706. to the charter of the proprietors. 6 Soon after, the co- 

* Jamaica, one of the West India Islands, is 100 miles S. from Cuba, and 800 S.E. from 
St. Augustine. It is of an oval form, and is about ISO miles long. 

t The Jlltamaha. a large and navigable river of Georgia, is formed by the union of tho 
Oconee and the Ocimlgee, after which it flows S.E., upwards of 100 miles, and enters 
the Atlantic by several outlets, sixty miles S.W. from Savannah. Mille'dgeville, the 
capital of the stnte, is on t'he Oconee, the northern branch. (See Map, p. lf>8.) 

% The Savannah River has its head branches in N. Carolina, and, running a S. East- 
ern course, forms the boundary between S. Carolina and Georgia. The largest vessels 
pass up the river fourteen miles, and steamboats to Augusta, 120 miles, in a direct line, 
from the mouth of the river, and more than 300 by the river's course 



CHAP. XI.] 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



165 



Jonial assembly of Carolina repealed 1 the laws which 
disfranchised a portion of the people ; but the Church 
A England remained the established religion of the 
province until the Revolution. 

13. 'From these domestic troubles, a threatened in- 
vasion of the province turned the attention of the peo- 
ple towards their common defence against foreign 
enemies. 2 Q.ueen Anne's war still continued ; and 
Spain, considering Carolina as a part of Florida, deter- 
mined to assert her right by force of arms. 3 In 1 706, 
i French and Spanish squadron from Havanna appeared 
btlbre Charleston ; but the inhabitants, headed by the 
governor and Colonel Rhett, assembled in great num- 
bers for the defence of the city. The enemy landed 
in several places, but were repulsed with loss. One 
of the French ships was taken, and the invasion, at 
first so alarming, was repelled with little loss, and little 
expense to the colony. 

1 4. 4 In 1715a general Indian war broke out, headed 
by the Yamassees, and involving all the Indian tribes 
from Cape Fear River to the Alabama. The Ya- 
massees had previously shown great friendship to the 
English; and the war commenced 11 before the latter 
were aware of their danger. The frontier settlements 
were desolated ; Port Royal was abandoned ; Charles 
ton itself was in danger ; and the colony seemed near 
its ruin. 5 But Governor Craven, with nearly the en- 
tire force of the colony, advanced against the enemy, 
drove their straggling parties before him, and on the 
banks of the Salkehatchie,* encountered their main 
body in camp, and, after a bloody battle, gained a 
complete victory. At length the Yamassees, being 
driven from their territory, retired to Florida, where 
they were kindly received by the Spaniards. 

15. 6 The war with the Yamassees was followed, in 
1719, by a domestic revolution in Carolina. 7 As the 
proprietors refused to pay any portion of the debt in- 
curred by the war, and likewise enforced their land 
claims with severity, the colonists began to look to- 



1706. 



a. Nov. 



1. What 
next enga- 
ged the at- 
tention of 
the people ? 

2. Why wen 

the Span- 
iards hos- 
tile I 
3. What 
events oc 
curred in 

17U6? 



1715. 

4. Give an 
account of 
the Indian 
loar of 1715. 



b. April 2fi 



5. Of the 

services of 
Gov. Cra- 
ven, and thi 
close of i lie 
war. 
c. Mar. 



8. By what 
loa-s this ioaj 

followed > 
7. What were 
the causes oj 

discontent } 



* Salkehatchie is the name given to the upper portion of the Cambahoe River, (which 
see, Map, p. 35). Its course is S.E., and it is from twenty to thirty miles E. from lh» 
Savannah River. 



166 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PARI n. 



1719. 

l. What was 

the result of 
the contro- 
versy } 
a. Dec. 

1720. 



7 What is 

aid of yii/i- 

olson ? 



b. Sept. 

c 1721. 

3. When teas 
the contro- 
versy ad- 
justed, and 
i. Wliat then 
became the 
situation of 
the Caro- 
lines ? 



wards the crown for assistance and protection. 'After 
much controversy and difficulty with the proprietors, 
the assembly and the people openly rebelled against 
their authority, and proclaimed" James Moore governor 
of the province, in the name of the king. The agent 
of Carolina obtained, in England, a hearing from the 
lords of the regency, who decided that the proprietors 
had forfeited their charter. 

16. 2 While measures were taken for its abrogation, 
Francis Nicholson, who had previously exercised 
the office of governor in New York, in Maryland, 
in Virginia, and in Nova Scotia, now received 1 " 
a royal commission as governor of Carolina ; and, 
early in the following year, 6 arrived in the province. 
3 The controversy with the proprietors was finally ad- 
justed in 1729. "Both Carolinas then became royal 
governments, under which they remained until the 
Revolution. 




JAMES OGLETnOEPK. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GEORGIA.* 

1. B At the time of the surren- 
der d of the Carolina charter to the 
crown, the country southwest of 
the Savannah was a wilderness, 
occupied by savage tribes, and 
d. 1729. claimed by Spain as a part of Florida, and by 

6. Situation -,-,-, , ^ L p siT stt -i n i 

of Georyia? .bngjand. as a part of Carolina. rlappuy tor the 
'tee was claims of the latter, and the security of Carolina, in 
^°i732? m 1732 a number of persons in England, influenced by 

* GEORGIA, one of the Southern States, contains an area of about 60,000 square 
miles. The entire coast, to the distance of seven or eight miles, is intersected by nu- 
merous inlets, communicating with each other, and navigable for small vessels. The 
islands thus formed consist mostly of salt marshes, which produce sea island cotton of 
a superior quality. The coast on the mainland, to the distance of several miles, is 
mostly a salt marsh ; beyond which are the pine barrens, and the ridges of sand hills 
similar to those of South Carolina. The Upper Country is an extensive table land, 
with a black and fertile soil. Near the boundary of Tennessee and Carolina, on t*>« 
north, the country becomes mountainous. 



CHAP. Xll.J 



GEORGIA. 



167 



motives of patriotism and humanity, formed the project 1732. 
of planting a colony in the disputed territory. 

2. 'James Oglethorpe, a member of the British par- i What u 
liament ; a soldier and a loyalist, but a friend of the ^^Irld 
unfortunate ; first conceived the idea of opening, for 
the poor of his own country, and for persecuted Prot- 
estants of all nations, an asylum in America, where 
former poverty would be no reproach, and where all 
might worship without fear of persecution. 2 The be- 
nevolent enterprise met with favor from the kin. 
granted, 1 for twenty-one years, to a corporation, " in ofGeorgiai 
trust for the poor," the country between the Savannah a Jms20 
and the Altamaha, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. 

The new province was named Georgia. 

3. 3 In November of the same year, Oglethorpe, with t>. Nov. 28 
nearly one hundred and twenty emigrants, embarked 
for America 



his benevo- 
lent de- 
signs 1 



(if the 

who Migrant, 
" uu or charier, 



_. Give an 
account of 

and after touching at Charleston and J£%l e 3 l % a 
Port Royal, on the twelfth of February landed at Sa- vannaL 
vannah.* On Yamacraw bluff, a settlement was im- 1733. 

Jan. -24. 



On Yamacraw bluff, a settlement was im 
mediately commenced, and the town, after the Spanish 
name of the river, was called Savannah. *After com- 
pleting a slight fortification for the defence of the set- 
tlers, Oglethorpe invited the neighboring Indian chiefs 
to meet him at Savannah, in order to treat with them 
for their lands, and establish relations of friendship. 

4. 6 In June the chiefs of the Creek nation assem- 
bled ; — kind feelings prevailed ; and the English were 
cordially welcomed to the country. An aged warrior 
presented several bundles of skins, saying that, although Indians, 
the Indians were poor, they gave, with a good heart, 
such things as they possessed. Another chief pre- 
sented the skin of a buffalo, painted, on the inside, 
with the head and feathers of an eagle. He said the 
English were as swift as the eagle 
and as strong as the buffalo ; foi 



4. Hor< did 
Oglethorpe 
begin his in 
tercourse 
with the In 
dians 1 



5. Give an 
account oj 
thisfirst 
meeting 
with the 



VICINITY OF SAVANNAH. 



* Savannah, now the largest city, and the 
principal seaport of Georgia, is situated on the 
S VV. bink pf the Savannah River, on a sandy 
plain forty feet above the level of the tide, and 
seventeen miles from the sea. The city is reg- 
ularly laid out in the form of a parallelogram, 
with streets crossing each other at right angles. 
Vessels requiring fourteen feet of water come 
up to the wharves of the city, and larger ves- 
sels to Five Fathom Hole, three miles below the 
•".itry. See Map.) 




163 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART IL 



ITSS. they flew over vast seas ; and were so powerful, that 
nothing could withstand them. He reminded them 
that the feathers of the eagle were soft, and signified 
love ; that the skin of the buffalo was warm, and sig- 
nified protection ; and therefore he hoped that the Eng- 
lish would love and protect the little families of the 
Indians. 

5. 'The settlers rapidly increased in numbers, but 
as most of those who first came over, were not only 
poor, but unaccustomed * to habits of industry, they 
were poorly qualified to encounter the toil and hard- 
ships to which their situation exposed them. 2 The 
liberality of the trustees then invited emigrants of 
more enterprising habits; and large numbers of Swiss, 
Germans, and Scotch, accepted their proposals. 3 The 
regulations of the trustees at first forbade the use of 
negroes, — prohibited the importation of rum, — and in- 
terdicted all trade with the Indians, without a special 
license. Slavery was declared to be not only immoral, 
but contrary to the laws of England. 

6. 4 Early in 1736, Oglethorpe, who had previously 
visited England, returned 1 to Georgia, with a new 
company of three hundred emigrants. s In anticipation 
of war between England and Spain, he fortified his 
colony, by erecting forts at Augusta,* Darien,f Fred- 
erica, J on Cumberland Island^ near the mouth of the 
St. Mary's,|| ana even as far as the St. John's, claiming 
for the English all the territory north of that river. 
6 But the Spanish authorities of St. Augustine com- 

* Augusta City is situated on the S.W. side of the Savannah River, 120 miles N.W. 
from Savannah City. It is at the head of steamboat navigation on the Savannah, i3 
surrounded by a rich country, and has an active trade. 

t Daricn is situated on a high sandy bluff, on the north and principal channel of the 
Altamaha, twelve miles from the bar near its mouth. (See Map.) 



5. What is 

said of the 

Character of 

the early 

tattlers ■? 



■2. niiat 
stiier emi- 
grants arri- 
ved ./ 



5. What reg- 
ulations of 
the trustees 
are men- 
tioned i 



1736. 

a. Feb. 16. 
3. What ad- 
dition was 
Made to the 
colony in 
1736? 
5. What toot 
done in an- 
ticipation of 
warbetween 

England 
and Spain ? 



VICINITY OF FREDERICA. 




t Fredcrica is situated on the west side of St. Simon's 
Island, below the principal mouth of the Altamaha. and 
on one of its navigable channels. The fort, mentioned 
above, was constructed of tabby, a mixture of water and 
lime, with shells or gravel, forming a hard rocky mass 
when dry. The ruins of the fort may still be seen. 

§ Cumberland Island lies opposite the coast, at the 
southeastern extremity of Georgia. It is fifteen miles in 
length, and from one to four in width. The fort was on 
the southern point, and commanded the entrance to St. 
Mary's River. 

|| St. Mary's River, forming part of the boundary be- 
tween Georgia and Florida, enters the Atlantic, between 
Cumberland Island on the north, and Amelia Island on 
the south. 



CHAP. XH.J GEORGIA. 169 

plained of the near approach of the English; and their 1736. 
commissioners, sent to confer with Oglethorpe, de- 6 Wha[ 
manded the evacuation of the country, as far north as ciaumdid 

ni-Ti n 1* i- rrii i the Spanish 

St. Helena bound , and, in case or relusaJ, threatened authorities 

hostilities. 'The fortress at the mouth of the St. John's L H uwfar 

was abandoned ; but that near the mouth of the St. ^taW^al- 

Mary's AVas retained; and this river afterwards became muteai 
the southern boundary of Georgia. 

7. 2 The celebrated John Wesley, founder of the 2 . What 
Methodist church, had returned with Oglethorpe, with %%$%$£ 
ihe charitable design of rendering; Georgia a religious v^' 1 '"-"' 1 , 

o & o o its ob ltd I 

colony, and of converting the Indians, — " not." as he 
said, " to gain riches and honor, but simply this — to 
live wholly to the glory of God." 3 His religious zeal ?• Qff.isre- 

t t i ■ -ii . ^ i turn l0 En 9 

involved him in controversies with the mixed settlers tan<i 
of Georgia, and after a short time he returned to Eng- 
land, where he was long distinguished for his piety 4 mat is 
and usefulness. 4 Soon after his return the Rev. ia %^B e 
George Whitefield, another very distinguished preach- whuejiem 
er, visited" Georgia, with the design of establishing an a Ma> '' 1733 
orphan asylum on lands obtained from the trustees for 
that purpose. The plan but partially succeeded during 
his lifetime, and was abandoned afcer his death. b b. in mo 

8. 6 To hasten the preparations for the impending s. wnatpre- 
contest with Spain, Oglethorpe again visited c England; aa a osie- 
where he received 11 a commission as brigadier-general; th j L pe 



'or war I 

with a command extending over South Carolina ; and, c JS?f^ of 
after an absence of more than a year and a half, re- 1737. 
turned e to Georgia, bringing with him a regiment of a. sept. r. 
600 men, for the defence of the southern frontiers. 'In e ; 0ct - 
the latter part of 1739, England declared 1 ' war against ^waT&eci^ 
Spain; and Oglethorpe immediately planned an ex- whfinvefe 
pedition against St. Augustine. In May of the follow- ,,,'Jat^of 
ing year, s he entered Florida with a select force of ogieihorpet 
four hundred men from his regiment, some Carolina ' ^ 
tioops, and a large body of friendly Indians. 

9. 7 A Spanish fort, twenty-five miles from St. Au- ^f/w//^ 
£U3tirie, surrendered after a short resistance ; — another, ces attend- 
within two miles, was abandoned ; but a summons for petition 
the surrender of the town was answered by a bold de- Augustine 

* St. Helena Souvd is the entrance to the Cambahee River. It is north of St Helena 
«land, and about fifty miles N.E. from Savannah. (See Map, p. 35.) 

8 



170 COLONIAL HISTORY [PART II 

1740. fiance. For a time the Spaniards were cut off from al, 
supplies, by ships stationed at the entrance of the har- 
bor ; but at length several Spanish galleys eluded the 
vigilance of the blockading squadron, and brought a 
reinforcement and supplies to the garrison. All hopes 
of speedily reducing the place were now lost; — sick- 
ness began to prevail among the troops ; and Ogle- 
a. July, thorpe, with sorrow and regret, returned* to Georgia. 
1742. 1Q- 'Two years later, the Spaniards, in return, made 

i. awe an preparations for an invasion of Georgia. In July, a 
y Spanish fleet of thirty-six sail from Havanna and St. Augustine, 
'lleursm^ bearing more than three thousand troops, entered the 

b. July i6. harbor of St. Simon's ;* landed b on the west side of the 

island, a little above the town of the same name ; and 

2. of the erected a battery of twenty guns. 2 General Ogle- 

m ofugie- ts thorpe, who was then on the island with a force of less 

thorpe, and than eiffht hundred men, exclusive of Indians, with- 

his success & 1 • ■ . . J 

against the drew to Fredenca ; anxiously awa^uie an expected 

£ft6'?ft1/. . . " Ox 

reinforcement from Carolina. A party of the enemy, 
having advanced within two miles of the town, was 
driven back with loss ; another party of three hundred, 

c. July is coroing to their assistance, was ambuscaded, and two- 

thirds of the number were slain or taken prisoners. 

3. what pre- ^' 3 Oglethorpe next resolved to attack, by night. 
attach-in me one °^ ^ e Spanish camps ; but a French soldier de- 

Spanish serted, and ffave the alarm, and the design was de- 

camp J ' & . ' ° 

feated. 4 Apprehensive that the enemy would now 

4. What was j • i • i i i • i j • * r j 

Oglethorpe's discover his weakness, he devised an expedient tor de- 
e'etving the stroying the credit of any information that might be 
enemy i gj ven j^ e wro t e a letter to the deserter, requesting 
that he would urge the Spaniards to an immediate 
attack, or, if he should not succeed in this, that he 
would induce them to remain on the island three days 
longer, for in that time several British ships, and a re- 
inforcement, were expected from Carolina. He also 
dropped some hints of an expected attack on St. Au 
gustine by a British fleet. This letter he bribed a 

* St. Simon's Island lies south of the principal channel of the Altamaha. It is twelv« 
allies in lenffth, and from two to five in width. The harbor of St. Simon's is at the 
southern point of the island, before the town of the same name, and eipht miles below 
Frederica. At St. Simon's there was also a small fort. The northern part of the islana 
is separated from the mainland by a small ereek, and is called Little St. Simon's. (See 
Map, p. 1G8.) 



eHAP. XII. j GE.OEG1A. 171 

Spanish prisoner to deliver to the deserter, but, as was 1T4'2. 

expected, it was given to the Spanish commander. 

12. 'The deserter was immediately arrested as a , ._ , 

ri • i jv What WM 

spy, but the letter sorely perplexed the Spanish officers, $* result of 
some of whom believed it was intended as a deception, 
while others, regarding- the circumstances mentioned 
in It as highly probable, and fearing for the safety of 
St. Augustine, advised an immediate return of the ex- 
pedition. 2 Fortunately, while they were consulting, 2 . whatcir 
there appeared, at some distance on the coast, three ^j^ttyfa- 
small vessels, which were regarded as a part of the %%%££? 
British fleet mentioned in the letter. 3 It was now de- 3. What ml 
termined to attack Oglethorpe at Frederica, before the &XTb« 
expected reinforcement should arrive. upon? 

13. 4 While advancing for this purpose, they fell t.whatteas 
into an ambuscade, 1 at a place since called " Bloody aetrSttma- 
Marsh," where they were so warmly received that *$£%£ 
they retreated with precipitation,— abandoned their 
works, and hastily retired to their shipping ; leaving a . 
quantity of guns and ammunition behind them. 6 On 5. Whatoc 
their way south they made an attack b on Fort Wil- c th^rr°e a 
liam, # but were repulsed; and two galleys were dis- h 'j^l 3 
abled and abandoned. 'The Spaniards were deeply 6 How was 
mortified at the result of the expedition ; and the com- J^l" 1 ^ 
mander of the troops, on his return to Havanna, was '/>« e ,- l J e , d i\ 

. , • 1 1 • i- j--i turn treated? 

tried by a court-martial, and, in disgrace, dismissed 
from the service. 

14. 7 Soon after these events, Oglethorpe returned to 1743. 
England, never to revisit the colony which, after ten 7.11^ 

<< t • i mi iii 1 1 c i 1 more is said 

years 01 disinterested toil, he had planted, defended, ofogu- 
and now left in tranquillity. 8 Hitherto, the people 8 What 
had been under a kind of military rule : but now a ^"/f„"^ 
civil Q-overnment was established ; and committed to so^rn- 

ii r • 1 i-ii merit? 

the charge of a president and council, who were re- 
quired to govern according to the instructions of the 
t ustees. 

15. 9 Yet the colony did not prosper, and most of the s.ivhaticae 
settlers stiL remained in poverty, with scarcely the tionof d tht 
hope of better days. Under the restrictions of the trus- colon 'J ? 

* Fort William was the name of the fort at the southern extremity of Cnmberland 
Island. There was also a fort, called Fort Andrew, at the northern extremity of the 
island. 



172 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1743. 

\. Of what 
lid the peo- 
ple CO/71- 

vlain 7 



2. How were 
tne laws 

against sla- 
very eva- 
de! ? 



1752. 

8. Wlien was 
the form of 
government 
changed, 
and why ? 
a. July 1. 
b. Oct. 

4. What gape 
prosperity to 
the colony? 



tees, agriculture had not flourished ; and commerce 
had scarcely been thought of. 'The people com- 
plained, that, as they were poor, the want of a free title 
to their lands almost wholly deprived them of credit; 
they wished that the unjust rule of descent, which 
gave their property to the eldest son, to the exclusion 
of the younger children, should be changed for one 
more equitable ; but, more than all, they complained 
that they were prohibited the use of slave labor, and 
requested that the same encouragements should be 
given to them as were given to their more fortunate 
neighbors in Carolina. 

16. 2 The regulations of the trustees began to be 
evaded, and the laws against slavery were not rigidly 
enforced. At first, slaves from Carolina were hired 
for short periods ; then for a hundred years, or during 
life ; and a sum equal to the value of the negro paid 
in advance ; and, finally, slavers from Africa sailed 
directly to Savannah ; and Georgia, like Carolina, 
became a planting state, with slave labor. 

17. 3 ln 1752, the trustees of Georgia, wearied with 
complaints against the system of government which 
they had established, and finding that the province 
languished under their care, resigned 3 - their charter to 
the king ; and the province was formed b into a royal 
government. ■•The people were then favored with the 
same liberties and privileges that were enjoyed by the 
provinces of Carolina ; but it was not until the close 
of the French and Indian war, and the surrender of 
the Floridas to England, by which security was given 
to the frontiers, that the colony began to assume a 
flourishing 1 condition. 




DRAPDOOK. 



EKA.L AJtllBCROMIUK. 



GENEKAI. WOLFS. 



IHAP. xm.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



173 




DEATH OF GENERAL WOLFE ^Sce page 192./ 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, 

EXTENDING FROM 1754 TO THE PEACE OF 1703. 

DIVISIONS. 

t Causes of the War, and Events of 1754. — II. 1755: Expe- 
ditions of Monckton, Braddock, Shirley, and Winsluw. — ///. 
1756: Delays; Loss of Oswego; Indian Incursions. — IV. 
1757: Designs against Louisburg, and Loss of Fort Win. 
Henry. — V. 1758: Reduction of Louisburg ; Abercrombie's 
Defeat ; The taking of Forts Frontenac and Du Quesne. — - 
VI. 1759 to 1763: Ticonderoga and Crown Point Abandon- 
ed ; Niagara Taken ; Conquest of Quebec, — Of all Canada ; 
War with the CIterokees.; Peace of 1763. 

I. Causes of the War, and Events of 1754. — 
■Thus far, separate accounts of the early American 
colonies have been given, tor the purpose of preserving 
that unity of narration which seemed best adapted to 
render prominent the distinctive features which marked 
the settlement and progress of each. 2 But as we have 
arrived at a period when the several colonies have be- 



1753. 



Of what does 

Chapter 
XIII. treat I 



What art 
the Divi- 
sions uf the 
Chapter 7 



Of what doe* 
the first Di- 
vision tread 
1. Why have 
separate ac- 
counts of 
the colonies 
licen thus 
far given? 
2. Wliat 
Change is 
noio made, 
Midforiohat 
reason'! 



174 COLONIAL H1ST0R.Y. [PART DL 

1753. come firm y established, and when their individual 
histories become less eventful, and less interesting, their 
general history will now be taken up, and continued 
in those more important events which subsequently 

1. By what affected all the colonies. 'This period is distinguished 
disknguish- by the final struggle for dominion in America, between 

ed the rival powers of France and England. 

2. what is 2. 2 Those previous wars between the two countries, 
vtoufwaf* which had so often embroiled the.r transatlantic col- 
Franctand on ^ es ) na d chiefly arisen from disputes of European 
England} origin ; and the events which occurred in America, 

were regarded as of secondary importance to those 
which, in a greater measure, affected the influence of 
3 mat led the rival powers in the affairs of Europe. 3 But the 
^ndfndian growing importance of the American possessions of the 
warl two countries, occasioning disputes about territories ten- 
fold more extensive than either possessed in Europe, 
at length became the sole cause of involving them in 
another contest, more important to America than any 
preceding one, and which is commonly known as the 
French and Indian War. 
i.whatwas 3. 4 The English, by virtue of the early discovery 
! Sw' by the Cabots, claimed the whole seacoast from New- 
'meEngiah foundland to Florida ; and by numerous grants of ter- 
ciaimi ritory, before the French had established any settle- 
ments in the Valley of the Mississippi, they had 
extended their claims westward to the Pacific Ocean. 
5. upon s The French, on the contrary, founded their claims 
wh ilench he upon the actual occupation and exploration of the 
* ciainst T count ry. *Besides their settlements in New France, 
6. how far or Canada, and Acadia, they had long occupied De- 
tiementVex- troit,* had explored the Valley of the Mississippi, and 
tend! formed settlements at Kaskaskiaf and Vincennes,| and 
along the northern border of the Gulf of Mexico. 
r what was 4. 'According to the French claims, their northern 
iheextentof possessions of New France and Acadia embraced, 
ciaimi within their southern limits, the half of New York,' 
and the greater portion of New England ; while their 

* Detroit. (See Map. p, 804. 

t Kaskaskia, in the southwestern part of the state of Illinois, is situated on the W 
side of Kaskaskia River, seven miles above its junction with the Mississippi. 

X Vinccnnes is in the southwestern part of Indiana, and is situated on the E. bank of 
the Wabash River, 100 miles, by the river's course, above its entrance into the Ohio. 



loioedl 
b. 1753. 



CHAP. XIII.] THE FR.ENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 175 

western possessions, of Upper and Lower Louisiana, 1753. 
were held to embrace the entire valley of the Mississip- ' 

pi and its tributary streams. 'For the purpose of vin- 1. How wen 
cheating their claims to these extensive territories, and ringto^- 
ronfining the English to the country east of the Alle- fendUi 
ghanies, the French were busily engaged in erecting 
a chain of forts, by way of the Great Lakes and the 
Mississippi, from Nova Scotia to the Gulf of Mexico. 

5. 2 A royal grant* of an extensive tract of land on a. 1749. 
the Ohio* River, to a company of merchants, called ^J'^'j'if 
the Ohio Company, gave the French the first appre- a ' e c l a n l !™_ of 
hension that the English were designing to deprive way/i 
them of their western trade with the Indians, and cut 

off their communication between Canada and Louisi- 
ana, 3 While the company were surveying these lands, 3. whatvfc 
with the view of settlement, three British traders were le vre."%7-' 
seized' by a party of French and Indians, and con- 
veyed to a French fort at Presque Isle.f The Twight- 
wees, a tribe of Indians friendly to the English, resent- 
ing the violence done to their allies, seized several 
French traders, and sent them to Pennsylvania. 

6. 4 The French soon after began the erection of forts 4 why an 
south of Lake Erie, which called forth serious com- ^ntouuie. 
plaints from the Ohio Company. As the territory in r s " r ^} 
dispute was within the original charter limits of Vir- 
ginia, Robert Dinwiddie, lieutenant-governor of the 
colony, deemed it his duty to remonstrate with the 
French commandant of the western posts, against his 
proceedings, and demand a withdrawal of his troops. 

e The person employed to convey a letter to the French j^^waZto 
commandant was George Washington, an enterprising conveyaiet- 
and public-spirited young man, then in his twenty- French, and 
second year, who thus early engaged in the public ° of him/ 

* The Ohio River is formed by the confluence of the Alleghany from the N., and the 
Monong;'hela from the S., at Pittsburg, in the western part of Pennsylvania. From 
Pittsburg the general course of the river is S.W. to the Mississippi, a distance of !tr>0 
miles by the river, but only about 5-20 in a direct line. It separates the states of Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky on the S.. from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois on the N.. and drains a 
valley containing more than 200.000 square miles. The only considerable falls in the 
:>er are at Louisville, where the water descends twenty-two and a half feet in two 
miles, around which has been completed a canal that admits the passage of the largest 
steamboats, 

t Presque Isle (almost an island, as its name implies.) is a small peninsula on the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, at the northwestern extremity of Pennsylvania. The 
place referred to in history as Presque Isle is the present village of Erie, which is situ- 
ated on the S.W. side of the bay formed between Presque Isle and the mainland. 



176 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART II 

1753. service, and who afterwards became illustrious in the 
annals of his country. 

1. what is 7. 2 The service to which Washington was thus 
'Service to called, was both difficult and dangerous ; as half of his 
Washington route j °f f° ur hundred miles, lay through a trackless 
was called i wilderness, inhabited by Indian tribes, whose feelings 

2. Give an were hostile to the English. 2 Departing, on the 31st 
hijiurnfy. °f October, from Williamsburg,* then the seat of gov- 
ernment of the province, on the 4th of December he 
reached a French fort at the mouth of French Creek, \ 
from which he was conducted to another fort higher 
up the stream, where he found the French command- 

a. pro- ant, M. De St. Pierre," who entertained him with great 
n pe-s!re. politeness, and gave him a written answer to Governor 
Dinwiddie's letter. 

b. Dec. i6. 8. 3 Having secretly taken the dimensions of the 
3.*VTiajdan- fort, and made all possible observations, he set out b on 

gers did he . ' * . ' . , , . 

meetduring his return. At one time he providentially escaped 
being murdered by a party of hostile Indians; one of 
whom, at a short distance, fired upon him, but fortu- 
nately missed him. At another time, while crossing 
a river on a raft, he was thrown from it by the floating 
ice ; and, after a narrow escape from drowning, he suf 
1754 f ere d greatly from the intense severity of the cold 

c. Jan. i6. 4 On his arrival at Williamsburg, the letter of S* . 
4. whatwas Pierre was found to contain a refusal to withdraw hi3 

the answer . . . , 

oftiuFrench troops ; with the assurance that he was acting in obe- 
ert dience to the commands of the governor-general of 
Canada, whose orders alone he should obey. 
5. what 9- 6 The hostile designs of the French being apparent 
werTiake'n n ' om me re ply °f St. Pierre, the governor of Virginia 
^qv&nceh maa " e immediate preparations to resist their encroach- 
ments. The Ohio Company sent out a party of thirty 
men to erect a fort at the confluence of the AlleghanyJ 



* Williamsburg i? situated on elevated ground between James and York Rivers, a 
few miles N.E. from Jamestown. It is the seat of William and Mar' College, founded 
in 1(593. (See Map. p. 44.) 

t French Creek, called by the Fronch Jlux Bwufs, (O Buff,) enters Alleghany Rtvei 
from the west, in the present county of Venango, sixty-five miles N. from Pittsburg, 
The French fnrt, called Venango, was on the site of the present village of Franklin, 
the capital of Venango County. 

t The Alleghany River rises in the northern part of Pennsylvania, and rons,- first 
N.W. into New York, and then, turning to the S.W., again enters Pennsylvania, and at 
Fittsburg unites with the Monongahela to form the Ohio 



CHAP. Xlil.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.. 177 

and Monongahela ;* and a body of provincial troops, 1754. 
placed under the command of Washington, marched ' 

into the disputed territory. 'The men sent out by the l.whathap- 
Ohio Company had scarcely commenced their fort, ^"toCow* 
when they were driven* from the ground by the pany'swwa 

& April 18 

French, who completed the works, and named the \, p ro . 
place Fort du Quesne." d"u-Kane. 

10. 2 An advance party under Jumonville, which 2 , mtatwM 
had been sent out to intercept the approach of Wash- tt fJ% u V? 
ington, was surprised in the night; and all but one vine's ^ar- 
were either killed or taken prisoners. 3 After erecting c . juay2» 
a small fort, which he named Fort Necessity,! and 3.\vhatioere 
being joined by some additional troops from New movements 
York and Carolina, Washington proceeded with four ton^andF 
hundred men towards Fort du duesne, when, hearing theresuUJ 
of the advance of a large body of French and Indians, 

under the command of M. de Villiers, x he returned to xvii-ie-are. 
Fort Necessity, where he was soon after attacked* 1 by a. July 3. 
nearly fifteen hundred of the enemy. After an obsti- 
nate resistance of ten hours, Washington agreed to a 
capitulation, 15 which allowed him the honorable terms e. July 4. 
of retiring unmolested to Virginia. 

11. 4 It having been seen by England, that war with 4 . n^arda 
France would be inevitable, the colonies had been adiffse'the 
advised to unite upon some plan of union for the gen- colonies/ 
eral defence. S A convention had likewise been pro- 5. For what 
posed to be held at Albany, in June, for the purpose venlionuin 
of conferring with the Six Nations, and securing their '^jUanyf 
friendship. 'After a treaty had been made with the 6 mat was 
Indians, the convention took up the subject of the pro- done llterei 
posed union ; and, on the fourth of July, the very day 

of the surrender of Fort Necessity, adopted a plan 
which had been drawn up by Dr. Franklin, a del- 
egate from Pennsylvania. 

12. 7 This plan proposed the establishment of a gen- 7 Describe 
eral government in the colonies, to be administered by Septan of 

o 1 • 1 1 union pro 

a governor-general appointed by the crown, and a p° sed - 
council chosen by the several colonial legislatures ; 
having the power to levy troops, declare war, raise 

* The Monongahela rises by numei jus branches in the northwestern part of Virginia, 
and running north enters Pennsylvania, and unites with the Alleghany at Pittsburg. 

t The remains of Fort Necessity are still to be seen near the national road from Com 
borland to Wheeling, in the southeastern part of Fayette County, Pennsylvania. 



178 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PAItT n 



1754. 



1. Why was 

a rejected f 



I. What was 

then deter- 
mined ? 



1755. 

Of what 
does the sec- 
ond division 
of the Chap- 
ter treat f 

a. Feb. 
3. What is 

said of 

General 
Braddock ? 

4. What 
three expe- 
ditions loere 

resolved 

upon? 



5. What 
other expe- 
dition was 
•previously 

imderta- 

ken? 
b May 20. 



3. Give an 
amount of 
Us progress 
and termi- 
nation. 
c. June K. 



money, make peace, regulate the Indian trade, and 
concert all other measures necessary for the general 
safety. The governor-general was to have a negative 
on the proceedings of the council, and all laws were 
to he submitted to the king for ratification. 

13. ir This plan, although approved by all the dele- 
gates present, except those from Connecticut, who ob 
jected to the negative voice of the governor-general, 
shared the singular fate of being rejected, both by the 
colonial assemblies, and by the British government: by 
the former, because it was supposed to give too much 
power to the representative of the king ; and by the 
latter, because it was supposed to give too much power 
to the representatives of the people. 2 As no plan of 
union could be devised, acceptable to both parties, it 
was determined to carry on the war with British troops, 
aided by such forces as the colonial assemblies might 
voluntarily furnish. 

II. 1 755 : Expeditions of Monckton, Braddock, 
Shirley, and Sir William Johnson. — 1. 3 Early in 
1755, General Braddock arrived 11 from Ireland, with 
two regiments of British troops, and with the authority 
of commander-in-chief of the British and colonial forces. 
4 At a convention of the colonial governors, assembled 
at his request in Virginia, three expeditions were re 
solved upon ; one against the French at Fort du 
Quesne, to be led by General Braddock himself; a sec- 
ond against Niagara, and a third against Crown Point, 
a French post on the western shore of Lake Champlain. 

2. 'While preparations were making for these ex 
peditions, an enterprise, that had been previously de- 
termined upon, was prosecuted with success in another 
quarter. About the last of May, Colonel Monckton 
sailed b from Boston, with three thousand troops, against 
the French settlements at the head of the Bay of Fun- 
dy, which were considered as encroachments upon the 
English province of Nova Scotia. 

3. "Landing at Fort Lawrence,* on the eastern shore 
of Chignecto,f a branch of the Bay of Fundy, a French 
block-house was carried by assault, and Fort Beause- 



* For localities see Map, next page 

t Chignecto Bay Is the norihern, or northwestern, arm of the Uay of Fundy. 



(Map) 



CHAP. XIII. J THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 1 79 

jour* surrendered, b after an investment of four clays. 1T55. 
The name of the fort was then changed to Cumber- 



land. Fort Gaspereau, c on Bay Verte,' 1 or Green nounced. 
Bay, was next taken; and the torts on the rsew b. June is 
Brunswick coast were abandoned. In accordance with n c U n™" d 
the views of the governor of Nova Scotia, the pianta- Gaspe-ro 
tions of the French settlers were laid waste ; and sev- pounced, 
eral thousands of the hapless fugitives, ardently at- ViUrt - 
tached to their mother country, and refusing to take 
thft oath of allegiance to Great Britain, were driven on 
board the British shipping, at the point of the bayonet, 
and dispersed, in poverty, through the English colonies. 

4. l The expedition against the French on the Ohio, \. what tie- 
was considerably delayed, by the difficulty of obtaining *%$&%$ 
supplies of wagons and provisions; but, on the tenth anTwlien 
of June, General Braddock set out from Fort Cumber- ^"j:/^" 
land,t with a force of little more than two thousand rmrchi 
men, composed of British regulars and provincials. 
2 Apprehending that Fort du Gluesne might be rein- 2. in what 
forced, he hastened his march with a select corps of nthaSen ilu 
1200 men ; -leaving Col. Dunbar to follow in the rear ma w c ,%f ld 
with the other troops and the heavy baggage. 

5. 3 Neglecting the proper measures necessary for 3. what was, 
guarding against a surprise, and too confident in his ' hifielng 
own views ,to receive the advice of Washington, who sur P™ ed? 
acted as his aid, and who requested to lead the pro- 
vincials in advance ; Braddock continued to press for- 
ward, heedless of danger, until he had arrived within 

nine or ten miles of Fort du Q,uesne. 4 While march- 4 Givethe 
ing in apparent security, his advanced guard of regu- ^'/te*ur* 
lars, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Gage, was fired v rise - 
upon e by an unseen enemy; and, unused to Indian e . Julys, 
warfare, was thrown into disorder ; and falling back 
on the main body, a general confu 
#ion ensued. 



* Bay Verte, or Green Bay, is a western arm of 
Northumberland Strait; a strait which separates 
Prince Edward's Island from New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia. (See Map.) 

t Fort Cumberland was on the site of the pres- 
ent village of Cumberland, which is situated on 
Che N. side of the Potomac River, in Maryland, at 
the mouth of Will's Creek. The Cumberland, or 
National Read, which proceeds W. to Ohio, &c, 
uiiiunences here. 



OT rnRT *r'&B^J r "Tii^f'1? 



BE.IUSE-JOVR A) 



vicinity «^ r rvjHy '■f;>-f^ 







/»F» StT.,n\T&ire. 






180 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[PART n. 



1755. 



1. Whdtwaa 

the conduct 
if Braddock, 

and the re- 
sult of the 
buttle? 

2. What sa- 
ved the ar- 
my from 
total de- 
struction ? 

3. How 

many were 

Icilled or 

woundedi 



4. Describe 
the retf'M. 



S. What dis- 
position was 
made of the 

army) 
a. Aug. 2. 



6. What is 
said of the 
expedition 
against Ni- 
agara i 



b. N. p. 183. 



c. Oct. 24. 

7. Give the 
particulars 
of the ex- 
pedition 
against 
Crown 
Point, pre- 
vious to the 
arrival of 
Johnson. 



6. 'General Braddock, vainly endea voring to rally 
his troops on the spot where they were first attacked, 
after having had three horses killed under him, and 
after seeing every mounted officer fall, except Wash- 
ington, was himself mortally wounded, when his 
troops fled in dismay and confusion. 2 The cool bravery 
of the Virginia provincials, who formed under the com- 
mand of Washington, covered the retreat of the regu 
lars, and saved the army from total destruction. 3 In 
this disastrous defeat more than two-thirds of all the 
officers, and nearly half the privates, were either killed 
or wounded. 

7. 4 No pursuit was made by the enemy, to whom 
the success was wholly unexpected ; yet so great was 
the panic communicated to Colonel Dunbar's troops, 
that they likewise fled with precipitation, and made 
no pause until they found themselves sheltered by the 
walls of Fort Cumberland. 5 Soon after, Colonel Dun- 
bar, leaving at Cumberland a few provincial troops, 
but insufficient to protect the frontiers, retired 1 with the 
rest of the army to Philadelphia. 

8. *The expedition against Niagara was entrusted to 
Governor Shirley of Massachusetts ; on whom the com- 
mand in chief of the British forces had devolved, after 
the death of General Braddock. The forces designed 
for this enterprise were to assemble at Oswego, b whence 
they were to proceed by water to the mouth of the Ni- 
agara River.* The main body of the troops, however, 
did not arrive until the last of August ; and then a 
succession of western winds and rain, the prevalence 
of sickness in the camp, and the desertion of the In- 
dian allies, rendered it unadvisable to proceed ; and 
most of the forces were withdrawn. The erection of 
two new forts had been commenced on the east side 
of the river ; and suitable garrisons were left to defend 
them. 

9. 7 The expedition against Crown Point was en 
trusted to General Johnson, afterwards Sir William 
Johnson, a member of the council of New York. In 



* Niagara River is the channel which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. It la 
about thirty-six miles long, and flows from S. to N. In this stream, twenty-two miles 
north IViiiii Luke Erie, are the celebrated Falls of Niagara, the greatest natural curios- 
ity In the w..ri«L (See Map, p. 806 and 819.) 



CHAP. XIH.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 181 

June and Ju y, about 6000 troops, under General Ly- 1755. 
man, were assembled at the carrying place between 
Hudson River and Lake George ; a where they con- 
structed a fort which they named Fort Lyman, but 



which was afterwards called Fort Edward.* 'In the i. when da 
latter part of August General Johnson arrived ; and, sonants, 
taking the command, moved forward with the main d/dhetwn 
body of his forces to the head of Lake George ; where "fieriearnt 
he learned, b by his scouts, that nearly two thousand b s 7 
French and Indians were on their march from Crown 
Point, with the intention of attacking Fort Edward, c. n. p. 134. 

10. 2 The enemy, under the command of the Baron d. Pro- 
Dieskau, d approaching by the way of Wood Creek,* Dc L -"s- e ko. 
had arrived within two miles of Fort Edward ; when e - N - >>• 13 °- 
the commander, at the request of his Indian allies, who mtum* 
stood in great dread of the English cannon, suddenly nie encmy the 
changed his route, with the design of attacking the 

camp of Johnson. 3 In the mean time, Johnson had 3 mmtde . 
sent out a party of a thousand provincials under the tachmmt 
command of Colonel Williams ; and two hundred In- against 
dians under the command of Hendricks, a Mohawk whyi 
sachem ; for the purpose of intercepting the return of 
the enemy, whether they succeeded, or failed, in their 
designs against Fort Edward. 

11. 4 Unfortunately, the English, being drawn into r sept. 8. 
an ambuscade/ were overpowered by superior num- 4 ^ 7 }«w C o/ 
bers, and driven back with a severe loss. Among this detach- 
the killed were Colonel Williams and the chieftain 
Hendricks. The loss of the enemy was also consid- s.whatpre- 
erable ; and among the slain was St. Pierre, who d£johiu£n 
commanded the Indians. s The firing being heard in S$ 
the camp of Johnson, and its near approach 

■ l , . r , 1 r iTT-ii- VICINITY OF LAKE OEORfiK. 

convincing him of the repulse 01 Williams : r 
he rapidly constructed a breastwork of fallen 
trees, and mounted several cannon, which, 
two days before, he had fortunately received 
from Fort Edward. 

* For'. Edward was on the site of the present village of j 
Fort Edward, in Washington County, on the E. side of 
Hudson River, and about forty-rive miles N. from Albany. | 
This spot was also called the carrying- place; being the 
point where, in the expeditions against Canada, the troops, 
stores, &c, were landed, and thence carried to Wood 
Creek, a distance of twelve miles, where they were again 
embarked. (See Map.) 




f82 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART IL 

£755. 12. l The fugitives had scarcely arrived at the camp, 
i. Describe when the enemy appeared and commenced a spirited 
"hticam " attac ^ i Dut tne unexpected reception which the Eng- 
lish cannon gave them, considerably cooled their ardor. 
The Canadian militia and the Indians soon fled ; and 
the French troops, after continuing the contest several 
s. What was hours, retired in disorder. 2 Dieskau was found wound- 
Die»fcaw7 ed and alone, leaning against the stump of a tree. 
While feeling for his watch, in order to surrender i, 
an English soldier, thinking he was searching for a 
pistol, fired upon him, and inflicted a wound whuh 
t.What mm- caused his death. 3 After the repulse of the French, a 
p /iafofm' detachment from Fort Edward fell upon their rear, 
enemyi anc [ completed their defeat. 

^ 13. 4 For the purpose of securing the country from 

were the the incursions of the enemy, General Johnson erected 
ceedingsof a fort at his place of encampment, which he named 
Johnson \? QVi \ymi am Henry.* Learning that the French 
were strengthening their works at Crown Point, and 
likewise that a large party had taken possession of, 
.ind were fortifying Ticonderoga ;f he deemed it ad- 
visable to make no farther advance ; and, late in the 
reason— after leaving sufficient garrisons at Forts Wil- 
a. Dec. Jtam Henry and Edward, he retired* to Albany, 
whence he dispersed the remainder of his army to 
their respective provinces. 
tkpthirddi- III. 1756: Delays; Loss of Oswego; Indian In - 
vmonrea f URSIONS — \ 6 The plan for the campaign of 1756, 
5. what was which had been agreed upon in a council of the colo 
'^P^^.nial governors held at Albany, early in the seasor 
Fa \7^f was similar t0 mat °f ^ G preceding year ; having for 
its object the reduction of Crown Point, Niagara, and 
s.whatcom. Fort du Quesne. 'Lord Loudon was appointed by 
'were av- the king commander-in-chief of his forces in America, 
pointed? an j a i g0 g 0vernor f Virginia; but, being unable to 
depart immediately, General Abercrombie was ordered 



* Fort Wm. Henry was situated at the head of Lake George, a little E. from the vil 
lage of Caldwell, in Warren County. After the fort was levelled by Montcalm, in 1757, 
(see page 185,) Fort George was built as a substitute for it, on a more commanding site 
yet it was never the scene of any important battle. (Sec Map, previous page.) 

t Ticonderoga is situated at the mouth of the outlet of Lake George, in Essex County, 
on the western shore of Lake Champlaln, about eighty-five miles in a direct line N. 
from Albany. (See Map and Note, p. 240.) The village of Ticonderoga is two miles 
above tbr- ruins of the fort. 



CHAP. XIII.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



183 



to precede him, and take the command of the troops 
until his arrival. 'Thus far, hostilities had been car- 
ried on without any formal declaration of war ; but, in 
May of this year, war was declared 11 by Great Britain 
against France, and, soon after, b by the latter power 
against Great Britain. 

2. 2 ln June, General Abercrombie arrived, with 
several regiments, and proceeded to Albany, where 
the provincial troops were assembled ; but deeming 
the forces under his command inadequate to carry out 
the p'.an of the campaign, he thought it prudent to 
await the arrival of the Earl of Loudon. This occa- 
sioned a delay until the latter part of July ; and even 
after the arrival of the earl, no measures of importance 
were taken. 3 The French, in the mean time, profiting 
by the delays of the English, seized the opportunity 
to make an attack upon Oswego.* 

o. 4 Early in August, the Marquis Montcalm, who 
had succeeded the Baron Dieskau in the chief com- 
mand of the French forces in Canada, crossed Lake 
Ontario with more than five thousand men, French, 
Canadians, and Indians ; and, with more than thirty 
pieces of cannon, commenced the siege of Fort On- 
tario, on the east side of Oswego River, f After an 
obstinate, but short defence, this fort was abandoned, 11 
— the garrison safely retiring to the old fort on the 
west side of the 'river. 

4. 6 On the fourteenth, the English, numbering only 
1400 men, found themselves reduced to the necessity 
of a capitulation ; by which they surrendered them- 
selves prisoners of war. Several vessels in the harbor, 
together with a large amount of military stores, con- 
sisting of small arms, ammunition, provisions, and 134 
piecesof cannon, fell into the hands of the enemy. Mont- 
calm, after demolishing the forts, returned to Canada. 



175C. 

1. What Is 

said of the 

declaration 

of war 1 

a. May 17. 

b. June 9. 



2. Wliat is 
said of the 
measures of 
Abcrcronibit 
and. Lord 
Loudon i 



3. How did 
the French 
profit by 

these delays! 



4. Give an 
account of 
Montcalm's 
expedition 
against 
Oswego. 



c. Aug. 11. 

d. Aug. 12. 



5. What U 
said of the 
surrender 
of this place, 
and the loss 
suffered by 
Die EnglisfJ 



* The village of Oswego, in Oswego County, is situa- 
ted on both sides of Oswego River, at its entrance into 
Lake Ontario. Old Fort Oswego, built in 1727, was on 
the west side of the river. In 1755 Fort Ontario was 
built on an eminence on the E side of the river : a short 
distance N. of which stands the present Fort Oswego. 

+ Oswego River is formed by the junction of Seneca 
und Oneida Rivers. The former is the outlet of Oanan- 
^aigua, Crooked, Seneca, Cayuga, Owasco, nnd Skoneut- 
».hs Lakes ; and the latter of Oneida Luke. 



FORTS AT OSWEGO. 



'^&^[%±^- 



OhLJSS: 
Forb^A, 
(17Z7J Sgj 



. £a Ontario 
y^Jtasirv 

1 RoAa 



184 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART 11 

1756. 5. 'After the defeat of Braddock, the Indians on the 
i. wfiatu we stern frontiers, incited by the French, renewed their 
di'an°depr'e- depredations, and killed, or carried into captivity, more 
dationsqn than a thousand of the inhabitants. 2 In August of 

Vie western . . _, , . o 

frontiers? this year, Uolonel Armstrong, with a party of nearly 

account 1 ^ ^00 men, marched against Kittaning,* their principal 

stfvnJsfx- town ; on tne Alleghany River. The Indians, although 

pe-Mtion. surprised, 11 defended themselves with great bravery ; 

a. sept. 8. re f us i n g quarter when it was offered them. Theix 

principal chiefs were killed, their town was destroyed, 
and e'leven prisoners were recovered. The English 
suffered but little in this expedition. Among their 
wounded was Captain Mercer, afterwards distinguished 

3. what is in the war of the revolution. 3 These were the prin- 
ts'uuufthis cipal events of this year ; and not one of the important 
ye paignl n ~ objects of the campaign was either accomplished or 

.__-, attempted. 

Of what does ^ • 1757: DESIGNS AGAINST LoUISBURG, AND LOSS 

thefowthdr of Fort William Henry. — 1. *The plan of the cam 

vision treat I . /..„__ ,. . , , . r , . . . ~ 

4. what mas P ai g" n °* 1757, Avas limited, by the commander-in-chief, 
th the j cam°^ to an attempt upon the important fortress of Louisburg. 

pa M"i° f 5 With the reduction of this post in view, Lord Loudon 

b. June 2o. sailed b from New York, in June, with 6000 regular 

5. w/iatpre- troops ; and, on the thirtieth of the same month, arrived 
were made? at Halifax ; where he was reinforced by a powerful 

naval armament commanded by Admiral Holbourn ; 

6 why was anc ^ a ^ an ^ force of 5000 men from England. 6 Soon 
the object after, information was received, that a French fleet, 
c Aug! 4. larger than that of the English, had already arrived 

in the harbor of Louisburg, and that the city was gar- 
risoned by more than 6000 men. The expedition was, 
therefore, necessarily abandoned. The admiral pro- 
ceeded to cruise off Louisburg, and Lord Loudon re- 
el. Aug. 31. turned d to New York. 

7 what was %■ 7 While these events were transpiring, the French 
'Montcalm commander, the Marquis Montcalm, having collected 

doms; in the J M ' » 

meantime? his forces at 1 iconderoga, advanced with an army of 
e. Aug. 3. 9000 men, 2000 of whom were savages, and laid siege" 
f 'p ee i82° te ' t0 Fort William Henry/ 8 The garrison of the fort 

* Kittaning, the county scat of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, is built on the site 
of the old Indian town. It is on the E. side of Alleghany River, about forty miles N E 
t: nm Pittsburg. 



CHAP. XIII.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 185 

consisted of between two and three thousand men, 1757. 
commanded by Colonel Monro ; and, for the farther 8 atvean 
security of the place, Colonel Webb was stationed at t £f^^f d 
Fort Edward, only fifteen miles distant, with an army surrender of 
of 4000 men. During six days, the garrison main- nam Henry. 
tained an obstinate defence ; anxiously awaiting a re- 
nforcement from Fort Edward ; until, receiving posi- 
Ve information that no relief would be attempted, and 
their ammunition beginning to fail them, they sur- 
endered a the place by capitulation. a . Aug. 9. 

3. 'Honorable terms were granted the garrison " on L Whct 
account of their honorable defence," as the capitulation £J2«!«!$« 
itself expressed ; and they were to march out with their garrison? 
arms, and retire in safety under an escort to Fort Ed- 
ward.. 2 The capitulation, however, was shamefully 2 .how was 
broken by the Indians attached to Montcalm's party ; ^nonbn- 
who fell upon the English as they Avere leaving the ken7 
fort; plundered them of their baggage, and butchered 
many of them in cold blood. 3 The otherwise fair 3 What1s 
fame of Montcalm has been tarnished by this unfortu- saidofthe 

re • i ••it 11 i ii- m conduct of 

nate anair ; but it is believed that he and his officers Montcalm 
used their utmost endeavors, except firing upon the In- sioni 
dians, to stop the butchery. 

V. 1758: Reduction of Louisburg ; Abercrom- 1758. 
bie's Defeat; the taking of Forts Frontenac and of what does 
Du Q.UESNE. — 1. 4 The result of the two preceding cam- vSionireah 
paigns was exceedingly humiliating to England, in 4 Uliat !s 
view of the formidable preparations that had been s "" l ,° f J h ,f. 

. 1 J r 1 1 result of tht 

mane lor carrying on the war; and so strong was the twoprece- 

feeling against the ministry and their measures, that a palgns> 

change was found necessary. S A new administration 5. what 

was formed, at the head of which was placed Mr. Pitt. ^1S{ o1 " 
afterwards Lord Chatham ; Lord Loudon was recalled ; 
additional forces were raised in America; and a large 
naval armament, and twelve thousand additional 

*roops, were promised from England. 6 Three ex- 6. wimt ex- 

peditions were planned: one against Louisburg, an- were plan- 

other against the French on Lake Champlain, and a nedt 
third against Fort du Quesne. 

2. 7 Eariy in the season, Admiral Boscawen arrived ^Jvnfof 

at Halifax, whence he sailed, on the 28th of May, with theexpedt- 

a c ' 1 ,- i 1 1 • 1 tion "gainst 

a ne* t or nearly tarty armed vessels, together with Louisburg 



[86 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[part II. 



1758. 

a. See Now 
and Map, 
pp. 97, 98. 



b. June 12. 

1. Of the 

progress of 
the siege, 
and tlie sur- 
render of the 
place. 

c. J une 23. 
d. July 21. 



e. July 26. 



2. During 
these events 

wh.it loos 
occurring 
elsewhere} 
{. See Note 
and Map, 
P- 

3. Give an 
account of 

the progress 
of the expe- 
dition, and 
of the. first 
attack. 



g. July «. 

4. What ipas 

the effect of 

Lord Howe's 

death? 

5. Give the 

particulars 

qf the second 

attack. 



tweive thousand men under the command of General 
Amherst, for the reduction of Louisburg. a On the 
second of June, the fleet anchored in Gabarus Bay ; 
and on the 8th the troops effected a landing, with little 
loss ; when the French called in their outposts, and 
dismantled the royal battery. 

3. MSoon after, General Wolfe, passing 15 around the 
Northeast Harbor, erected a battery at the North Cape, 
near the light-house, from which the island battery 
was silenced : c three French ships were burned d in the 
harbor ; and the fortifications of the town were greatly 
injured. At length, all the shipping being destroyed, 
and the batteries from the land side having made sev- 
eral breaches in the walls, near the last of July, the 
city and island, together with St John's,* were sur- 
rendered 6 by capitulation. 

4. 2 During these events, General Abercrombie, on 
whom the command in chief had devolved on the re 
call of Lord Loudon, was advancing against Ticon- 
deroga.'" 3 On the 5th of July, he embarked on Lake 
George, with more than 15,000 men, and a formidable 
train of artillery. On the following morning, the 
troops landed near the northern extremity of the lake, 
and commenced their march through a thick wood 
towards the fort, then defended by about four thousand 
men under the command of the Marquis Montcalm. 
Ignorant of the nature of the ground, and without 
proper guides, the troops became bewildered ; and the 
centre column, commanded by Lord Howe, falling in 
with an advanced guard of the French, Lord Howe 
himself was killed ; but after a warm contest, the en- 
emy were repulsed. 5 

5. 4 After the death of Lord Howe, who was a high- 
ly valuable officer, and the soul of the expedition, the 
ardor of the troops greatly abated ; and disorder and 
confusion prevailed. s Most of the army fell back to 
the landing-place, but, early on the morning of thei 
8th, again advanced in. full force to attack the fort ; 
the general being assured, by his chief engineer, that 



* St. John's, or Prince Edward's Island, is an island of very irregular shape, about 
130 miles Ion?; lying west of Cape Breton, and north of Nova Scotia, from which it is 
separated by Northumberland Strait. The French called the island St. John ; but in. 
*«i)9 the English changed its name to Prince Edward. 



CHAP. XIII.] THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 187 

the entrenchments were unfinished, and might be at- i.75§. 
tempted with good prospect of success. Unexpectedly, ' 

the breastwork was found to be of great strength, and 
covered with felled trees, with their branches pointing 
outwards ; and notwithstanding the intrepidity of the 
troops, after a contest of nearly four hours, they were 
repulsed 1 with great slaughter ; leaving nearly two a Ju] r 
thousand of their number killed or wounded on the 
field of battle. 

6, J After this repulse, the army retired to the head 1. what is 
of Lake George, whence, at the solicitation of Colonel ^xpldiuoT 
Bradstreet, an expedition of three thousand men, under "[ymtenaci 
the command of that officer, was sent against Fort 
Frontenac,* on the western shore of the outlet of Lake 
Ontario, a place which had long been the chief resort 

for the traders of the Indian nations who were in al- 
liance with the French. Proceeding by the way of 
Oswego, Bradstreet crossed the lake, landed b within a b Aug ^ 
mile of the fort without opposition, and, in two days, 
compelled that important fortress to surrender. The 
fort was destroyed, and nine armed vessels, sixty can- 
non, and a large quantity of military stores and goods, 
designed for the Indian trade, fell into the hands of the 
English. 

7. 2 The expedition against Fort du Q,uesne was 2. of the 
entrusted to General Forbes, who set out from Phil- agai^stF^n 
adelphia early.in July, at the head of 9000 men. An du Que *' u) 
advanced party under Major Grant was attacked near 

the fort, and defeated with the loss of three hundred 
men ; but, as the main body of the army advanced, 
the French, being deserted by their Indian allies, 

abandoned 11 the place, and escaped in boats down the a. Nov. 24. 

Ohio. Quiet possession was then taken e of the fort, e -N°v.2s. 

when it was repaired and garrisoned, and, in honor of treaty was 

Mr. Pitt, named Pittsburgh n'he western Indians lhen e {T n ~ 

soon after came in and concluded a treaty of neutrality *■ }Vhatis 

with the English. 'Notwithstanding the defeat of result of tne 

Abercrombie, the events of the year had weakened the "^ TresT 

* The village of Kingston, in Canada, now occupies the site of Old Fort Frontenac 
t Pittsburg, now a flourishing city, is situated on a beautiful plain, at the junction 
of the Alleghany and the Monongahela, in the western part of Pennsylvania. There 
ire several thriving villages in tte vicinity, which should he regarded as suburbs of 
p ittsburg, the principal of which s Mlcghany City, on the N.W. side of the Alleghany 
River. 



188 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART L 

1Y59. French power in America ; and the campaign closed 

with honor to England and her colonies. 
1759. VI. 1759 to 1763 : Ticonderoga and Crown Point 

WhaX are. ABANDONED \ NIAGARA TAKEN ■ CONQUEST OF Q.UEBEC, 

'of the sixth — of all Canada; War with the Cher okees ; Peace 
\ hl \\°hat OF 1 763. — I. l The high reputation which General 
honors were Amherst had acquired in the siege of Louishurg, had 
uenerai gained him a vote of thanks from parliament, and had 
procured for him the appointment of commander-in- 
chief of the army in North America, with the respon- 
sibility of carrying out the vast and daring project of 
Mr. Pitt, which was no less than the entire conquest 
of Canada in a single campaign. 
what ^' 2 ^ r ' or the purpose of dividing and weakening the 

the j>ian of power of the French, General Wolfe, a young officer 
paignof of uncommon merit, who had distinguished himself at 
1 '° 93 the siege of Louisburg, was to ascend the St. Lawrence 
and lay siege to Quebec : General Amherst was to 
carry Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; and then, by 
way of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, was to 
unite with the forces of General Wolfe ; while a third 
army, after the reduction of Niagara, was to proceed 
down the lake and river against Montreal. 
3. mat was 3. 3 In the prosecution of the enterprise which had 
aff;e'n CC i S m- been entrusted to him, General Amherst arrived* be- 
herst at 27- f ore Ticondero£a b in the latter part of July, with an 

conderoza) ■ - o I ■!' 

a. July 2-2. army of little more than 11,000 men. YV-hile prepar- 

!»• ^e Note ing for a general attack, the French abandoned their 

i>. 2/0. ' lines, and withdrew to the fort; but, in a few days, 

c July 23. a b an( i on ed'i this also, after having partially demolished 

d. July 26. . . ' p ■ ■ o I J 

e. n. p. 134. it, and retired to Crown Point. e 
4. Give an 4. ^Pursuing- his successes, General Amherst ad- 

account of . , a . . , ' . , • . 

thefuriMr vanced towards this latter post ; but, on his approach, 
fheln'e'my, the garrison retired 1 " to the Isle of Aux Noix* in the 
"'tur'nof'the river Sorel. s After having constructed several small 



ret 



army. 



vessels, and acquired a naval superiority on the lake. 

g^N^'iVo. the whole army embarked 1 ', in pursuit of the enemy; 

h. Oct. 11. hvit a succession of storms, and the advanced season of 

. the year, finally compelled a return' to Crown Point, 

where the troops went into winter quarters. 



* Aux JVoix (O Non-ah) is a small island in the River Sorel, or Richelieu, a short 
distance above the northern extremity of Lake Champlain. 



chai xm.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



189 



5. 'General Prideaux," to whom was given the 
command of the expedition against Niagara, proceeded 
by the way of Schenectady and Oswego ; and, on the 
sixth of July, landed near the fort without opposition. 
Soon after the commencement of the siege, the gen- 
eral was killed through the carelessness of a gunner, 
by the bursting of a cohorn, when the command de- 
volved on Sir William Johnson. As twelve hundred 
French and Indians, from the southern French forts, 
were advancing to the relief of the place, they were 
A tiet, and routed b with great loss ; when the garrison, 
despairing of assistance, submitted to terms of capit- 
ulation. The surrender of this important post effectu- 
ally cut off the communication between Canada and 
Louisiana. 

6. 2 While these events were transpiring, General 
Wolfe was prosecuting the more important part of the 
campaign, the siege of Quebec* Having embarked 
about 8000 men at Louisburg, under convoy of a fleet 
of 22 ships of the line, and an equal number of frigates 
and small armed vessels, commanded by Admirals 
Saunders and Holmes ; he safely landed a the army, 
near the end of June, on the Isle of Orleans, a few 
miles below Quebec. 3 The French forcts, to the 
number of thirteen thousand men, occupied the city, 



1759. 

a. Pro- 
nounced, 
Preiiu. 
1. Relate the 
events of the 
expedition 
against Ni- 
agara. 



b. July 24. 

c. July 25. 



2. What was 
Gen. Wolfe 
doing in the 
mean time 1 



d. June 27. 
3. How were 
the French 
force? diS- 



* Quebec, a strongly fortified city of 
Canada, is situated on the N.W. side of 
the River St. Lawrence, on a lofty prom- 
ontory formed by that river and the St. 
Charles. The city consists of the Up- 
per and the Lower Town; the latter 
on a narrow strip of land, wholly the 
work of art, near the water's edge ; and 
the former on a plain, difficult of access, 
more thin 200 feet higher. Cape Dia- 
mond, the most elevated part of the Up- 
per Town, on which stands the citadel, 
is 345 feet above the level of the river, 
and commands a grand view of an ex- 
tensive tract of country. The fortifica- 
tions of the Upper Town, extending 
nearly across the peninsula, enclose a 
circuit of about two miles and three- 
quarters. The Plains of Abraham, im- 
mediately westward, and in front of the 
fortifications, rise to the height of more 
than 300 feet, and are exceedingly diffi- 
cult of access from the river. ,Map.) 



VICINITY of QUEDrcfi 6 ''" T *' < ' ?/ ' r ' s 
SVea Camp 




190 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART TL 

1759. and a strong camp on the northern shore of the St. 
Lawrence, between the rivers St. Charles and Mont- 



' morenci. 
a. June 30. 7. 'General Wolfe took possession 11 of Point Levi,* 
b - ? e( j™ ap ' where he erected batteries which destroyed the Lower 
i.wtuuwere Town, but did little injury to the defences of the city. 
nwasurls He soon after crossed the north channel of the St. 
wh Jdovted/ e Lawrence, and encamped his army near the enemy's 
c. July io. left, the river Montmorenci lying between them, 
s on what Convinced, however, of the impossibility of reducing 
daring the place unless he could erect batteries nearer the city 
did he next than Point Levi, he soon decided on more daring 
reso ve. measures. jj e resolved to cross the St. Lawrence and 
the Montmorenci, with different divisions, at the same 
time, and storm the entrenchments of the French camp. 
ibe ^" 3 ^ or tn ^ s P ur P ose j on tne last day of July, the 
ttie landing boats of the fleet, filled with grenadiers, and with 
ie roops. tro0 p S f rorn p i n t Levi, under the command of Gen- 
eral Monckton, crossed the St. Lawrence, and, after 
considerable delay by grounding on a ledge of rocks, 
July si. effected a landing a little above the Montmorenci; 
while Generals Townshend and Murray, fording that 
stream at low water, near its mouth, hastened to the 
assistance of the troops already landed. 4 But as the 
caused the grenadiers rushed impetuously forward without waiting 
T the U gr e ena- for the troops that were to support them, they were 
iursi d r i ven back with loss, and obliged to seek shelter be 
hind a redoubt which the enemy had abandoned 
r mtt, , ™, s Here they were detained a while by a thunder storm. 

5. iv hat com- J i • i 

peiied a re- still exposed to a galling fire ; when night approacn- 
what loss ing, and the tide setting in, a retreat was ordered. 
assmam- rpj^ un f rtunate attempt was attended with the loss 

of nearly 500 men. 
6. what is 9- 'The bodily fatigues which General Wolfe had 
8%jcnLs th of endured, together with his recent disappointment, act- 
Gen. woi/e? \ n g upon a frame naturally delicate, threw him into a 
violent fever ; and, for a time, rendered him incapable 
7. ii7?o? plan of taking the field in person. 7 He therefore called a 
proposed i council of his officers, and, requesting their advice 



* The River Montmorenci enters the St. Lawrence from the N., about seven miles 
below Quebec. The falls in this river, near its mouth, are justly celebrated for their 
beauty. The water descends 240 feet in one unbroken sheet of foam. (Map, pi 189.) 



chap, xm.] 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



191 



proposed a second attack on the French lines. They 
were of opinion, however, that this was inexpedient, 
but proposed that the army should attempt a point 
above Quebec, where they might gain the heights 
which overlooked the city. The plan being approved, 
preparations were immediately made to carry it into 
execution. 

10. l The camp at Montmorenci being broken up, 
the troops and artillery were conveyed to Point Levi ; 

nd, soon after, to some distance above the city ; while 
Montcalm's attention was still engaged with the ap- 
parent design of a second attack upon his camp. All 
things being in readiness, during the night of the 12th 
of September, the troops in boats silently fell down the 
stream ; and, landing within a mile and a half of the 
city, ascended the precipice, — dispersed a few Ca- 
nadians and Indians ; and, when morning dawned, 
were drawn up in battle array on the plains of 
Abraham. 

11. 2 Montcalm, surprised at this unexpected event, 
and perceiving that, unless the English could be driven 
from their position, Quebec was lost, immediately 
crossed the St. Charles with his whole army, and ad- 
vanced to the attack. 3 About nine in the morning 
fifteen hundred Indians and Canadians, advancing in 
front, and screened by surrounding thickets, began the 
battle ; a but the English reserved their fire for the main 
body of the French, then rapidly advancing ; and, 
when at the distance of forty yards, opened upon them 
Avith such effect as to compel them to recoil with con- 
fusion. 

1 2. •'Early in the battle General Wolfe received two 
wounds in quick succession, which he concealed, but, 
while pressing forward at the head of his grenadiers, 
with fixed bayonets, a third ball pierced his breast. 
Colonel Monckton, the second officer in rank, was 
dangerously wounded by his side, when the command 
devolved on General Townshend. The French gen- 
eral, Montcalm, likewise fell ; and his second in com- 
mand was mortally wounded. General Wolfe died 
on the field of battle, but he lived long enough to be 
informed that he had gained the victory. 



175&. 



1. Give an 
account oj 
the execu- 
tion of tho 
plan adopt- 



2. What dtii 
Montcalm 

then do f 



3. Describe 
the attack. 



a. Sept. 13. 



4. Relate tte 
circwinstan 
ces of the 
deaths of tin 
two com- 
mander* 



192 



COLONIAL HISTORY. 



[part n. 



1759. 

I. Continue 
the relation. 



s. Sept. 18. 

2. What oc- 
cur re 2 Jive 
days after 
the battle 1 

1760. 

3. Give an 
account of 
the attempt 
to recover 

Quebec. 

b. April 28. 

c. May 16. 



4. Of the 
capture of 

Montreal. 

d. Sept. 6, 7. 



a Sept. 8. 



S. Relate the 
events of tlte 
war with the 
Cherokee?, 
during the 
year 1760. 

f. Sept. 26, 
1759. 

f. May, Aug. 
h. Aug. 7. 
1. Aug. 8. 



6 During 
the year 
. 1761. 

j. June 10. 



13. 'Conveyed to the rear and supported by a few at- 
tendants, while the agonies of death were upon him, he 
heard the distant cry, " They run, they run." Raising 
his drooping head, the dying hero anxiously asked, 
" Who run?" Being informed that it was the French, 
" Then," said he, " I die contented," and immediately 
expired. Montcalm lived to be carried into the city. 
When informed that his wound was mortal, " So much 
the better," he replied, " I shall not then live to witness 
the surrender of Quebec." 

14. 2 Five days after the battle the city surrendered," 
and received an English garrison, thus leaving Mon- 
treal the only place of importance to the French, in 
Canada. 3 Yet in the following spring the French at- 
tempted the recovery of Quebec ; and, after a bloody 
battle fought b three miles above the city, drove tbe 
English to their fortifications, from which they were 
relieved only by the arrival of an English squadron 
with reinforcements. 

15. 4 During the season, General Amherst, the com- 
mander-in-chief, made extensive preparations for re- 
ducing Montreal. Three powerful armies assembled 11 
there by different routes, early in September ; when 
the commander of the place, perceiving that resistance 
would be ineffectual, surrendered, 6 not only Montreal, 
but all the other French posts in Canada, to his Bri- 
tannic majesty. 

16. 'Early in the same year a war broke out with 
the powerful nation of the Cherokees, who had but re- 
cently, as allies of the French, concluded' a peace with 
the English. General Amherst sent Colonel Mont- 
gomery against them, who, assisted by the Carolini- 
ans, burned g many of their towns ; but the Cherokees, 
in turn, besieged Fort Loudon,* and having compelled 
the garison to capitulate, 11 afterwards fell upon them, 
and either killed,' or carried away prisoners, the whole 
party. 6 In the following year Colonel Grant marched 
into their country, — overcame them in battle, J — de- 



* Fort Loudon was in the northeastern part of Tennessee, on the Watauga River ■» 
stream which, rising in N. Carolina, flows westward into Tennessee, and unites with 
Holston River. Fort Loudon was built in 1757, and was the first settlement in Tennes- 
see, which was then included in the territory claimed bv N. Carolina. 



CHAP. XIV.] CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 



103 



stroyed their villages, — and drove the savages to the 
mountains ; when peace was concluded with them. 

17. 'The war between France and England con- 
tinued on the ocean, and among the islands of the 
West Indies, with almost uniform success to the Eng- 
lish, until 1763 ; when, on the 10th of February of 
that year, a definitive treaty of peace was signed at 
Paris. "France thereby surrendered to Great Britain 
all her possessions in North America, eastward of the 
Mississippi River, from its source to the ri ver Iberville ;* 
and thence, through Lakes Maurepasf and Pontchar- 
train,J to the Gulf of Mexico. At the same time Spain, 
with whom England had been at 
war during the previous year, 
ceded to Great Britain her pos- 
sessions of East and West Flor- 
ida.§ 



1761. 



1. Give an 
account of 

the further 
progress and 

end of the 
war between 
France and 

England. 

1763. 

2. Wliat 

possessions 
were ceded 
by France, 
and what by 
Spain t 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE 
AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 




PATRICK UENEY. 



1. s By the treaty of Paris in 1763, England gained 3, ,j£^f* 
a large addition to her American territory ; extending °f British 

,c? J? # . o American 

it from the northeastern extremity of the continent to territory a /- 
the Gulf of Mexico; and from the Mississippi to the 'of Park? 
Atlantic. 4 During a century and a half the rival ^ ee Y h t h t e h "f 
powers of France and England had contended for su- wuimof&e 

x . » . ° . . . , . American 

premacy in America ; involving, in the mean time, colonies <*«- 



• Iberville, an outlet of the Mississippi, leaves that river fourteen miles below Baton 
Bouge, and flowing E. enters Amite River, which falls into Lake Maurepas. It now 
receives water from the Mississippi only at high flood. 

t Maurepas is a lake about twenty miles in circumference, communicating with Lake 
Pon tchar train on the E. by an outlet seven miles long. 

X Pontchartrain is a lake more than a hundred miles in circumference, the southern 
•hore of which is about five miles N. from New Orleans. 

§ That part of the country ceded by Spain was divided, by the English monarch, into 
the governments of East and West Florida. East Florida included all embraced in the 
present Florida, as far W. as the Apalachicola River, Those parts of the states of 
Alabama and Mississippi which extend from the 31st degree down to the Gulf of 
Mexico, were included in West Florida. 



194 COLONIAL HISTORr [PART XI 

1763. the British American colonies in almost continued In- 
ringacen- °^ an warfare, at an enormous expense of blood and 
turyand a treasure. 

half pre- 

vioustothia 2. 'The subversion of the French power in Ameri- 
i. how was ca was looked to as the harbinger of long-continued 
ofiheFr'/nch P eace a ^d prosperity to the colonies ; but scarcely had 
Amlffcare- tne stru ggle ended, when a contest arose, between the 
But ded h desire of power on the one hand, and the abhorrence 
contest arose of oppression on the other, which finally resulted m 
,x.on a ter ^ e dismemberment of the British empire. 

2. what is 3. 2 Although the colonists had ever cherished fecl- 
fc'eimgs th of * n g s °f fili a l regard for the mother country ; and were 
eo'ionut8 ly to- P rou d of their descent from one of the most powerful 
wa 'iandP^' nat ' ons of Europe ; yet, even before any decided acts 

of oppression had driven them to resistance, other 
causes had strongly operated to prepare the way for 
American Independence. 

3. By what 4. 3 Although the Americans were under different 
ThTcoilnfes colonial governments ; yet they were socially united 

vntelias as one people, by the identity of their language, laws, 
me people? and customs, and the ties of a common kindred ; and 
still more, by a common participation in the vicissi- 
tudes of peril and suffering through which they had 
4. what passed. 4 These and other causes, had closely united 
thfsccavses them in one common interest ; and, in the ratio o; 
tachment'to their fraternal union as colonies, had weakened their 
England? attachment to the parent land. 

5 what u ^" 6 Before they lelt England, they were allied in 
saM of the principle and in feeling with the republican, or liberal 
principles party ; which was ever seeking to abridge the pre- 
vie?° rogatives of the crown, and to enlace the liberties of 
the people. They scoffed at the " divine right of 
kings," looked upon rulers as public servants bound to 
exercise their authority for the sole benefit of the gov- 
erned ; and maintained that it is the inalienable right 
of the subject, freely to give his money to the crown, 
or to withhold it at his discretion, 
s in view 6. 6 With such principles, it is not surprising that 
%pi'ef!what an y attempt on the part of Great Britain to tax her 
aT prZeAto' colonies, should be met with determined opposition ; 
find? and we are surprised to find that severe restrictions 
upon American commerce, highly injurious to the col 



CHAP. XIV.] CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 195 

onies, but beneficial to England, had long been sub- 1TG8. 
mitted to without open resentment. a. First Nav 

7. 'Such were the navigation acts, which, for the feationAct, 

o j j 165! ■ ccjii- 

benefit of English shipping, declared 1 that no merchan- finned and 

. ^ *■ . . extended in 

dise of the English plantations should be imported into i66o.'seepp. 
England in any other than English vessels ; — which, l Mention 
for the benefit of English manufacturers, prohibited b *6tneoft/ie 
the exportation from the colonies, and the introduction mictions on 
from one colony into another, of hats and woolens of commerce. 
domestic manufacture ; — which forbade hatters to have, b - 1732 - 
at une time, more than two apprentices ; — which pro- 
hibited the importation of sugar, rum, and molasses, c . 1733 . 
without the payment of exorbitant duties ; — which for- 
bade' 1 the erection of certain iron works, and the man- 
ufacture of steel ; and which prohibited the felling of 
pitch and. white-pine trees, not comprehended within 
enclosures. 

8. 2 Although parliament, as early as 1733, had im- 2. \vnatu 
posed duties on sugar and molasses imported into the iuHesim%- 
colonies ; yet the payment of them was for many years se< i°dmo- ar 
evaded, or openly violated, with but little interference lassea l 
by the British authorities. 3 In 1761 an attempt was 3 f the 
made to enforce the act, by the requisition, from the writs of as- 

1 • 1 e 11 ■ r • „ , • 1 mtanceJ 

colonial courts, ol" writs 01 assistance; which were 
general search-warrants, authorizing the king's officers 
to search for suspected articles which had been intro- 
duced into the provinces without the payment of the 
required duties. *In Boston, violent excitements pre- 
vailed; the applications for the writs were met by the curredin 
spirited opposition of the people, and the bold denun- 
ciations of Thatcher, Otis, and others. s In 1763, the 1763. 

admiralty undertook to enforce the strict letter of the 5 - Whattom 
1 1 i-i 11 done m 

laws; vessels engaged in the contraband commerce iv63; 

were seized and confiscated ; and the colonial trade 

with the West Indies was nearly annihilated. 

9. 6 In 1764, the sugar act was re-enacted; accom- 1764. 
panied by the first formal declaration, on the part of 6 ^efl in 
parliament, of the design of taxing the colonies. 5 At 7. what u 
the same time, Mr. Grenville, the prime minister, in- Gr«»{///?i 
troduced a resolution, " That it would be proper to Ynfai'o^j 
charge certain stamp duties on the colonies." The '^/"^f 
resolution was adopted* by the House of Commons, e. march 10 



196 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART U. 

1764. but the consideration of the proposed act was postponed 
to the next session of parliament ; giving to the Amer- 
icans, in the mean time, an opportunity of expressing 
their sentiments with regard to these novel measures 
of taxation. 
\. How did 10. x The colonies received the intelligence of these 
^eceivTthe. proceedings with a general feeling of indignation. 
of'thlffpro- ^hey considered them the commencement of a systerr 
ceMings, of revenue, which, if unresisted, opened a prospect of 
ad they do oppression, boundless in extent, and endless in duration. 
The proposed stamp-act was particularly obnoxious. 
Numerous political meetings were held ; remonstrances 
were addressed to the king, and the two houses of par- 
liament ; and agents were sent to London, to exert all 
their influence in preventing, if possible, the intended 
act from becoming a law. 
».whatwere M« 2 While England asserted her undoubted right 
mmtfurged to tax her colonies, the latter strongly denied both the 
in favor of justice and the constitutionality of the claim. The 

taxing the ■> , . , , J . . 

colonies? former maintained that the colonies were but a portion 
of the. British empire ; that they had ever submitted, 
as in duty bound, to the jurisdiction of the mother coun- 
try ; that the inhabitants of the colonies were as much 
represented in parliament as the great majority of the 
English nation ; that the taxes proposed were but a 
moderate interest for the immense sums which had al- 
ready been bestowed in the defence of the colonies, 
and which would still be required, for their protection ; 
and that protection itself is the ground that gives the 
right of taxation. 
t.wkatwere 12. 3 On the other hand it was maintained, as a fun- 
mentfowo- damental principle, that taxation and representation are 
%ed tionf a inseparable ; that the colonies were neither actually 
nor virtually represented in the British parliament ; 
and that, if their property might be taken from them 
without their consent, there would be no limit to the 
oppression which might be exercised over them. They 
" said they had hitherto supposed, that the assistance 
which Great Britain had given them, was offered from 
motives of humanity, and not as the price of their lib- 
erty ; and if she now wished pay for it, she must make 
an allowance for the assistance she herself had received 



CHAP. XIV. 1 CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. . 197 

from the colonies, and for the advantages she had gained 1764. 
by her oppressive restrictions on American commerce ; 
and that, as for future protection, the colonies had full 
confidence in their ability to defend themselves against 
any foreign enemy. 

13. 'Notwithstanding the murmurs which had arisen 17Q5 
from eve'ry quarter, the British ministers were not to 1. Give an 
be diverted from their plan ; and early in 1765, the mestmnp 
stamp act passed 1 the House of Commons by a- major- ^ c/ b 
itv of five to one, — the House of Lords, b without anv . 

J .. ,' c ■ j o i J b. March 8. 

opposition, — and soon alter received the royal assent. 
This act ordained that instruments of writing, such as c ' arc ^ 
deeds, bonds, notes, and printed pamphlets, almanacs, 
newspapers, &c, should be executed on stamped paper ; 
for which a duty should be paid to the crown. The 
act was to go into operation on the first day of Novem- 
ber of the same year. 

14. 2 When the news of the passage of this act reached 2 . inwhat 
America, a general indignation spread through the u™"fisrfa- 
country ; breaking forth, in some places, in acts of out- '^ °^ e 
rage and violence ; and, in others, assuming the spirit manifested? 
of calm but determined resistance. 3 At Boston and 3 At Boston 
Philadelphia, the bells were muffled and rung a fune- a ™j F k ^f 
ral peal : at New York, the act was carried through 

the streets with a death's head affixed to it, and styled York) 
the " Folly of England and the ruin of America." 
4 The stamps themselves, in many places, were seized 4 what to 
and destroyed ; the houses of those who sided with the g !^f/ 'J^ d 
government were plundered ; the stamp officers were the'sttmp 
compelled to resign ; and the doctrine was openly avow- wiua'doo- 
ed, that England had no right to tax America. openly 

15. «In the assembly of Virginia, Patrick Henry ~£ ? 
introduced 11 a series of seven resolutions ; the first four "65. ' 
asserting the rights and privileges of the colonists ; the \ C muntof 
fifth declaring the exclusive right of that assembly to ^T/ufio«* 
tax the inhabitants of that colony ; and the other two 
asserting that the people were " not bound to yield 
obedience to any law or ordinance whatsoever," de- 
signed to impose taxation upon them, other than the 

laws and ordinances of the general assembly ; and that 
any person who, "by writing or speaking," should 



198 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART 11 

1765. maintain the contrary, should be deemed " an enemy" 

to the colonies, 
i what were ^" ^ n tne neat °^ me discussion which followed, 
patrfc/c Henry boldly denounced the policy of the British gov- 
marksi ernment ; and, carried by the fervor of his zeal beyond 
the bounds of prudence, he declared that the king had 
acted the part of a tyrant. Alluding to the fate of 
other tyrants, he exclaimed, " Caesar had his Brutus, 
Charles I. his Cromwell, and George the Third," — ■ 
here pausing a moment until the cry of " Treason, trea- 
son," had ended, — he added, " may profit by their ex- 
ample. If this be treason, make the most of it." 

a. May 29 ^' 2 After a violent debate, the first five resolutions 
t. whatwm vyere carried* by the bold eloquence of Henry, though 
theresoiu- by a small majority. The other two were considered 

tom too audacious and treasonable, to be admitted, even by 

the warmest friends of America. On the following 

day, in the absence of Henry, the fifth resolution was 

rescinded ; but the whole had already gone forth to the 

country, rousing the people to a more earnest assertion 

of their rights, and kindling a more lively enthusiasm 

in favor of liberty. 

«. what was 18. 3 The assembly of Massachusetts had been moved 

i™embhj h of by a kindred spirit ; and before the news of the pro- 

Ma seta¥* ceedings in Virginia reached them, they had taken 6 

b. juik i. the decisive step of calling a congress of deputies from 

the several colonies, to meet in the ensuing October, a 

few weeks before the day appointed for the stamp act 

i. what was to go into operation. 4 In the mean time the popular 

lh pop"ia° f feeling against the stamp act continued to .increase ; 

f how'ixhu^ town and country meetings were held in every colony; 

itcd! associations were formed; inflammatory speeches were 

made ; and angry resolutions were adopted ; and, in 

all directions, every measure was taken to keep up and 

aggravate the popular discontent. 

c. Oct. 7. 19. sy n the midst of the excitement, which was stii 
%:a>uruof increasing in violence, the First Colonial Congres j 
™J™ftht metc at New York, on the first Tuesday in October. 

/»'*• Goto- Nine colonies were represented, by twenty-eight dele- 

grm. gates. Timothy Ruggles, of Massachusetts, was cho- 

!9i9 ' sen president. After mature deliberation, the congress 

agreed on a Declaration of Rights and a statement 



7HAP. XIV.] CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 199 

of grievances. They asserted, in strong terms, the 1765. 
right of the colonies to be exempted from all taxes not 
imposed by their own representatives. They also con- 
curred in a petition to the king, and prepared a me- 
morial to each house of parliament. 

20. 'The proceedings were approved by all the 1. By wham 
members, except Mr. Ruggles of Massachusetts, and proceeding 
Mr. Ogden of New Jersey ; but the deputies of three cp ,? n r °i v b e y' 
)f the colonies had not been authorized by their re- wimn^ign- 
spective legislatures to apply to the king or parliament. 

The petition and memorials were, therefore, signed 
by the delegates of six colonies only ; but all the rest, 
whether represented or not, afterwards approved the 
measures adopted. 

21. 2 On the arrival of the first of November, the 2 . \vhati* 
day on which the stamp act was to go into operation, S arrivai% 
scarcely a sheet of the numerous bales of stamped M?vemle/? 
paper which had been sent to America, was to be found 

in the colonies. Most of it had been destroyed, or re- 
shipped to England. 3 The first of November was z.howwo* 
kept as a day of mourning. Shops and stores were '^"f 
closed ; the vessels displayed their flags at half mast ; 
bells were muffled and tolled as for a funeral ; effigies 
were hung and burned ; and every thing was done to 
manifest the determined opposition of the people to the 
act, its authors, and advocates. 

22. 4 As, by the terms of the act, no legal business 4. what 
could be transacted without the use of stamped paper, ^tampAct 
business was, for a time, suspended. The courts were 0H tr b anmc^ 
closed ; marriages ceased ; vessels were delayed in the lion * ? 
harbors; and all the social and mercantile affairs of a 
continent stagnated at once. By degrees, however, 

things resumed their usual course : law and business 
transactions were written on unstamped paper ; and 
the whole machinery of society went on as before, 
without regard to the act of parliament. 

23. 5 About this time the associations of the " Sons of 5 Qive ati 
Liberty y ' assumed an extent and importance which ex- ^g° a "" oci f. 
erted great influence on subsequent events. These nomnfm 

• • e ■ e l i ■ ri i So " s <" 

societies, forming a powerful combination of the de- Liberty." 
fenders of liberty throughout all the colonies, denounced 
die stamp act as a flagrant outrage on the British con- 



200 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PART II. 

1765. stitution. Their members resolved to defend the lib- 
erty of the press, at all hazards ; and pledged their lives 
and property for the defence of those avIio, in the ex- 
ercise of their rights as freemen, should become the 
objects of British tyranny. 
. M7*-*-— 24. The merchants of New York, Bo.3ton, and 

l.nhatnon- , J > 

importation Philadelphia, and, subsequently, of many other places, 

agreements , ? ' ' • i i i • 

were enter- entered mto engagements with each other to import no 
more goods from Great Britain, until the stamp act 
2. what should be repealed, individuals and families denied 
takenlyin- themselves the use of all foreign luxuries ; articles of 
and/ami domestic manufacture came into general use ; and the 
lies? trade Avith Great Britain Avas almost entirely suspended. 
3 How were 25. 3 When the accounts of the proceedings in Amer- 
ce news of i ca were transmitted to England, they were received, 

these pro- • i i i -n 

ceedtngsre- by the government, with resentment and alarm. For- 
Engiand, tunately, however, the former ministry had been dis- 
changerf missed ; and, in the place of Lord Grenville, the Mar- 
m wrrei? c ~ quis of Rockingham, a friend of America, had been 
4. what appointed first lord of the treasury. 4 To the neAV min- 
taken%y?L ^ stl T ^ was 0Dv i° us that the odious stamp act must be 
new minis- repealed, or that the Americans must, by force of arms, 
be reduced to submission. The former being deemed 
1 766. the Aviser course, a resolution to repeal Avas introduced 
into parliament. 
5. Give an 26. S A long and angry debate followed. The reso- 
mvroc'eed- ^ u ^ on was violently opposed by Lord Grenville and 
ings which his adherents ; and as Avarmly advocated by Mr. Pitt, 
repeat of me in the House of Commons, and by Lord Carnden in 
^1766. ° the House of Peers. Mr. Pitt boldly justified the col- 
March, onists in opposing the stamp act. 6 " You have no 
\(me a of > Mr r igW sa ^ ne > " to tax America. I rejoice that Amer- 
pitt'sre- ica has resisted. Three millions of our felloAV-subi'ects, 

marks? . . . . J J 

so lost to every sense of virtue, as tamely to give up 
their liberties, Avould be fit instruments to make slaves 
i of the- rest." He concluded by expressing his delib- 

erate judgment, that the stamp act " ought to be re 
pealed, absolutely, totally, and immediately." 
a. March is. 27. The repeal was at length carried ; a but it Avas 
7. By what accompanied by a declaratory act, designed as a kind 
peaiaccom- of salvo to the national honor, affirming that parliament 
pamed? ^ a( j p ower t0 hind the colonies in all cases whatsoever. 



CHAP. XIV.] CAUSES WHX'H LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 201 

J The repeal was received with great joy, in London, 1766. 
by the manufacturers and the friends of America. 
The shipping in the river Thames displayed their 
colors, and houses were illuminated throughout the 
city. 2 The news was received in America with lively 2 .inAmer- 
expressions of joy and gratitude. Public thanksgivings icai 
were held ; the importation of British goods was again 
encouraged ; and a general calm, without a parallel in 
history, immediately succeeded the storm which had 
i aged with such threatening violence. 

28. 3 Other events, however, soon fanned the flame 3. whatu 

,- i • i „, r i 11 remarked of 

oi discord anew. 1 he passage ot the declaratory act "other^ 
might have been a sufficient warning that the repeal andihepa*- 
of the stamp act was but a truce in the war against declaratory 
American rights. 4 The Rockingham ministry having "f* 

. t a> July 1766. 

been dissolved, a new cabinet was formed" under Mr. ' A _ n'fiat 

Pitt, who was created Earl of Chatham. s While Mr. "!J2?gg* 

Pitt was confined by sickness, in the country, Mr. i^mmi* 
Townsend, chancellor of the exchequer, revived the 5. What new 

scheme of taxing America. By him a bill was intro- sc taxln.g 

duced into parliament, imposing duties on glass, paper, waTintro- 
painters' colors, and tea. duced? 

29. 6 In the absence of Mr. Pitt the bill passed with 1767. 
but little opposition, and was approved 11 by the king. % S aid h <fthe, 
7 A bill was also passed establishing a board of trade p ^ a b %f 
in the colonies, independent of colonial legislation ; t>. June 29, 
and another, suspending the legislative power of the «^f^* 
assembly of New York, until it should furnish the umsuus 

i • , -i • 1 • i r were pass- 

king s troops with certain supplies at the expense 01 eai 
the colony. 8 The excitement produced in America, s. what u 
by the passage of these bills, was scarcely less than Ixfuunim 
that occasioned by the passage of the stamp act, two P roducedi 
years before. 

30. 9 The colonial assemblies promptly adopted spir- 9. what 1* 
ited resolutions against the odious enactments ; new " a c ^v'' 
associations, in support of domestic manufactures, and ^mbiie^ 
against the use and importation of British fabrics, were cmfomr 
entered into ; the political writers of the day filled the "political 
columns of the public papers with earnest appeals to wrHenl " 
the people ; and, already, the legislative authority of " Legislative 
parliament over the colonies, instead of being longer Pariia 
the subject of doubt, began to be boldly deniea. Th 

9* 



merit V 



202 COLONIAL HISTORY. [PAItT DL 

176§. assembly of Massachusetts sent 1 a circular to the other 
~ Feb colonies, entreating their co-operation in obtaining a 
Massachu- redress of grievances. 

semjircu- g j jrpj^ c ; rcu [ ar highly displeased the British min- 
i.w/wtthen istry, who instructed the governor of Massachusetts to 

iid the livit- ^ . " 

fa/i ministry require the assembly, in his majesty's name, to "re- 
scind" the resolution adopting the circular; and to ex- 
press their " disapprobation of that rash and hasty pro- 
2. n-iatdid ceeding." 2 The assembly, however, were not intim- 
'%ydof idated. They passed a nearly unanimous vote not to 
rescind ; and citing, as an additional cause of com- 
plaint, this attempt to restrain their right of delibera- 
tion, reaffirmed their opinions in still more energetic 
*. The Guv- language. 3 Governor Bernard then dissolved the as- 
cmorJ sembly, but not before they had prepared a list of ac- 
cusations against him, and petitioned the king for his 
removal. 
i. Give an 32. 4 These proceedings were soon after followed by 
tiie tumult a violent tumult in Boston. A sloop having been 
b!june7o. se i ze d b by the custom-house officers for violating some 
of the new commercial regulations, the people assem- 
bled in crowds, attacked the houses of the officers, as- 
saulted their persons, and, finally, obliged them to take 
refuge in Castle William,* situated at the entrance of 
s.whatma- the harbor. 5 At the request of the governor, who had 
Allowed.? complained of the refractory spirit of the Bostonians, 
General Gage, the commander-in-chief of the British 
forces in America, was ordered to station a military 
force in Boston, to overawe the citizens, and protect 
the custom-house officers in the discharge of their duties. 
acmunfof 83. 6 The troops, to the number of 700, arrived from 
and funding Halifax, late in September, and. on the first of Octo- 
°{roops al ^ er ' un der cover of the cannon of the ships, landed in 
the town, with muskets charged, bayonets fixed, and 
7. How were a ^ ^ ie military parade usual on entering an enemy's 
efandtow cotmtr y- 7 The selectmen of Boston having peremp- 
regardedby torily refused to provide quarters for the soldiers, the 
tcmst governor ordered the state-house to be opened for their 

* Castle William was on Castle Island, nearly three miles S.E. from Boston. In 1798 
.Massachusetts ceded the fortress to the United Ptates. On the 7th Dec, 1799, it was 
visited by President Adorns, who named it Fort Independence. Half a mile north is 
Governor's Island, on which is Fort Warren. Between these two forts Is the entrance 
to Boston Harbor. (See Map, p. 2100 



CHAP. XIV.] CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE REVOLUTION. 



203 



reception. The imposing display of military force 
served only to excite the indignation of the inhabi- 
tants ; the most irritating language passed between the 
soldiers and the citizens ; the former looking upon the 
latter as rebels, and the latter regarding the former as 
the instruments of a most odious tyranny. 

34. l Early in the following year, both houses of 
parliament went a step beyond all that had preceded — 
censuring, in the strongest terms, the conduct of the 
people of Massachusetts, — approving the employment 
of force against the rebellious, and praying the king to 
direct the governor of Massachusetts to cause those 
guilty of treason to be arrested and sent to England 
for trial. 2 These proceedings of parliament called 
forth, from the colonial assemblies, still stronger reso- 
lutions, declaring the exclusive right of the people to 
tax themselves, and denying the right of his majesty 
to remove an offender out of the country for trial. 

35. 3 The refractory assemblies of Virginia and North 
Carolina were soon after dissolved by their governors. 
The governor of Massachusetts having called upon the 
assembly of that province to provide funds for the pay- 
ment of the troops quartered among them, they re- 
solved that they never would make such provision. 
The governor, therefore, prorogued the assembly, and, 
soon after being recalled, was succeeded 1 in office by 
Lieutenant-governor Hutchinson. 

36. 4 In March of the following year, an event oc- 
curred in Boston, which produced a great sensation 
throughout America. An affray having taken place 
between some citizens and soldiers, the people became 
greatly exasperated ; and, on the evening of the 5th of 
March, a crowd surrounded, and insulted a portion of 
the city guard, under Captain Preston, and dared them 
to fire. The soldiers at length fired, and three of the 
populace were killed, and several badly wounded. 

37. 5 The greatest commotion immediately prevailed. 
The bells were rung, and, in a short time, several thou- 
sands of the citizens had assembled under arms. With 
difficulty they were appeased by the governor, who 
promised that justice should be done them in the morn- 
ing. Upon the demand of the inhabitants, the soldiers 



17G8. 



1769. 

1. What 
odious -pro- 
ceedings of 
parliament 
followed ? 
Feb. 1769. 



2. How wert 
their receiv- 
ed by the 
colonial as- 
semblies? 



3. What 
erents oc- 
curred in 
Virginia, 
Carolina, 
and Massa- 
diusettsi 



a. Aug. 



1770. 

4. Give an 
account oj 
the affray 
in Boston. 

March 5. 



5. Of the 
eventswhicA 
folluwed. 



204 COLONIAL HISTORY. . [PART 1L 

l^TO. were relieved from the city. Captain Preston and his 

company were arrested and tried for murder. Two of 

the most eminent American patriots, John Adams and 

Josiah duincy, volunteered in their defence. Two of 

the soldiers were convicted of manslaughter, the rest 

were acquitted. 

1. what it 38, l On the very day of the Boston outrage, Lord 

vfrm^Zr- North, who had been placed at the head of the ad- 

mirivfoi ministration, proposed to parliament the repeal of all 

duties imposed by the act of 1767, except that on 

ted. The bill passed, though with great opposition, 

s. kpri. 12. and was approved 1 by the king ; but the Americans 

Tne effect? were not satisfied with this partial concession, and the 

non-importation agreements were still continued against 

the purchase and use of tea. 

1772. 39. 2 In 1772, by a royal regulation, provision was 
aAVhatwas made for the support of the governor and iudges of 

1772J Massachusetts, out of the revenues of the province, in 
dependent of any action of the colonial assemblies. 
3. How re- 3 This measure the assembly declared to be an " In 
f he d lfsR?n- fraction of the rights of the inhabitants granted by the 

biy? royal charter." 

1773. 40. 4 In 1773, the British ministry attempted to effect, 
^^henlxf" by art fiu policy, what open measures, accompanied by 
measure* of coercion, had failed to accomplish. A bill passed par- 

the British ,. '., . , _.. r _ t 1 • i-i 

ministry? iiament, allowing the British .bast India Company 

to export their tea to America, free from the duties 

which they had before paid in England ; retaining 

5 why was tnose 01 "dy which were to be paid in America. 6 It was 

it thought thought that the Americans would pay the small duty 

that the • ;„ , ° , I'll i J 

Americans ot three-pence per pound, as they would, even then. 
the duty 1 obtain tea cheaper in America than in England. 
«. why aid 41. 6 In this, however, the parliament was mistaken. 
'mSf Although no complaint of oppressive taxation could be 
project? made to the measure, yet the whole principle against 

which the colonies had contended was involved in it ; 

and they determined, at all hazards, to defeat the proj- 
7. wiiat u- ect - 7 Vast quantities of tea were soon sent to Amer 
feTsetita ica > but tne shi P s destined for New York and Phil- 
I indPhu >c a delphia, finding the ports closed against them, were 
adeiphiai obliged to return to England, without effecting a 

landing. 



CHAP. XIV. J CAUSES WHICH LED TC THE REVOLUTION. 205 

42. ^n Charleston the tea was landed, but was not 1773. 

permitted to be offered for sale ; and, being stored in 



What is 



damp cellars, it finally perished. 2 The tea designed ^ s f n ff 
for Boston had been consigned to the particular friends Custmani 
of Governor Hutchinson, and permission to return it uccount'qf 
to England was positively refused. But the people as t1 %^^ 9 ^ 
obstinately refused to allow it to be landed. In this <" Boston. 
position of the controversy, a party of men, disguised as 
Indians, boarded the ships ; and, in the presence of thou- 
sands of spectators, broke open three hundred and forty- 
two chests of tea, and emptied* their contents into the a . Dec 16 
harbor. 

43. 3 In the spirit of revenge for these proceedings, 1774. 
parliament soon after passed b the Boston Port Bill; b- March 31. 
which forbade the landing and shipping of goods, wares, said cf the 
and merchandise, at Boston, and removed the custom- ""mil? 
house, with its dependencies, to Salem. 4 The people 4 g 
of Salem, however, nobly refused to raise their own generosity 
fortunes on the ruins of their suffering neighbors ; and Marble 
and the inhabitants of Marblehead* generously offered 

the merchants of Boston the use of their harbor, 
wharves, and warehouses, free of expense. 

44. 5 Soon after, the charter of Massachusetts was c. May 20. 
subverted ; c and the governor was authorized to send measures 
to another colony, or to England, for trial, any person we >' e taken 

• j- t r 1 1 ■ i rr against 

indicted for murder, or any other capital offence, com- Massachur 
mitted in aiding the magistrates in the discharge of 
their duties. 6 The Boston Port Bill occasioned great s ,\ Vhatresa 
suffering in Boston. The assembly of the province t l ^°' l e ^ y 
"resolved that " The impolicy, injustice, inhumanity, adopt! 
and cruelty of the act, exceeded all their powers of ex- 
pression." 7 The Virginia assembly appointed the 1st 7 ,wkat&d 
of June, the day on which the bill was to go into effect, JJJ^tJSJj 
as a day of " fasting, humiliation, and prayer." 

45. 8 In September, a second colonial congress, com- . „„ 

j c i • c 1 1 • Til -i S.lVlmtwere 

posed of deputies horn eleven colonies, met at i nil- the proceed- 
adelphia. This body highly commended the course second cvio- 
of Massachusetts in her conflict with " wicked min- ni g T essT 
isters ;" — agreed upon a declaration of rights ; — rec- 
ommended the suspension of all commercial inter- 

* Marblehead, originally a part of Salem, Is about fifteen miles N.E. from Boston, and 
Is situated on a rocky peninsula, extending three or four miles into Massachusetts Bav 



205 COLONIAL HISTOKV. [PART II. 

S'5'74. course with Great Britain, so long as the grievances 
of the colonies were unredressed; voted an address to 
Gc <- the king, and likewise one to the people of Great Brit- 
ain, and another to the inhabitants of Canada, 
i. Their ef- 46. ^JThe proceedings of the congress called forth 
British «%- stron g er measures, on the part of the British govern- 
erument? ment, for reducing the Americans to obedience. 2 Gen- 
tcnJtyGen- era ^ Gage, who had recently been appointed governor 
ere.iGa.ge? f Massachusetts, caused Boston neck to be fortified, 
and, seizing the ammunition and military stores in the 
sept. provincial arsenals at Cambridge and Charlestown, 
conveyed them to Boston. 
.what was 47. 3 On the other hand, the assembly of Massachu- 
tone by the se tts having been dissolved by the governor, the members 

assembly of ° i i i i • • • i 

Massachu- again met, and resolved themselves into a provincial 

setts? . . 

congress. They appointed committees of "safety" and 
" supplies ;" — voted to equip twelve thousand men, and 
to enlist one-fourth of the militia as minute-men, who 
should be ready for action at a moment's warning. 
4 in other "Similar preparations, but less in extent, were made 
colonies? j n o'her colonies. 

1775. 4S. 5 As the last measures of determined oppression, 
reb.,March. a b>ll was passed for restraining the commerce of the 
lailof'the New England colonies ; which was afterwards ex- 
urfofTeur- teri ded to embrace all the provinces, except New York 
mined oy- and North Carolina. The inhabitants of Massachu- 
thcpamf serts were declared rebels; and several ships of the 
line, and ten thousand troops, were ordered to America, 
to aid in reducing the rebellious colonies to submission. 
t. o/ti* 49. 6 The Americans, on the other hand, having no 
^tameqf longer any hope of reconciliation, and determined to 
she Amor- re sist oppression, anxiously waited for the fatal moment 

leans? .ir ' • i r i iii 

to arrive, when the signal 01 war should be given, 
Though few in numbers, and feeble in resources, when 
compared with the power which sought to crush them, 
they were confident of the justice of their cause, and 
the rectitude of their purposes ; and they resolved, if 
no other alternative were left them, to die freemen, 
rather than live slaves. 




battle of BUNiLEE's [oe ueked's] hill. ;See page 212.) 



PART III. 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 



CHAPTEK I. 



EVENTS OP 1775. 




GENEBAL WABEEN. 



1. 'In the beginning of April, 
the royal troops in Boston num- 
bered nearly 3000 men. "With so 
large a force at his disposal, General Gage indulged the 
hope, either of awing the provincials into submission, 
or of being able to quell any sudden outbreak of re- 
bellion. "Deeming it important to get possession of 
the stores and ammunition which the people had col- 
lected at various places, on the night of the 18th of April 
he secretly despatched a force of eight hundred men, to 
destroy the stores at Concord,* 16 miles from Boston. 



1775 . 

1. W?iat is 
said of the 
royal troopt 
in Boston ? 

2. Of the 

views of 

Gen. Gage 1 

?,. Wliat 

metis res 
uei e taken 
by him? 



* Ceiword is In Middlesex county, sixteen miles N.W. from Boston. A marble mon- 
iimpjit, erected in 1S36, marks the spot where the first of the enemy fell in the war of 
the revolution. 



208 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART H2. 



1775. 

1. How did 

intelligence 
of the expe- 
dition reach 
theamntryi 



2. What 
events oc- 
curred at 
Lexington ? 



8. What at 
Concord i 



4. Give an 
account of 
the retreat 
of the Brit- 
ish. 



5. \V7iat loss- 
es loere sus- 
tained ? 



8. What con- 
sequences 

folloiued tht 
battle of 

Lexington 1 



2. 'Notwithstanding the great precautions which 
had been taken to prevent the intelligence of this ex- 
pedition from reaching the country, it became known 
to some of the patriots in Boston, who dispatched con- 
fidential messengers along the supposed route ; and 
early on the morning of the 19th, the firing of cannon, 
and the ringing of bells, gave the alarm that the royal 
troops were in motion. 

3. 2 At Lexington* a number of the militia had as- 
sembled, as early as two o'clock in the morning ; but 
as the intelligence respecting the regulars was uncer- 
tain, they were dismissed, with orders to appear again 
at beat of drum. At five o'clock, they collected a sec- 
ond time, to the number of seventy, under command 
of Captain Parker. The British, under Colonel Smith 
and Major Pitcairn, soon made their appearance. The 
latter officer rode up to the militia, and called out, 
" Disperse, you rebels, throw down your arms and dis- 
perse ;" but not being obeyed, he discharged his pistol, 
and ordered his soldiers to fire. Several of the militia 
were killed, and the rest dispersed. 

4. 3 The detachment then proceeded to Concord, and 
destroyed a part of the stores ; but the militia of the 
country having begun to assemble in numbers, a skir- 
mish ensued, and several were killed on both sides 
4 The British then commenced a hasty retreat, — the 
Americans pursuing, and keeping up a continual fire 
upon them. Fortunately for ike British, they were 
met at Lexington by a reinforcement of nine hundred 
men with two field-pieces, under Lord Percy. The 
united forces then moved rapidly to Charlestown, and, 
the following day, crossed over to Boston. 6 During 
this expedition, the British lost, in killed, wounded, 
and missing, about two hundred and eighty ; — the pro- 
vincials, about ninety. 

5. intelligence of these events spread rapidly through 
Massachusetts and the adjoining provinces. The bat- 
tle of Lexington was the signal of war — the militia of 
the country hastily took up arms and repaired to the 



* Lexington is ten miles N. W. from Boston, on the road to Concord. In 1799 a small 
monument, with an appropriate inscription, was erected four or five rods westward 
from the spot where the Americans were fired upon. (See Map. p. 74.) 



CHAP. I.] 



EVENTS OF 1775. 



209 



May. 



Q. What 

events in 
Boston fol- 
lowed i 
a. Way 25. 



scene of action ; and, in a few days, a line of encamp- 1775. 
ment was formed from Roxbury to the river Mystic,* 
and the British forces in Boston were environed by an 
army of 20,000 men. Ammunition, forts, and fortifi- 
cations, were secured for the use of the provincials j 
and the most active measures were taken for the pub- 
lic defence. 

6. l A number of volunteers from Connecticut and i. What u 
Vermont, under Colonel Ethan Allen and Benedict expedition 
Arnold, formed and executed the plan of seizing the Armidt 
.mportant fortresses of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 

on the western shore of Lake Champlain, and com- 
manding the entrance into Canada. The pass of 
Skeenesborough, now Whitehall,! was likewise se- 
cured ; and by this fortunate expedition, more than 
one hundred pieces of cannon, and other munitions of 
war, fell into the hands of the provincials. 

7. 8 These events were soon followed by others of 
still greater importance, in the vicinity of Boston. The 
British troops had received* reinforcements, under three 
distinguished generals, — Howe, Clinton, and Bur- 
goyne ; which, with the garrison, formed z. well-dis- 
ciplined army, of from ten to twelve thousand men. 
3 General C4age ; being now prepared to act with more 3 whatu 
decision and vigor, issued 15 a proclamation, declaring aS^SS. 
those in arms rebels and traitors ; and offering pardon tematumi 
to such as would return to their allegiance, and re- ' im 
sume tbeir peaceful occupations. From this indul- 
gence, however, Samuel Adams and John Hancock, 

two distinguished patriots, were excepted ; as their 
crimes were deemed too flagitious to admit of pardon. 

8. 4 As the British were evidently prepared to pene- 4 what hot 
trate into the country, the Americans first strengthened " r ^ >«««£ 
their intrenchments across Boston neck; jut after- adoptedby 
wards, learning that the views of the British had icansl 
changed, and were then directed towards the penin- 

i & />-/-<i l i i i i r- i • S.\l flat or- 

sula ot Charlestown, they resolved to deieat tins new derswere 
project of the enemy. 5 Orders were therefore given preseott? 

* Mystic, or Medford River, Hows into Boston Harbor, N.E. of Charlestown. (See Map, 
p. 74 ; and Map, p. 210.) 

t Whitehall is situ itcd on both sides of Wood Creek, at its entrance into the soulfc 
cm extremity of Lake Champlain. Being at the head of navigation, on the lake, and 
on the line of communication between New York and Canada, it was an important 
post (See Map, p 181 ; and Note, p. 130.) 



210 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PAJR.T in. 



1*1 3. 



c. What was 
done by 
him i 



i How was 
this daring 
advance re- 
garded I 



June 17. 

3. What 
measures 

were taken 
by the 
British! 



4. What is 
xiid of their 

advance 
against the 
American 
works ! 
5. Of the 
tpecta/ors of 
this scene 1 



to Colonel Prescott, on the evening of the 16th of 
June, to take a detachment of one thousand Ameri- 
cans, and form an intrenchment on Bunker Hill ;* a 
high eminence which commanded the neck of the 
peninsula of Charlestown. 

9. 'By some mistake, the detacb.nent proceeded to 
Breed's Hill,] an eminence within cannon shot of Bos- 
ton ; and, by the dawn of day, had erected a square 
redoubt, capable of sheltering them from the fire of the 
enemy. 2 Nothing could exceed the astonishment of 
the British, at beholding, on the following morning, 
this daring advance of the Americans. As the emi- 
nence overlooked the city of Boston, it was immedi- 
ately perceived that a powerful battery, planted there, 
would soon compel the British to evacuate the place. 
3 A heavy fire was therefore commenced on the Ameri- 
cans, from vessels in the harbor, and from a fortification 
on Copp's Hill, in Boston ; but with little effect ; and 
about noon, a force of three thousand regulars, com- 
manded by General Howe, crossed over to Charles- 
town, in boats, with the design of storming the works. 

10. 4 Landing at Moreton's Point.;}; on the extremity 
of the peninsula, the English formed in two columns, 
and advanced slowly, allowing time for the artillery to 
produce its effect upon the works. s In the mean time 
the surrounding heights, the spires of churches, and 
the roofs of houses in Boston, were covered with thou- 
sands of spectators, waiting, in dreadful anxiety, the 



PLAN OF THE SIEGK OF BOSTON. 1775. 



* Bunker's Hill is in the northern 
part of the peninsula of Charles- 
town, and is 113 feet in height. 
(See Map.) 

t Breed's Hill, which is eighty- 
seven feet high, commences near 
the southern extremity of Bun- 
ker's Hill, and extends towards 
the south and east. It Is now 
usually called Bunker's Hill, and 
the monument on -its summit, 
erected to commemorate the hat- 
tie nn the same spot, is called 
Banker Hill Monument. This 
monument isbuiltof Quincy gran- 
ite, is thirty feet square at the 
base, and fifteen at the top ; and 
n=es to the height of 220 feet. 

X Moreton's Point is S.E. from 
Breed's Hill, at the eastern extrem- 
Uy of the peninsula. (See Map.) 



Win1f7-Bi 
Jlosjerf 



M 




liEr* ^^^MS'^m gag 



CHAP. I. J EVENTS OF 1775. 2 1 1 

approaching battle. 'While the British were ad- 1775. 
vancing, orders were given by General Gage to set j What 7~ 
fire to the village of Charlestons ; bv which wanton said of the 

i i i i • -i r i • i i • burning of 

act two thousand people were deprived or their habi- Charie* 
lations ; and property, to a large amount, perished in 
die flames. 

11. 2 The Americans waited in silence the advance 2 . Give an 
of the enemy to within ten rods of the redoubt, when %£%%£$ 
they opened upon them so deadly a fire of musketry, 

that whole ranks were cut down ; the line was broken, 
and the royal troops retreated in disorder and precipi- 
tation. With difficulty rallied by their officers, they 
again reluctantly advanced, and were a second time 
beaten back by the same destructive and incessant 
stream of fire. At this critical moment General Clin- 
ton arrived with reinforcements. By his exertions, the 
British troops were again rallied, and a third time ad- 
vanced to the charge, which at length was successful. 

12. 3 '1 'he attack was directed against the redoubt at 3-matwas 
three several points. The cannon from the fleet had attack/ 
obtained a position commanding the interior of the 
works, which were battered in front at the same time. 

* Attacked by a superior force, — their ammunition fail- ^whatwer* 
ing, — and fighting at the point of the bayonet, without vantagmaf 
bayonets themselves, — the provincials now slowly th \<$££{~ 
evacuated their intrenchments. and drew off with an 
order not to have been expected from newly-levied 
soldiers. 8 Thoy retreated across Charlestown Neck, s. Describe 
with inconsiderable loss, although exposed to a galling th treau' 
fire from a ship of war, and floating batteries, and en- 
trenched themselves on Prospect Hill,* still maintain- 
ing the command of the entrance to Boston. 

13. 'The British took possession of and fortified e. what 
Bunker's Hill ; but neither army was disposed to ^mtmm 
hazard any new movement. 7 In this desperate conflict, -!.\n atweri 
the royal forces engaged consisted of three thousand f £jg^f^5° 
men ; while the Americans numbered but fifteen hun- ^TIJL)* 
dred.f The loss of the British, in killed and wounded, 

* Prospect Hill is a little more than two miles N.W. from Breed's Hill. (See Map, 
p 210.) 

t Note. — Yet Stedman, and some other English writers, erroneously state, that the 
number of the Provinc/al troops engaged in the action was three times th>t of the 
British 



212 THE REVOLUTION. [PART IU. 

17T5. was more than a thousand : that of the Americans, only 

about four hundred and fifty ; but among the killed 

was the lamented General Warren. 

t. May 10. 14. 'In the mean time the American congress had 

mmeVwTs assembled* at Philadelphia. Again they addiessed 

of congress the king, and the people of Great Britain and Ireland, 

at this time i , °' • 1 i • i i i t i ' 

b. Dated a ncl, at the same time, published 11 to the world the rea- 
Juiys. sons f their appeal to arms. 2 " We tire reduced," 

2. What IdTi- • *■ *• . . ' 

Image did said they, "to the alternative of choosing an uneun- 
/ iey use ditional submission to the tyranny of irritated minis* 
ters, or resistance by force. The latter is our choice. 
We have counted the cost of this contest, and find no- 
3. what thing so dreadful as voluntary slavery." 3 Having 
°urZ 7t>ere votea to ra ise an army of 20,000 men, they unam- 
ortized? mously elected George Washington commander-in- 
c. June is. e jjj e £ f a jj fae forces raised or to be raised for the de- 
fence of the colonies, resolving that they would " assist 
him and adhere to him, with their lives and fortunes, 
in the defence of American liberty." 

4. on what 15. 4 Washington, who was present, with great mod- 
wasMng'ton esty and dignity accepted the appointment, but de- 
commandi clined all compensation for his services, asking only 

5. How was me remuneration of his expenses. s At the same time 
l gf-nJzldand tne m o^er departments of the army were organized by 

arranged? the appointment of four major-generals, one adjutant, 
and eight brigadier-generals. Washington soon re- 
el July 12 P an ' e( i d to Cambridge, to take command of the army, 
which then amounted to about 14,000 men. These 
e. see Map, were now arranged in three divisions;' the right wing, 
p ' 210 ' under General Ward, at Roxbury ; the left, under 
General Lee, at Prospect Hill ; and the centre at Cam- 
bridge, under the commander-in-chief. 

16. 6 In entering - upon the discharge of his duties, 

6 Whttt dif- . * ' 

ficuiti.es/iad Washington had a difficult task to perform. The 

tolnc'ouiT troops under his command were undisciplined militia, 

teri — hastily collected, — unaccustomed to subordinaticn,— «> 

and destitute of tents, ammunition, and regular sup- 

7 what ob- P^ es °f provisions. 7 But by the energy and skill of 

jects were the commander-in-chief, aided, particularly, by General 

edi' Gates, an officer of experience, order and discipline 

were soon introduced ; stores were collected, and the 

American army was soon enabled to carry on, in due 



CHAP. I.] EVENTS OF 1775. 213 

form, a regular siege. 'General Gage having been 1775. 
recalled, he was succeeded by Sir William Howe, in J Wlmt 
the chief command of the English forces in America, change oc 

. , ii- ii- curved m 

17. 'During the summer, royal authority ended in theBHtm 
the colonies ; — most of the royal governors fleeing from 2 . vn.ca.dif- 
the popular indignation, and taking refuge on board ^rred S wi% 
the English shipping. Lord Dunmore, the governor tharoyai 

. TT . °. . rl . ° ' r ,° ... governors/ 

Oi Virginia, having seized* a quantity of the public a . May . 
powder, and conveyed it on board a ship, the people 
assembled in arms, under Patrick Henry, and de- 
manded a restitution of the powder, or its value. Pay- 
ment was made, and the people quietly dispersed. 

18. s Other difficulties occurring, Lord Dunmore 3 mat/ion- 
retired on board a man-of-war, — armed a few ships, r ^i»J««? 
— and, by offering freedom to such slaves as would *» Lord , 

• • i J ill ii i c r i Dunmore? 

jom the royal standard, collected a torce oi several 
hundred men, with which he attacked 1 " the provin- 
cials near* Norfolk ;f but he was defeated with a 
severe loss. Soon after, a ship of war arriving from 
England, Lord Dunmore gratified his revenge by re- 
ducing Norfolk to ashes. 6 ci mi l ' 

19. 4 The capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point 4. why did 
having opened the gates of Canada, congress resolved sofvetoYn- 
to seize the favorable opportunity for invading that vad £j2f n 
province ; hoping thereby to anticipate the British, 

who were evidently preparing to attack the colonies 
through the same quarter. s For this purpose, a body 5 "g' J jj^f* 
of troops from New York and New England was movements 
placed under the command of Generals Schuyler and dukmt 
Montgomery, who passed up Lake Champlain, and, \\™ed V th? 
on the 10th of September, appeared before St. John's, % st P j" hn ?{j 
the first British post in Canada. d. Pro- 

20. 'Opposed by a large force, and finding the fort too o-Noo-ali. 
strong for assault, they retired to, and fortified Isle Aux t.Whatgave 
Noix, d 115 miles north of Ticonderoga. 7 Soon after, maMto 
General Schuyler returned to Ticonderoga to hasten ayf^ 

* This affair occurred at a small visage called Great Bridge, eight miles S. frona 
Norfolk. The commanding officer of the enemy, and thirty of his men, were eithe 
killed or wounded. 

t Norfolk, Virginia, is on the N.E. side of Elizabeth River, eight miles above its en- 
trance into Hampton Roads. The situation is low, and the streets are irregular, but it 
is a place of extensive foreign commerce. 

t St. John's is on the W. side of the River Sorel, twenty miles S.E. from Montreal, 
and twelve miles N. from Isle Aux Noix. 



214 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART IW. 



1. What 
course did 
he pursue 7 



2. What is 

Kid of Col. 

Allen 7 



B. When did 
St. John's 
surrender, 
and what 
events fol- 
lowed} 



17'3'5. reinforcements ; but a severe illness preventing- his 
again joining the army, the whole command devolved 
upon General Montgomery. 

21. 'This enterprising officer, having first induced 
the Indians to remain neutral, in a fcw days returned 
to St. John's, and opened a battery against it ; but want 
of ammunition seriously retarded the progress of the 
siege. While in this situation, by a sudden move- 
ment he surprised, and, after a siege of a few days. 
captured 1 Fort Chambly,* a few miles north of St. 
John's, by which he obtained several pieces of cannon, 
and a large quantity of powder. 2 During the siege ol 
St. John's, Colonel Ethan Allen, having with extra- 
ordinary rashness forced his way to Montreal, with 
only eighty men, was defeated, captured, and sent to 
England in irons. 

22. 3 On the third of November St. John's surren- 
dered, after which Montgomery proceeded rapidly to 
Montreal, which capitulated on the 13th; Governor 
Carleton having previously escaped with a small force 
to Quebec. Having left a garrison in Montreal, and 
also in the Forts Chambly and St. John's, Montgom- 
ery, with a corps of little more than three hundred 
men, the sole residue of his army, marched towards 
Quebec, expecting to meet there another body of troops 
which had been sent from Cambridge to act in concert 
with him. 4 This detachment, consisting of about a 
thousand men, under the command of General Arnold, 
had, with amazing difficulty and hardships, passed up 
the Kennebec-, a river of Maine, and crossing the 
mountains, had descended the Chaudiere, b f to Point 
Levi, opposite Quebec, where it arrived on the 9th 
of November. 

23. 6 On the 13th, the day of the surrender of Mon- 
treal, Arnold crossed the St. Lawrence, ascended the 
heights where the brave Wolfe had ascended before 
him, and drew up his forces on the Plains of Abraham; 
but finding the garrison ready to receive him, and not 
being sufficiently strong to attempt an assault, he re 

» Chambly is on the W. side of the Sorel, ten miles N. from St. John's. 

t The Chaudiere rises in Canada, near the sources of the Kennebec, and flowing 
N.W., enters the St. Lawrence six miles above Quebec. It is not navigable, owing to 
its numerous my' As. 



4. Give an 
account of 
Arnold's 
inarch to 
Canada. 



b. Pro- 
nounced, 
Sho-de-are. 



13th & 14th. 
c. Seep. 191 

5. What 
course did he 
pursue after 
his arrival? 



CHAP. 1.1 



EVENTS OP 1T75. 



213 



tired to Point aux Trembles, twenty miles above Glue- 
bee, and there awaited the arrival of Montgomery. 

24. 'On the arrival" of the latter, the united forces, 
numbering in all but nine hundred effective men, 
marched to Quebec, then garrisoned by a superior 
force under command of Governor Carleton. A sum- 
mons to surrender was answered by firing upon the 
bearer of the flag. After a siege of three weeks, du- 
ring which the troops suffered severely from continued 

oil, and the rigors of a Canadian winter, it was re- 
olved, as the only chance of success, to attempt the 
place by assault. 

25. Accordingly, on the last b day of the year, be- 
tween four and five o'clock in the morning, in the 
midst of a heavy storm of snow, the American troops, 
in four columns, were put in motion. While two of 
the columns were sent to make a feigned attack on the 
Upper Town, c Montgomery and Arnold, at the head 
of their respective divisions, attacked opposite quarters 
of the Lower Town. 3 Montgomery, advancing upon 
the bank of the river by the way of Cape Diamond, had 
already passed the first barrier, when the single dis- 
charge of a cannon, loaded with grape shot, proved 
fatal to him, — killing, at the same time, several of his 
officers who stood near him. 

26. 4 The soldiers shrunk back on seeing their gen- 
eral fall, and the officer next in command ordered a 
retreat. In the mean time Arnold had entered the 
town, but, being soon severely wounded, was carried to 
the hospital, almost by compulsion. Captain Morgan, 
afterwards distinguished by his exploits 11 at the South, 
then took the command ; but, after continuing the 
contest several hours, against far superior and con- 
stantly increasing numbers, and at length vainly at- 
tempting a retreat, he was forced to surrender the 
remnant of his band prisoners of war. 

27. 5 The fall of Montgomery was deplored by friends 
and foes. Born of a distinguished Irish family, he had 
early entered the profession of arms ; — had distin- 
guished himself in the preceding French and Indian 
war ; — had shared in the labors and triumph of Wolfe ; 
and, ardently attached to the cause of lioerry, had 



IT75. 



a. Dec. 1. 

1. What oc- 
curred a/tei 

the arrival 
of Mont- 
gomery 7 



2. Describe 

the plan of 

attack. 



c. See Note 

and Map, 

p. 189. 

3. Give an 
account oj 
the fall of 
Mem tgom- 
ery. 



4. What 

other evtntl 
happened, 
and what 
was the re- 
sult of tht 
attack? 



d. See p. 269 



5. UTiu? 
brief ac- 
count ii 
given of 
Montgo**- 
eryl 



216 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART IU 



17V6 . joined the Americans, on the breaking out of the Rev- 
1 how was olution. 'Congress directed a monument to be erected 
his memory to his memory ; and in 1818, New York, his adopted 

honored by 1 i • ■ 1 i 1 

congress; state, caused his remains to be removed to her own 
an Yorki ew metropolis, where the monumerft had been placed ; and 

near that they repose. 
t. what was 28. 2 After the repulse, Arnold retired with the re- 
% lfThl d ar°iv mam( ier of his army to the distance of three miles 
above Quebec, where he received occasional reinforce- 
ments ; but at no time did the army consist of more 
than 3000 men, of whom more than one half were gen- 
erally unfit for duty. 3 General Thomas, who had been 
appointed to succeed Montgomery, arrived early in May; 
soon after which, Governor Carleton receiving rein- 
forcements from England, the Americans were obliged 
to make a hasty retreat; leaving all their stores, and 
4. Mention many of their sick, in the power of the enemy. *A6 
events of the the mouth of the Sorel they were joined by several 
regiments, but were still unable to withstand the 
forces of the enemy. Here Gen- 
eral Thomas died of the small-pox, 
a disease which had prevailed ex- 
tensively in the American camp. 
After retreating from one post to 
-0 another, by the 18th of June the 
HI Americans had entirely evacuated 
H? Canada. 



after the re- 
pulse ? 



3. What is 
said of the 
retreat of 
the army f 




CHAPTEE II. 



GENERAL MONTGOMERY. 



EVENTS OE 1116 

6- What is 
said of the 

/irZ r i?L 1 . & At the close of the year 1775, the regular troop 
"itetohf under Washington, in the vicinity of Boston, num 
c m , bered but little more than 9000 men : but by the most 

6. What ' j i 

course did. strenuous exertions on the part ot congress, and the 

urge wash- commander-in-chief, the number was augmented, by 

towfef the middle of February, to 14,000. "Perceiving that 



CHAP. n.J EVENTS Oi 1776. 217 

this force would soon be needed to protect other parte 1776. 
of the American territory, congress urged Washington 
to take more decisive measures, and, if possible, to dis- 
lodge the enemy from their position in Boston. 

2. 'In a council of his officers, Washington pioposed i.matpnm 
a direct assault ; but the decision was unanimous Kdbyivash- 
against it ; the officers alleging, that, without incur- '",^1'/^ 
ling so great a risk, but by occupying the heights' 1 of offlceni 
Dor:hester, which commanded the entire city, the *" p?2io. ap 
enemy might be forced to evacuate the place. 2 Ac- 2 . what 
quiescing in this opinion, Washington directed a se- e fawcdf' 
vere cannonade 11 upon the city; and while the enemv , ,, , 

. i • 1 , J ' r ■> b. March 

were occupied in another quarter, a party ot troops, sd.3d.4Ut. 
with intrenching tools, on the evening of the fourth of 
March, took possession of the heights, unobserved by 
the enemy; and, before morning, completed a line of 
fortifications, which commanded the harbor and the 
city. 

3. 3 The view of these works excited the astonish- s.uowdia 
inert of the British general, who saw that he must «hi22(^£ 
immediately dislodce the Americans, or evacuate the * a !' d " f '° i , 

J c . ' . works of the 

town. *An attack was determined upon; but a fun- Americans! 

ous storm rendering the harbor impassable, the attack ventaiaT 
was necessarily deferred ; while, in the mean time, the %'"£ /iuai d 
Americans so strengthened their works, as to make the lU oni'^le-' & 
attempt to force them hopeless. No resource was now ^"-[f^l 
left to General Howe but immediate evacuation. wo 

4. 6 As his troops and shipping were exposed to the s. mat 
fire of the American batteries, an informal agreement waTfua^'i 
was made, that he should be allowed to retire unmo- 
lested, upon condition that he would abstain from burn- 
ing the city. * Accordingly, on (he 17th, the British 6 ™y lmlh 
troops, amounting to more than 7000 soldiers, accom- •«"<'«/ we 

r ° . . ' departure nf 

panied by fifteen hundred families of loyalists, quietly tiicHritish! 
evacuated Boston, and sailed for Halifax. 7 Scarcely - ofthf . 
was the rear-guard out of the city, when Washington fy^'n^tL 
entered it, to the great joy of the inhabitants, with tntoBostonJ 
colors flying, and drums beating, and all the forms of 8 c "^a^ 
victory and triumph. "fn'^onfo 1 ' 

5. ^Washington, ignorant of the plans of General - v ^ r ^' 
Howe, and of the direction which the British fleet had dmp^itiun 
taken, was not without anxiety for the city of New "uu'troop*! 

10 



218 THE REVOLUTION. [FART III 

1776. York. Therefore, after having placed Boston in a 

state of defence, the main body of the army was put in 

motion towards New York, where it arrived early in 

April. 

< wniat is 6. 'General Lee, with a force of Connecticut militia, 

'Teifbfsfr bad arrived before the main body, about the time that 

t'on'/unfuf & r Henry Clinton, with a fleet from England, ap- 

JheBrutsff? P eared ont ' Sandy Hook. Clinton, foiled in his attempt 

against New York, soon sailed south ; and at Cape 

a. May 3. Fear River was joined 1 by Sir Peter Parker, who had 

b. From sailed b with a large squadron directly from Europe, 

oork^'eb. having on joard two thousand five hundred troops, 

under the command of the Earl of Cornwallis. The 

plan of the British was now to attempt the reduction 

of Charleston. 

3. To what 7. 2 General Lee, who had been appointed to com- 

hMuln.Lee mand the American forces in the Southern States, had 

pointed] pushed on rapidly from New York, anxiously watch- 

a midoj\h& m o tne P ro g ress °f Clinton ; and the most vigorous 

■prepara- preparations were made throughout the Carolines for 

ceive the the reception of the hostile fleet. Charleston had 

KWhaihad been fortified, and a fort on Sullivan's Island,* com- 

for'tiie°dl sanding the channel leading to the town, had been 

fence of p U t in a state of defence, and the command given te 

Charles- j . . ' & 

ton/ Colonel Moultrie. 
«. June 4. 8. 4 Early in June, the British armament appeared^ 
%count a of °ff me c ^Yi an ^ having landed a strong force under 
% a ii'/"a^ n General Clinton, on Long Island, d east of SullivanV 
island. Island, after considerable delay, advanced against the 
* | ee i^ lap ' fort, and commenced a heavy bombardment, on the 
j.une28. morning of the 28th. Three of the ships that had at- 
tempted to take a station between the fort and the city 
were stranded. Two of them were enabled to get off 
much damaged, but the third was abandoned and 
*. what de- burned. e lt was the design of Clinton to cross the 
«^-» of aen. narrow channel which separates Long Island from 

Vl/ntoii was t ■ o - •, 

defeated/ Sullivan's Island, and assail the fort by land, during 
the attack by the ships ; but, unexpectedly, the chan- 
nel was found too deep to be forded, and a strong force ; 

* Sullivan's Island is six miles below Charleston, lying to the N. of the entrance 
to the harbor, and separated from the mainland by a narrow inlet. (See Map, p. 161 4 



CHAP. H.J EVENTS OF 17<6. 219 

under Colonel Thompson, was waiting on the opposite 1T70. 
bank ready to receive him. 

9. l The garrison of the foit, consisting- of only about 1. What is 

o ' o j said of the 

400 men, mostly militia, acted with the greatest cool- conduct of 

i ii j • • -..I- 4. • ' \ the garri- 

ness and gallantry, — aiming with great precision and soai 

effect, in the midst of the tempest of balls hailed 

upon them by the enemy's squadron. 2 After an en- g offhe 

gagement of eight hours, from eleven in the fore- result of tin 

noon until seven in the evening, the vessels drew off 

and ibandoned the enterprise. 3 In a few days the 3 f the 

fleet, with the troops on board, sailed for New York, d % a e r ^ff J 

where the whole British force had been ordered to 

assemble. 

10. 4 In this engagement the vessels of the enemy 4. whatwai 
were seriously injured, and the loss in killed and eachsiLi 
wounded exceeded 200 men. The admiral himself, 

and Lord Campbell, late governor of the province, were 
wounded, — the latter mortally. The loss of the gar- 
rison was only 10 killed and 22 wounded. s The fort, 5. what is 
being built of palmetto, a wood resembling cork, was %n°m!ius 
little damaged. In honor of its brave commander it b \f^ e n ^J"f 
has since been called Fort Moultrie. 'This fortunate e . m , anoere 
repulse of the enemy placed the affairs of South Caro- % s e f^:^ 
lina, for a time, in a state of security, and inflamed the of theen- 
minds of the Americans with new ardor. 

11. 7 The preparations which England had recently 7 . Giw an 
been making for the reduction of the colonies, were tf^fu'^nma- 
truly formidable. By a treaty with several of the Ger- b %™£fj** 
man princes, the aid of 17,000 German or Hessian //°" s < 
troops had been engaged; 25,000 additional English 
troops, and a large fleet, had been ordered to America; 
amounting, in all, to 55,000 men, abundantly supplied 

with provisions, and all the necessary munitions of f^slons T hai 
war ; and more than a million of dollars had been *%%%%!?* 
voted to defray the extraordinary expenses of the year. ""^-/S^ 

12. 8 Yet with all this threatening array against king, and 
them, and notwithstanding all the colonies wire now they con- 
in arms against the mother country, they had hitherto r'^'eh 
professed allegiance to the British king, and had con- *■ "'>»» 
tinually protested that they were contending only for J'Y'V? 
their just rights and a redress of grievances. 9 Bu'. as ings\and 
it became more apparent that England would abandon the cause* 



220 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART ID. 



1776. 



I. What did 

congress re- 
tomtnend to 
Vie colonies? 



S tfow was 

She recom- 

¥ mendation 

complied 

with i 



3. What in- 
structions 
did some 
colonies 
give to their 
delegates 7 

June 7. 
4; What res- 
olution was 

offered in 
congress by 

Richard 
Henry Lee 1 



5. How was 
the resolu- 
tion receiv- 
ed/ 



1 What com- 
mittee ioos 
appointed, 

and/or 
vshat pur- 
pose? 

7. Who drezo 
up the dec- 
laration, 
and what is 
said of its 
adoptianl 
July 4. 



none of her claims, and would accept nothing but 
the total dependence and servitude of her colonies, the 
feelings of the latter changed ; and sentiments of loyalty 
gave way to republican principles, and the desire for 
independence. 

13. 'Early in May. congress, following the advance 
of public opinion, recommended to the colonies, no 
longer to consider themselves as holding or exercising 
any powers under Great Britain, but to adopt " Such 
governments as might best conduce to the happiness 
and safety of the people." 4 Thc recommendation was 
generally complied with, and state constitutions were 
adopted, and representative governments established, 
virtually proclaiming all separation from the mother 
country, and entire independence of the British crown. 
3 Several of the colonies, likewise, instructed their del- 
egates to join in all measures which might be agreed 
to in congress, for the advancement of the interests, 
safety, and dignity of the colonies. 

14. 4 On the 7th of June, Richard Henry Lee, oi 
Virginia, offered a resolution in congress, declaring 
that " The United Colonies are, and ought to be, free 
and independent states ; — that they are absolved from 
all allegiance to the British crown ; — and that all po- 
litical connexion between them and the state of Great 
Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 5 This 
resolution was debated with great earnestness, elo- 
quence, and ability ; and although it finally passed, it 
at first encountered a strong opposition from some of 
the most zealous partisans of American liberty Having 
at length been adopted by a bare majority, the final 
consideration of the subject was postponed to the first 
of July. 

15. 6 la the mean time a committee, — consisting of 
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, 
Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston, — was in- 
structed to prepare a declaration in accordance with 
the object of the resolution. 'This paper, principally 
drawn up by Mr. Jefferson, came up for discussion on 
the first of July ; and, on the fourth, received the as- 
sent of the delegates of all the colonies ; which thus 
dissolved their allegfiance to the British croivn.,and de- 



CHAP. 11.] EVENT- 01 1776. 22l 

clared themselves free and independent, under the name I TTC 
of the thirteen United States of America 



16. r rhe declaration of independence was every 1. now did 

i 'iii i-ii ■ J c the people 

where received by the people with demonstrations or manifest 

Ti ii- . y . i_ u ■ c the, r joy on 

joy. 1 ubiic rejoicings were held in various parts ol recemngta 
the Union ; the ensigns of royalty were destroyed ; and 
nothing was forgotten that might tend to inspire the 
people with affection for the new order of things, and 
with the most violent hatred towards Great Britain 
tad her adherents. 

17. 2 Before the declaration of independence, Gen- 2. wnatmu- 
eral Howe had sailed 11 from Halifax, — had arrived at odwred 
Sandy Hook on the 25th of June, — and, on the second tfrnTo/the 
of July, had taken possession of Staten Island. Being o/f^Tpend 
soon after joined 1 ' by his brother, Admiral Howe, from encei 
England, and by the forces of Clinton from the south, b July 12 ' 
he lound himself at the head of an army of 24,000 of 

the best troops of Europe. Others were expected soon 

to join him, making, in the whole, an army of 35,000 

men. 3 The design of the British was to seize New *'the design 

York, with a force sufficient to keep possession of the btumi 

Hudson River, — open a communication with Canada, 

— separate the Eastern from the Middle States, — and 

overrun the adjacent country at pleasure. 

18. 4 To oppose the designs of the enemy, the Amer- *■ »?"" 
ican general had collected a force, consisting chiefly atthecmn- 
of undisciplined militia, amounting to about 27.000 American 
men ; but many of these were invalids, and many ge " eia 
were unprovided with arms; so that the effective force 
amounted to but little more than 17,000 men. s Soon UJ^'Jl 
after the arrival of the fleet, Lord Howe, the British [ttiffyhat 
admiral, sent a letter, ottering- terms 01 accommodation, sent to Gen- 
and directed to "George Washington, Esrp" ingtoni 

19. This letter Washington declined receiving ; 
asserting that, whoever had written it, it did not ex- 
press his public station ; and that, as a private indi- 
vidual, he could hold no communication with the 
enemies of his country. A second letter, addressed to 

" George Washington, &c. &c. &c," and brought by 6 - v -' hat 

1 p t -r-» • ■ 1 ^ 1 • 1 Vo'rerH ap- 

the adjutant-general of the British army, was in like yearedto 
manner declined. c It appeared, however, that the granted m 
powers of the British generals extended no farther than generals? 



222 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[P4RT ILL 



1776. 

l. What 

were tliey 
assured in 
return! 

I. What did 
the British 
generals 
now re- 
solve! 

Aug. 22. 
3. Give an 
account of 
the landing 
(if the ene- 
my, and 
their march 
towards the 
American 
camp. 



4. Describe 
Hie country 
whirJi sep- 
arated the 
two armies. 



5. In what 
crder did the 
British ar- 
my ad- 
vance! 



6. What is 
said of the 
beginning 
and prog- 
ress of the 
battle/ 

Aug. 26. 
Aug. 27. 



" co grant pardons to such as deserved mercy." 'They 
were assured in return, that the people were not con- 
scious of having committed any crime in opposing Brit- 
ish tyranny, and therefore they needed no pardon. 

20. 2 The British generals, having gained nothing 
by their attempts at accommodation, now directing 
their attention to the prosecution of the war, resclved 
to strike the first blow without delay. Accordingly, 
on the 22d of August, the enemy landed on the south- 
ern shore of Long Island, near the villages of New 
Utrecht* and Gravesend ;f and having divided their 
army into three divisions, commenced their march to- 
wards the American camp, at Brooklyn, then under 
the command of General Putnam. 

21. 4 A range of hills, running from the Narrows to 
Jamaica, separated the two armies. Through these 
hills were three passes, — one by the Narrows, — a sec- 
ond by the village of Flatbush,]: — and a third by the 
way of Flatland ;$ the latter leading to the right, and 
intersecting, on the heights, the road which leads from 
Bedford || to Jamaica. 6 General Grant, commanding 
the left division of the army, proceeded by the Nar- 
rows ; General Heister directed the centre, composed 
of the Hessian regiments ; and General Clinton the 
right. 

22. 6 Detachments of the Americans, under the com- 
mand of General Sullivan, guarded the coast, and the 
road from Bedford to Jamaica. On the evening of the 
26th, General Clinton advanced from Flatland, — • 
reached the heights, and, on the morning of the 27th, 



BATTLE OF I.ONO ISLAND. 



* JVew Utrecht is at the W. end of Long Island, 
near the Narrows, seven miles below New York 
City. (See Map.) 

t Gravesend is a short distance S E. from New 
Utrecht, and nine miles from New York. (See 
Map.) 

} Flatbtish is five miles S.E. from New York. It 
was near the N.W. boundary of this town that the 
principal battle was fought (See Map.) 

§ Flatland is N.E. from the village of Grtves- 
eml, and about eight miles S.E. from New York. 
(See Map.) 

|| The village of Bedford is neai the heights, two 
»r three miles S.E. from Brooklyn. (See Map.) 




CHAP. H.J EVENTS OF 1776. 223 

seized an importan defile, which, through carelessness, 1776 
the Americans had left unguarded. With the morn- ' 

ing light he descended with his whole force by the 
village of Bedford, into the plain which lay between 
the hills and the American camp. In the mean time 
Generals Grant and De Heister had engaged nearly 
ihe whole American force, which had advanced to de- 
fend the defiles on the west — ignorant ot the move- 
ments of Clinton, who soon fell upon their left flank. 

23. 1 When the approach of Clinton was discovered, i. how dot 
the Americans commenced a retreat ; but being in- ^»ftw«* 
terceptcd by the English, they were driven back upon 

the Hessians ; and thus attacked, both in front and 
rear, many were killed, and many were made prison- 
ers. Others forced their way through the opposing 
ranks, and regained the American lines at Brooklyn. 
2 During the action, Washington passed over to Brook- 2 what is 
lyn, where he saw, with inexpressible anguish, the u 8 ^^ 
destruction of many of his best troops, but was unable t0,l{ 
to relieve them. 

24. 3 The American loss was stated by Washington 3 . what 
at one thousand, in killed, wounded, and prisoners ; and sSTiwiZn. 
by the British general, at 3,300. Among the prison- ^cnsidet 
ers, were Generals Sullivan, Stirling, and Woodhull. 

The loss of the British was less than 400. 4 The con- m 

„ . , - . . , i.UTiat-.cert 

sequences of the defeat were more alarming to the tkecome- 
Americans than the loss of their men. The army was tf&de/uur 
dispirited ; and as large numbers of the militia were 
under short engagements of a few weeks, whole regi- 
ments deserted and returned to their homes. 

25. 5 On the following day a the enemy encamped in a. Aug. 28. 
front of the American lines, designing to defer an at- 5 |]^"^ ra 
tack until the fleet could co-operate with the land movement* 

• T-i tit i • • • i • "i •!■ of the en- 

troops 'But \\ ashmgton, perceiving the impossibility emyi 
of sustaining his position, profited by the delay; and, f"f^^ 
on the nio"ht of the 29th, silently drew off his troops to sai&ofm 

. * . TStreo.t of 

New York ; nor was it until the sun had dissipated the theAma- 
mist on the following morning, that the English dis- lca " 
covered, to their surprise, that the Americans had 
abandoned their camp, and were already sheltered 
from pursuit. 7 A descent upon New York being the r. wnatwm 

r . », l p i • a Jill iiextdunebif 

next design of the enemy, a part of their fleet doubled the enemy! 



224 THE REVOLUTION. [PART HI 

177&. Long - Island, and appeared in the Sound ; while thG 
main body, entering the harbor, took a position nearly 
within cannon shot of the city. 
i.Wnat.waa 26. 'In a council of Avar, held on the 12th of Sep> 

determined. , , , i • i i i ■ 

in a council Xember, the Americans determined to abandon the 

of- war. and ■ i i- i «* i a - 

what was city; and, accordingly, no time was lost in removing 
acc "donti ly the military stores, which were landed far above, on 
2. what to- tne western shore of the Hudson. 2 Tlie commander- 
theTnierf- m '-chief retired to the heights of Harlem,* and a strong 
cans take? force was stationed at Kingsbridge,f in the northern 

part of the island. 

sept. is. 27. 3 On the 15th, a strong detachment of the enemy 

3 'th'en"mn l ' anc l ec l on the east side of New York Island, about 

advance up- three miles above the city, and meeting with little re- 

York, una sistancc, took a position extending across the island at 

i'iundk Bloomingdale,! five miles north of the city, and within 

b. sept is two miles of the American lines. 4 On the following 

4. what to day* a skirmish took place between advanced parties 

'ikinn'isji °f the armies, in which the Americans gained a de- 

'lowedi cided advantage ; although their two principal officers, 

Colonel Knowlton and Major Leiteh, both fell mor- 

b. whatioag tally wounded. 5 Washington commended the valor 

vponthl displayed by his troops on this occasion, and the result 

m~myi was highhy inspiriting to the army. 

6 ' J 1 -'*?' ^" 'General Howe, thinking it not prudent to at- 

wa the Bra- tack the fortified camp of the Americans, next made a 

isli general . , , . ' . r . . , . •■ 

now seek to movement with the intention ol gaining their rear, and 

sam cutting oft' their communication with the Eastern States. 

7. what 7 With this view, the greater part of the royal army left 

h7taket"/ac- New York, and passing into the Sound, landed b in the 

comvitohiti vicinity of Westchester ;& while, at the same time, 

b Cct 12 \ * i • 

three frigates were despatched up the Hudson, to in- 
terrupt the American communications with New Jer- 
s.how large sey. 3 By the arrival of new forces, the British army 

IB OS his J J , __ nrwn 

army) now amounted to Sy.OUO men. 



* Harlem is seven and a half miles above the city, (distance reckoned from the Cifj 
Hall.; 

t Kivgsbriige is thirteen miles above the city, at the N. enil of" the island, near a 
bridge crossing Spuyten Devil Creek, the creek which leads from the Hudson to the 
Harlem River. (See Map. p. 225.) 

1 lilmtmhiirdale is on the W. side of the island. Opposite, on the E. side, is Yorkville, 

§ The village of Westchester is situated on Westchester Creek, twj miles from the 
Bound, in the southern part of Westchester County, fourteen miles N.K. from Ne>» 
York. The troops lauded on Frog's Point, about three miles S.E from Ihe villa?* 
See Map, p. 205.) 



otjAP. n.] 



EVENTS OF 1776. 



225 



29. ^Vashington, penetrating the designs of the 
enemy, soon withdrew the bulk of his army from New 
York island, and extended it along the western bank 
of Bronx River,* towards White Plains;! keeping his 
left in advance of the British right. 2 On die 23th, a 
partial action was fought at White Plains, in which 
the Americans were driven back with some loss. 3 Soon 
after, Washington changed his camp, and drew up a his 
forces on the heights of North Castle, { about five 
miles farther north. 

30. 4 The British general, discontinuing his pursuit, 
now directed his attention to the American posts on 
the Hudson, with the apparent design of penetrating 
into New Jersey. s Washington, therefore, having 
first secured the strong positions in the vicinity of the 
Croton^ River, and especially that of Peekskill,]| 
crossed the Hudson with the main body of his army, 
and joined General Greene in his camp at Fort Lee :if 
leaving a force of three thousand men on the east side, 
under Colonel Magaw, for the defence of Fort Wash- 
ington.** 



1?"5T>. 

1 . I Vital po- 
sition did 

Washington 
take ! 
Oc». 28. 

2. What oc- 
cun td It 

Wiiiie 

Pit ins ? 

a. Nov. l. 

3. What 
Change did 
Washington 
then ntct'ce I 

4. To what 
did the Brit- 
ish general 
noio direct 
his a; ten- 
iion/ 
5. Whatwert 

trie nasi 

m/'vemeiUs 

of Wasly 

uik'iOiil 



* Bronx River rises in Westchester County, near the 
line of Connecticut, and after a course of twenty-rive 
mile*, neirly south, enters the Sound (or East River) a 
little S.W. from the village of Westchester. (See Map.) 

t White Plains is in Westchester County, twenty-seven 
miles N.E. from New York. (See Map.) 

X The Heights of JVorth Castle, on which Washington 
drew up his army, are three or lour miles S.W. from the 
present village of North Castle. (See Map.) 

§ The Croton River enters Hudson River from the east, 
in the northern part of Westchester County, thirty-rive 
miles north from New York. (See Map.) From" this 
stream an aqueduct has been built, thirty-eight miles in 
letmth, by which the city of New York has lieen supplied 
with excellent water. The whole cost of the aqueduct, 
reservoirs, pipes, &c, was about twelve millions of dol- 
lars. 

|| Peeks/nil is on the E. hank of the Hudson, near the 
northwestern extremity of Westchester Comity, forty-si:; 
miles N. from New York. (See Map. p. 244.) 

U Fort te was o:i the west side of Hud- 
son River, in the town of Hackensack, 
New .ler-ey, three miles southwest from 
For'. Washington, and ten north from New 
Yor;. It was built on a rocky summit, 
JOQ feet above the river. The ruins of the 
fortress still exist, overgrown with low 
trees. (See Map.) 

** Fort Washington was on the east 
bank of the Hudson, on Manhattan or New 
York Island, about eleven m.'les above the 
city. (See Map.) 

10* 



WESTCHESTER Cfl 



-- A Jjiitr/il^- qS , 

__c rfXartJiClxstle, 

mwMU 







226 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART lH 



1T76. 

Nov. IS. 
1. What is 
said of the 
attack on 
Fori Wash- 
ington I 
a. Nov. 13. 
2. Of the 
a.'ttiiipt 
against Fort 
Lee, and 
Vie result! 
3. Wlmt is 
said of the 
retreat of 
the Ameri- 
cans, and 
the condi- 
tion of the 
army t 



31. 'On the 16th, this fort was attacked by a strong 
fcrce of the enemy, and after a spirited defence, in 
which the assailants lost nearly a thousand men, was 
forced to surrender. 2 Lord Cornwallis crossed* the 
Hudson at Dobbs' Ferry,* with six thousand men, 
and proceeded against Fort Lee, the garrison of which 
saved itself by a hasty retreat ; but all the baggage 
and military stores fell into the possession of the victors. 

32. 3 The Americans retreated across the Hacken- 
sack,f and thence across the Passaic,! with forces daily 
diminishing by the withdrawal of large numbers of 
the militia, who, dispirited by the late reverses, re- 
turned to their homes, as fast as their terms of enlist- 
ment expired ; so that, by the last of November, 
scarcely three thousand troops remained in the Amer- 
ican army ; and these were exposed in an open coun- 
try, without intrenching tools, and without tents to 
shelter them from the inclemency of the season. 

33. 4 Newark,§ New Brunswick, || Princeton,^! and 
Trenton, successively fell into the hands of the enemy, 
as they were abandoned by the retreating army ; and 
finally, on the eighth of December, Washington crossed 
the Delaware, then the only barrier which prevented 
the British from taking possession of Philadelphia. So 

* Dobbs' Ferry is a well-known crossing-place on the Hudson, twenty-two miles N. 
from New York City. There is a small village of the same name on the E. side of the 
river. (See Map, p. 225.) 

t Hackensack River rises one mile west from the Hudson, in Rockland Lake. Rock- 
land County, thirty-three miles N. from New York. It pursues a southerly course, at a 
distance of from two to six miles W. from the Hudson, and falls into the N. Eastern ex- 
tremity of Newark Bay, five miles west from New York. (See Map.) 

X The Passaic River rises in the central part of Northern New Jersey, flows an east- 
erly course until it arrives within five miles of the Hacker.sack. whence its course is S. 

fourteen miles, until it falls into the N. Western 
extremity of Newark Bay. (See Map.) 

§ Newark, now a city, and the most popu- 
lous in New Jersey, is situated on the W. side 
of Passaic River, three miles from its entrance 
into Newark Bay, and nine miles W. from New 
York. (See Map.) 

|| New Brunswick is situated on the S. bank 
of Raritan River, ten miles from its entrance 
into Raritan Bay at Amboy, and twenty-three 
miles S.W. from Newark. It is the seat Of Rut- 
gers College, founded in 1770. (See Map.) 

IT Princeton is thirty-nine niUes S.W. from 
Newark. It is the seat of the "Co'.leee of New 
Jersey," usually called Princeton College, found- 
ed at Elizabeth town in 1746, afterwards removed 
to Newark, and, in 1757, to Princeton. The 
Princeton Theological Seminary, founded in 
1812, Is also located here. (See Map.) 



4. Give an 
lccount of 
the retreat 
tlirough 
New Jersey, 
and t/ie pur- 
suit by the 
British. 



STAT 01 WAR IK NEW JERSEY. 




CHAP. H.J EVENTS OF 1778. 227 

rapidly had the pursuit been urged, that the rear of the 1776 . 
one army was often within sight and shot of the van 
of the other. 

34. Congress, then in session at Philadelphia, ad- a. Dec. 12. 
journed* to Baltimore,* and soon after invested 11 Wash- b j ^jf' 
ington with almost unlimited powers, " To order and course was 
direct all things relating to the department and to the am^resst 
operations of war." 2 The British general, awaiting 2.1172a?**- 
only the freezing of the Delaware to enable him to »S'o/ w£? 
cross and seize Philadelphia, arranged about 4000 of ? r ' uo % h ? 
his German troops along the river, from Trenton to 
Burlington. Strong detachments occupied Princeton 

and New Brunswick. The rest of the troops were 
cantoned about in the villages of New Jersey. 

35. 3 On the very day that the American army Dec. 
crossed the Delaware, the British squadron, under Sir 3 } f "°i" e ]"^ 
Peter Parker, took possession of the island of Rhode Commodon 
Island, together with the neighboring islands, Pru- blockaded!- 
dence, 6 and Conanicut ; c by which the American c - p ee l 1 IV o !!U '■ 
squadron, under Commodore Hopkins, was blocked 

up in Providence River, where it remained a long 
time useless. 4 On the 13th, General Lee, who had Dec. 13. 
been left in command of the forces stationed on the *• ■} v 'l at r i * 
Hudson, having incautiously wandered from the main emts l&» 
body, was surprised and taken prisoner by the enemy. a uvant 
His command then devolving on General Sullivan, the 
latter conducted his troops to join the forces of Wash- 
ington, which were then increased to nearly seven 
thousand men. 

36. s In the state of gloom and despondency which 5 jit^som 
had seized the public mind, owing to the late reverses fj^'^fy 
of the army, Washington conceived the plan of sud- w f^ g ' 
denly crossing the Delaware, and attacking the ad- 
vanced posts of the enemy, before the main body could 

be brought to their relief. s Accordingly, on the night Dec . w . 

of the 25th of December, preparations were made for e.intchat 

crossing the river, in three divisions. General Cad- «/ to be cc^ 

wallader was to cross at Bristol,! and carry the post at ' fcctt 

* Baltimore, a city of Maryland, is situated on the N. side of the Patapsco River, 
fourteen miles from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, and ninety-live miles S.W. from 
Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 823.) 

t Bristol is a village on the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware, two miles abov* 
Burlington. (See Map, p. 226.) 



223 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART in. 



1776. 



1. Whatcb- 

trades were 
encoun- 
tered! 



3. Dec. 2S. 
2. Give a 

particular 
account of 
the enter- 
prise ; the 
battle which 
followed ; 
and the re- 
sult 



3. Why did 
Washington 
immediate- 
ly recross the 
Del at oare? 
♦. How did 
this bril- 
liant suc- 
cess affcel 
the public 
mind I 



Burlington ;* General Ewing was to cross a little be- 
low Trenton,! and intercept the retreat of the enemy 
in that direction; while the commander-in-chief, with 
twenty-four hundred men, was to cross nine miles above 
Trenton, to make the principal attack. 

37. 'Generals Ewing and Cadwallader, after the 
most strenuous efforts, were unable to cross, owing to 
the extreme cold of the night, and the quantity of float- 
ing ice that had accumulated in this part of the river. 
2 Washington alone succeeded, but it was three o'clock 
in the morning 1 before the artillery could be carried 
over. The troops were then formed into two divisions, 
commanded by Generals Sullivan and Greene, under 
whom were Brigadiers Lord Stirling, Mercer, and St. 
Clair. 

33. Proceeding by different routes, they arrived at 
Trenton about eight o'clock in the morning, and com- 
menced a nearly simultaneous attack upon the sur- 
prised Hessians, who, finding themselves hemmed in 
by the Americans on the north and west, and by a 
small creek and the Delaware River on the east and 
south, were constrained to lay down their arms, and 
surrender at discretion. About one thousand were 
made prisoners, and between thirty and forty were 
killed and wounded. About 600 of the enemy, who 
were out on a foraging party, escaped to Bordentown.| 
Among the killed was Colonel Rahl, the commanding 
officer. 

39. 3 As the British had a strong force at Princeton, 
and likewise a force yet remaining on the Delaware, 
superior to the American army, Washington, on the 
evening of the same day, recrossed into Pennsylvania 
with his prisoners. 4 This unexpected and brilliant 




* Burlington is on the E. bank of the Delaware, 
twelve miles S.W. from Trenton, and seventeen 
N.E. from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 22(i.) 

f Trenton, the capital of New Jersey, is situated 
on the E. hank of the Delaware River, ten miles 
S.W. from Princeton, and twenty-seven N.E 
from Philadelphia. The Assumpink Creek sepa- 
rates the city on the S.E. from the borough of 
South Trenton. (See Map ; and also p. 2-ij.) 

X Bordentown is on the E. bank of the Dela- 
ware, seven miles southeast ft om Trculon. (Set 
Map, p. 226.) 



CHAP. Ii.] EVENTS OF 1776. 229 

success suddenly elevated the public mind from defc- i'i7G. 

pendency to extreme confidence. About 1400 soldiers, 
whose terms of service were on the point of expiring, 
agreed to remain six weeks longer; and the militia 
from the neighboring provinces again began to join 
the army. 

40. 'The British general, startled by this sudden . iWM 
inanimation of an enemy whom he had already con- ^f^'uru- 
sidercd vanquished, resolved, though in the depth of istigenerail 
win;er, to recommence operations. Lord Cornwallis, 

then in New York, and on the point of sailing for 
England, hastily returned to New Jersey, with addi- 
tional troops, to regain the ground that had been lost. 

41. 2 Nor was Washington disposed to remain idle. nee. as. 
On the 28th of December he bolcllv returned into New s.n'imtneio 

, . , ... - . ii- movements 

Jersey, ana took post at 1 renton, where the other di- wcremade 

• ■ ' ' c . ■* i • i i i ii i I'D the army 

visions ol the army, which had passed lower dow-n, of washing- 
were ordered to join him. General Heath, stationed tonf 
at Peekskill, on the Hudson, was ordered to move into 
New Jersey with the main body of the New England 
forces, while the newly raised militia were ordered to 
harass the flank and rear, and attack the outposts of 
the enemy. 3 The British had fallen back from the %.\viw.iwett 
Delaware, and were assembling in great force at aSnginm 
Princeton — resolved to attack Washington in his quar- ineantimei 
ters at Trenton, before he should receive new reinforce- 
ments. 

42. 4 Such was the situation of the opposing armies Whar „ 
at the close of the year. Only a week before, Gen- remarked a) 

i tt i-i ■ ■ i r • c i thesituation 

eral Howe was leisurely waiting the freezing ol the oftheoppo- 

Dl l Di'.ii • ^ • r sing armies 

elaware, to enable him to take quiet possession ol a: the dose 

Philadelphia, or annihilate the American army at a /""^^' 
blow, should it not previously be disbanded by the de- 
sertion of its militia. But, to the astonishment of the 
British general, the remnant of the American army 
had suddenly assumed offensive operations ; and its 
commander, although opposed by far superior r orces, 
now indulged the hope of recovering, during the win- 
ter, the whole, or the greater part of New Jersey. 




BENJAMIN FBANKLIN. 



PART III. 



CHAPTER II] 

EVENTS OP 17 71. 

< 1. 'On the night of the first of 
January, Generals Mifflin and 
Cadwallader, with the forces 
which lay at Bordentown and 
Crosswicks,* joined Washington 
at Trenton, whose whole effective 
i- mat oe- force did not then exceed five thousand men. a In the 
tng the night afternoon of the next day, a the van of the army of 
^January? Lord Comwallis reached TVrnton ; when Washington 
a. Jan. 2. immediately withdrew to 'he east side of the creek b 
curved in the which runs through the town, where he drew up his 
S^neTuiaifp army, and commenced intrenching himsejf. 
b ' Se %]£ ap ' ^* e ^ r ^^ sn attempted to cross in several places, 
when some skirmishing ensued, and a cannonading 
commenced, which continued until nightfall ; but the 
fords being well guarded, the enemy thought it pru- 
dent to wait for the reinforcements which were near at 
hand, designing to advance to the assault on the fol- 
lowing: morning", 
s. to what 3. 3 Washington again found himself in a very crit- 
^nfAmlrl- ical situation. To remain and risk a battle, with a 
superior and constantly increasing force, would subject 
his army, in case of repulse, to certain destruction ; 
while a retreat over the Delaware, then very much 
obstructed with floating ice, would, of itself, have been 
a difficult undertaking, and a highly dangerous one to 
the American troops when pursued by a victorious 
«. what is enemy. 4 With his usual sagacity and boldness, Wash 
T"sagaci°{ ington adopted another extraordinary but judicious 
™f b \vash- s scheme, which was accomplished with consummate 
skill, and followed by the happiest results. 

4. "Kindling the fires of his camp as usual, and 

hcei'udeThe having left a small guard and sentinels to deceive the 

snemy enem y j he silently dispatched his heavy baggage to 

c Jan. 3. Burlington ; and then, c by a circuitous route, unper- 

ceived, gained the rear of the enemy, and pressed on 



xcan army 
ftoio expo- 
sed? 



ingtonl 



5. In what 
ttanner did 



* Orosswicks is a small village on the S. side of a creek of the same name, four miles 
K. from Bordentown. The creek enters the Delaware just N. of Bordentown village. 
(Pee Map, p. 396.) 



CHAP. UI.] EVENTS OF 1777. 231 

rapidly towards Princeton ; designing to attack, by 177 1 ?. 
surprise, the British force at that place, which was 
about equal to his own. 

5. 'A part of the British, however, had already com- 1. Give an 
me need their march, and were met by the Americans, t f, c e c l J a"/ e {j 
at sunrise, a mile and a half from Princeton* when a p '' inc , e !!"J-> 
brisk conflict ensued, in which the American militia &»*»««* 

_ i tit i • • tamed by 

at first gave way; but Washington soon coming up \achparty: 
with his select corps, the battle was restored. One di- 
vision of the British, however, broke through the 
Americans ; the others, after a severe struggle, and 
after losing nearly four hundred men in killed and 
wounded, retreated towards New Brunswick. The 
American loss was somewhat less than that of the 
British, but among the killed was the highly esteemed 
and deeply regretted General Mercer. 

6. 2 When the dawn of day discovered to Lord Corn- 2 . \vnat 
wallis the deserted camp of the Americans, he immedi- cormlalfis 
ately abandoned his own camp, and marched with all the "J!f r ' 
expedition towards New Brunswick ; fearing lest the 
baggage and military stores collected there should fall 

into the hands of the enemy. 3 As he reached Prince- 

, , ••ii*'" 3 - What was 

ton almost at the same time with the American rear th»sit%tation 
guard, Washington again found himself in imminent %th.istSnt% 
danger. His soldiers had taken no repose for the two 
preceding days, and they were likewise destitute of 
suitable provisions and clothing ; while the pursuing 
enemy, besides tho advantage of numbers, was supplied 
with all the conveniences, and even the luxuries of the 
camp. 

7. 4 Not being in a situation to accomplish his de- 4 . whatwa* 
signs on New Brunswick, Washington departed ab- n lyJ™n*. y 
ruptly from Princeton, and moved with rapidity to- ton? 
wards the upper and mountainous parts of New Jersey, 

and finally encamped at Morristown,f where he was 
able to afford shelter and repose to his suffering army. 
5 Corn wallis proceeded directly to New Brunswick, 5 . s y ca-n- 
where he found the commanding officer greatly alarm- wa!lis? 



* This battle was fought on the N.E. side of Stony Brook, one of the head waters of 
the Raritan, about a mile and a half S.W. from Princeton. (See Map, p. 22G.) 

t Morristown is a beautiful l illage, situated on an eminence, thirty-five miles N E 
from Princeton, and eighteen w ?st from Newark. (See Map, p. 236 < 



232 THE REVOLUTION. [FART III. 

lYYT. eel at the movements of Washington, and already en- 
g-ag-ed in the removal of the baggage and military 
stores. 
i.Wkatsuc- 8. 'In a few clays Washington entered the field 
Washington anew, — overran the whole northern part of New Jer- 
loonlfieri se V; — ai1 ^ ma de himself master of Newark, c.f Eliza- 
bethtown, and finally of Woodbridge ;* so that the 
British army, which had lately held all New Jersey 
In its power, and had caused even Philadelphia to 
tremble for its safety, found itself now restricted to the 
two posts, New Brunswick and Amboy ;f and com- 
pelled to lay aside all thoughts of acting offensively, 
2 what is and study self-defence. 2 The people of New Jersey, 
'tomato!? who, during the ascendency of the British, had been 
a "fth"'pM l t reate d with harshness, insult, and cruelty, especially 
pieofseio by the mercenary Hessian troops, now rose upon their 

Jersey i . ■' . i •* i • i c ' n- 

invaders, and united in the common cause of expelling 

them from the country. 

i.mthwhat 9- 3 ln small parties they scoured the country in 

"tiieTmeet'f every direction, — cutting off stragglers, — and suddenly 

falling on the outposts of the enemy, and in several 

skirmishes gained considerable advantage. At Spring-? 

i Jan. 7. field,| between forty and fifty Germans were killed, 1 

wounded, or taken, by an equal number of Jersey mi- 

jan. so. litia ; and on the 20th of January, General Dickinson, 

with less than five hundred men, defeated a much 

larger foraging party of the enemy, near Somerset 

4 what Court House. § 4 As no important military enterprise 

measure aid took place on either side during the two or three months 

Waslvngton . .. r . , . , „ „ . -_ TT . . , 

take for the following the battle of Princeton, Washington seized 
armyi M the interval of repose for inoculating his whole army 
with the small-pox ; a disease which had already com- 
menced its dreadful ravages among his troops, but 
which was thus stripped of its terrors, and rendered 
harmless. 



* Woodbridge is a village near Staten Island Sound, fourteen miles S. from Newark. 
(See Map, p. 22t>.) 

t Amboy (now Perth Amboy) is situated at the head of Raritan Bay, at the conflu- 
ence of Raritan River and Staten Island Sound, four miles S. from Wooalbriilge. It is 
opposite the southern point of Staten Island. (See Map, p. 2£fl.) 

% Springfield is a small village eight miles W. from Newark. (See Map, p. 228.') 

§ Somerset Court House was then at the village of Millstone, four miles S. from Sprn 
ervilie, the present county seat, and eight miles W. from New Brunswick. (See Maj. 
p. 226.) 



chap. m.J e\t:nts of 1777. 233 

10. 'Congress, in the mean time, hau returned 'o 17T7. 
Philadelphia, where it was busily occupied with meas- , Hmewm 
ures for enlarging and supplying the army, and for congress 

... P ° - ■ . I 1 J o J ! engaged in 

obtaining aid from foreign powers. ' z zo early as the the /man 
beginning of the year 1776, Sdas Deane, a member 2 n - /tal , 3 
of congress from Connecticut, was sent to France, for oJanis^Sn- 
the purpose of influencing the French government in bassyto 
favor of America. Although France secretly favored 
the cause of the Americans, she was not yet disposed 
to act openly ; yet Mr. Deane found means to obtain 
supplies from private sources, and even from the public 
arsenals. 

11. 3 After the declaration of independence, Benja- 3. what i» 

Fi i- i-, • t-> • i .i said of Dr. 

ranklin was likewise sent to Fans; and other Franklin, 

agents were sent to different European courts. The andutliersi 
distinguished talents, high reputation, and great per- 
sonal popularity of Dr. Franklin, were highly success- 
ful in increasing the general enthusiasm which began 
to be felt in behalf of the Americans. 4 His efforts «■ ^hai 

, l-i c \ iiii course was 

were in the end eminently successful : and although iaken by 
France delayed, for a while, the recognition of Amer- wiiat'ala 
ican independence, yet she began to act with less re- "T/ferf d 
serve ; and by lending assistance in various ways. — 
by loans, gifts, supplies of arms, provisions, and clo- 
thing, she materially aided the Americans, and showed 
a disposition not to avoid a rupture with England. 

12. 6 The tardy action of the French court was out- 5 . ni m nt 
stripped, however, by the general zeal of the nation. /a"ea{.and 
Numerous volunteers, the most eminent of whom was 0!l ' e ^ er ^ 2 un ' 
the young Marquis de Lafayette, offered to risk their 
fortunes, and bear arms in the cause of American lib- 
erty. Lafayette actually fitted out a vessel at his 

own expense, and, in the spring of 1777, arrived in 
America. He at first enlisted as a volunteer in the 
army of Washington, declining all pay for his ser- 
vices : but congress soon after bestowed upon him the 
appointment of major-general. 

13. 6 Although the main operations of both armies <, Give an 
were suspended until near the last of May, a few pre- %£%%££ 
vious events are worthy of notice. The Americans "^'U°JL 
having collected a quantity of military stores at Peeks- son. 
kill, on the Hudson, in March, General Howe des- 



234 THE REVOLUTION. [PART I1L 

1777 • patched a powerful armament up the river to destroy 
' ' them, when the American troops, seeing defence im- 
a. March 23. possible, set fire to the stores, and abandoned 1 the place. 

The enemy landed — completed the destruction, — and 
April i3. tnen returned to New York, ^n the 1 3th of April, 
lurprheof General Lincoln, then stationed at Boundbrook,* in 
Cre coin m ~ New Jersey, was surprised by the sudden approach of 

Lord Cornwallis on both sides of the Raritan.t With 

difficulty he made his retreat, with the loss of a part 

of his baggage, and about sixty men. 

April 25. 14. 2()n the 25th of April, 2000 of the enemy, un- 

r'ryoiifei- der the command of General Tryon, late royal gover- 

V afal™t nor °f New York, landed in Connecticut, between 

Banbury. Fairfield^ and Norwalk. § On the next day they pro- 

b a 126 ceeQea a g a i n st Danbury,|| and destroyed 15 the stores 

collected there, — burned the town, — and committed 
c. April -27. rnany atrocities on the unarmed inhabitants. 3 During 
3. what wr their retreat they were assailed by the militia, which 
r/ngfhe re- had hastily assembled in several detachments, com- 
tr trt&ny\ manded by Generals Arnold, Silliman, and Wooster. 

Pursued and constantly harassed by the Americans, 
d. April 28. tne enemy succeeded in regaining 11 their shipping; 

having lost, during the expedition, in killed, wounded, 

* what was anc ^ prisoners, nearly three hundred men. 4 The loss 

'the loss of of the Americans was much less; but anions: the nutn- 

team? ber was the veteran General Wooster, then in his 

seventieth year. 
s. Give an 15- 5 Not long afterwards, a daring expedition was 
the°expedi planned and executed by a party of Connecticut mili- 
tum against tia, ap-ainst a depot of British stores which had been 

Bag Harbor. » o r 

collected at Sag Harbor, a post at the eastern extremity 

of Long Island, and then defended by a detachment of 

May 22. infantry and an armed sloop. On the night of the 22d 



* Boundbrook is a small village about a mile in length, on the N. side of the Raritan, 
seven miles N.W. from New Brunswick. The northern part of the village is c£_e<f 
MiMlebrook. (See Map, p. 226.) 

t Raritan River, N.J., is formed by several branches, which unite in Somerset Coun 
ty ; whence, flowing east, it enters Raritan Bay at the southern extremity of Staten Is- 
land. (See Map, p. 236J) 

% Fairfield. See p. 107. The troops landed at Campo Point, in the western part of 
the town of Fairfield. 

§ Norwalk village is situated on both sides of Norwalk River, at its entance into the 
Round. It is about forty-five miles N.E. from New York, and ten miles S.W. from 
'' airfield. 

% ''yaaibury is twenty-one miles N. from Norwalk. 



CHAP. in.J EVENTS OF 1777. 235 

of May, Colonel Meigs crossed the Sound, and arriving- 1777. 
before day, surprised" the enemy, destroyed the stores, ~ M 23 
burned a dozen vessels, and brought off ninety prison- 
ers, without having a single man either killed or 
wounded. 'Congress ordered an elegant sword to be i.Bowwaa 
presented to Colonel Meigs for his good conduct on conduct of 

tlllS Occasion. rewarded! 

\P aWliile these events were transpiring, Wash- aivhernio, 



as 



ingion remained in his camp at Morristown, gradually a^his'twlT; 
increasing in strength by the arrival of new recruits, ^do/fhe 
and waiting the development of the plans of the enemy; ptowo/ the 
who seemed to be hesitating, whether to march upon 
Philadelphia, in accordance with the plan of the pre- 
vious campaign, or to seize upon the passes of the Hud- 
son, and thus co-operate directly with a large force 
under General Burgoyne, then assembling in Canada, 
with the design of invading the states from that quarter. 

17. 3 As a precaution against both of these move- 3.vnt<« pre 

, l , , ° , „ , cautions 

ments, the northern forces having first been concen- were taken 
trated on the Hudson, and a large camp under General thefe%iana 
Arnold having been formed on the western bank of 
the Delaware, so that the whole could be readily as- 
sembled at either point, in the latter part of May 
Washington broke up his winter quarters, and ad- 
vanced to Middlebrook, b — a strong position within ten b. see first 
miles of the British camp, and affording a better op- v^Sspag^ 
portunity for watching the enemy and impeding his 
movements. 

18. 'General Howe soon after passed over from 4IltoMer 
New York, which had been his head-quarters during u»jtnt 

1 O 7TIOV6? fl^fltS 

the winter, and concentrated" 1 nearly his whole army of General 
at New Brunswick; but after having examined the c . Juneiz 
strength of the posts which Washington occupied, he 
abandoned the design of assaulting him in his camp. 
8 He next, with the design of enticing Washington from 5. Desane 

I • j i ■' _■ i .his attempt 

his position, and bringing on a general engagement, to draw 
advanced 11 with nearly his whole body to Somerset fiSm^^ 
Court House, with the apparent design of crossing the sllion - 
Delaware. Failing in his object, a few days after- 
wards he tried another feint, and made as rapid a re 
treat, first e to Brunswick and afterwards f to Amboy, e - June 1& 
&a*d even sent over several detachments to Staten 



236 THE REVOLUTION. [PART III 

1777. Island, as if with the final intention of abandoning 

New Jersey. 
i. mama- 19- 'Washington, in the hope of deriving some ad- 
wasfun^ion vanta g e fr° m 'he retreat, pushed forward strong de- 
makei tachments to harass the British rear, and likewise ad- 
vanced his whole force to Quibble-town,* five or six 
o jnioMt m i' es from his strong camp at Middlebrook. 2 General 
"fH»"Hwi Howe, taking advantage of the success of his manceu- 
atumvito vre, suddenly recalled his troops on the night of the 
tnsce of these 25th, and. the next morning, advanced rapidly towards 

movements/ tl '. ' . , . °' zy ,i • . i 

June 25. tne Americans; hoping to cut on their retreat and 
June 26. bring on a general action. 

3. now did 20. 3 Washington, however, had timely notice of 
l \seap"%T this movement, and discerning his danger, with the 

danger/ utmost celerity regained his camp at Middlebrook 

4. how far 4 The enemy only succeeded in engaging the brigade 
my succeed,' of Lord Stirling ; which, after maintaining a severe 

5. what is action, retreated with little loss. 6 Failing in this sec- 
m 'ritr f ea'tf r onc ^ fittcinpt, the British again withdrew to Amboy 

, „„ and, on the 30th, passed finally over to Staten Island ' 

June 30. , \ . ' ' . i- i 1 • c tvt 

leaving Washington in undisturbed possession 01 JNew 

Jersey. 

e. Give an 21. 6 A few days later, the American army received 

thlcaptu/e me cheering intelligence of the capture of Major-gen- 

%>res"ot? 1 era ' Prescott, the commander of the British troops on 

Rhode Island. Believing himself perfectly secure while 

surrounded by a numerous fleet, and at the head of a 

powerful army, lie had taken convenient quarters at 

some distance from camp, and with few guards about 

July io. his person. On the night of the 10th of July, Colonel 

Barton, with about forty militia, crossed over to the 

island in whale-boats, and having silently reached the 

lodgings of Prescott, seized him in bed, and conducted 

him safely through his own troops and fleet, back to 

the mainland. This exploit gave the Americans an 

officer of equal rank to exchange for General Lee. 

7. mmt. 22. 7 The British fleet, under the command of Ad- 

movement ■ 1 T i i i • . n 1 ti i 3 

u-iismadeby miral Howe, then Jying at bandy Hook, soon moved 
ie jieeil' to Prince's Bay,f and thence to the northern part of 



* Quibbleluwn, now ctlleo New Market, is a small village five miles E. from Middle 
brook. (See Map, ]i. 220.) 
t Prince's Bay is on the S.E. coast of Staten Island. 



chap. in. J 



EVENTS OF 1777. 



237 



ail, aiid 
what course 
did H'aifi- 

ington tak.il 
July x3. 



i.W/iatwen 

'trllier 



the island. l This movement, together with the cir- 1777. 
cumstanee that Burgoyne, with a powerful army, had 7~^-~7^7 
already taken Ticonderojra, at first induced Washing 1 - peareutobe 

j o i o i)n> das: r /t 

ton to believe that the design of the British general "ftucunt- 

• is/l "'6/ &FQ.L I 

was to proceed up the Hudson, and unite with Bur- 
goyne. 2 Having taken about 18,000 of the army on 2. whither 
board, and leaving a large force, under General Clin- d 'at l i^tk 
ton, for the defence of New York, the fleet at length 
sailed from Sandy Hook on the 23d of July, and being 
soor. after heard from, off the capes of Delaware, Wash- 
ington put his forces in motion towards Philadelphia. 

23. 3 The fleet having sailed up the Chesapeake, the 
troops landed near the head of Elk* River, in Mary- *'thefu 
land, on the 25th of August, and immediately com- ofmurit- 
menced their march towards the American army, ,sh £-%f' d 
which had already arrived and advanced beyond Wil- 
mington. 4 The superior force of the enemy soon \-, w ' iat f id 

,° Jl , _y Washington 

obliged Washington to withdraw across the Brandy- determine 1 
wine,f where he determined to make a stand for the 
defence of Philadelphia. s On the morning of the 1 1th sept. 11 
of September, the British force, in two columns, ad- \^l°% 
vanced against the American position. The Hessians lf i e ,'" ^' i , n Z 
under General Knyphausen proceeded against Uhai s September/ 
Ford, I and commenced a spirited attack, designing to 
deceive the Americans with the belief that the whole 
British army was attempting the passage of the Bran- 
dywine at that point. 6.muitmore 

24. • Washington, deceived by false intelligence re- u ZmIoT 
specting the movements of the enemy, kept his force B ,™nff 
concentrated near the passage of Chad's 
Ford ; while, in the mean time, ihe main 
body of the British army, led by Generals 
Howe and Cornwallis, crossed the forks of 
the Brandy wine above, and descended against 



PLACES WEST OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 



* Elk River Is formed by the union of two small creeks at 
Elkton, half way between the Susquehanna and the Dela- 
ware, after which its course is S.W., thirteen miles, to the 
Chesape ike. 

t Bramhjwine Creek rises in the northern part of Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, and flowing S.E., passes through the 
northern p:irl of Delaware, uniting with Christiana Creek at 
Wilmington. (See .Map; also Map, p. 121.) 

i Ckad's Ford is a passage of the Brandywine, twenty-five 
miles S.W. from Philadelphia. 



b rristcrsTTi 



L'oits^-oveiM^yr 

- '"go. - 

West •** 

Vn CJiester 

3&ietdsN> 




233 THE REVOLUTION. [1'ART I1L 

1777. the American right, then commanded by General Sul- 

livan ; which, being attacked before it had properly 

formed, soon gave way. The day terminated in the 

success of all the leading plans of the enemy. 

a. sept 12. 25. x During the night, the American army retreated 

retreat*/ to Chester,* and the next day to Philadelphia ; having 

ica>i'!'and l0St : during the action, in killed, wounded, and prison- 

the losses on crs more thaii a thousand men ; while the British loss 

each side I ' i i r i z-n. t-.ii- 

a. what is was not nai i tnat number. 2 Count Pulaski, a brave 
Pufiskfand P° ian der, who had joined the Americans, distinguished 
'Lafayette) himself in this action; as did also the Marquis Lafay- 
ette, who was wounded while endeavoring to rally the 
fugitives. Congress soon after promoted Count Pu- 
laski to the rank of brigadier, with the command of 
the cavalry. 

w2$g£EL 26 - 3 After a few days' rest, Washington resolved to 
"w'ltvhat' ris ^ ar >other general action, before yielding Philadel- 
foiiowed? phia to the enemy. He therefore recrossed the Schuyl- 
kill, and advanced against the British near Goshen ;f 

b. sept. i6. but soon after the advanced parties had met, b a violent 

fall of rain compelled both armies to defer the engage- 

4. what hap- ment. 4 A few days after, General Wayne, who had 

^General been detached with 1500 men, with orders to concea) 

aynt his movements and harass the rear of the enemy, wa? 

c-Sept. 2o,2i. himself surprised at night, c near Paoli ;| and threp 

hundred of his men were killed. 

s.KTiatwere '27. 6 On a movement of the British up the right 

movements bank of the Schuylkill, Washington, fearing for the 

^armies 1 ? safety of his extensive magazines and military stores 

deposited at Reading,^ abandoned Philadelphia, and 

took post at Pottsgrove. || Congress had previously 

sept. 23. adjourned to Lancaster. On the 23d, the British army 

sept. 26. crossed the Schuylkill ; and on the 26th entered Phil- 

* Chester, originally called Upland, is situated on the W. bank of Delaware River, 
fourteen miles S.W. from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 237.) 

f Goshen is about eijiliteen miles W. from Philadelphia, and a short distance E. from 
Westchester. (See Mop, p. 237.) 

% Paoli is a smnll village nearly twenty miles N.W. from Philadelphia. Two miles 
S.W. from the village is the place where Gen. Wayne was defeated. A monument 
has been erected on the spot, and the adjoining field is appropriated to a military pa- 
rade ground. (See Map, p. 237.J 

§ Heading (red'-insr) is a handsome city of Pennsylvania, on the left, or East 
bank of Schuylkill River, fifty-two miles N. W. of Philadelphia. 

\ Pottsgrove is on the N. E. side of the Schuylkill, about thirty-five miles N. W 
from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 237.) 



CHAP, m.] EVENTS OF 1777. 239 

adelphia without opposition. The main body of the 17 TT. 
army encamped at Germantown,* six miles distant. 

28. 'Washington now passed down the Schuylkill 1. Give an 
to Skippackf Creek, and soon after, learning" that the thebMtieof 
British force had been weakened by the withdrawal °fown H ' 
of several regiments for the reduction of some forts oh 

the Delaware, he attacked the remainder at German- 
town, on the 4th of October ; but after a severe action, om, 4. 
the Americans were repulsed, with the loss of about 
1200 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners ; while 
that of the enemy was only about half that number. 
8 Soon after this event, General Howe broke up his en- *■ Wkitha 

,-. ' ! 1 1 • 1 1 r di& Howe 

campment at Germantown, and moved a his whole lorce then remove 
to Philadelphia. a. Oct 19 

29. 3 No movement of importance was made by 3 niiat 
either army until the 22d of the month; previous to events does 

..,.•>. , . ' . r , . the history 

which time, important events had transpired in the nowpro- 

, ,' . r . , lii- 1 c cee<l to nar 

north, resulting in the total defeat and capture 01 a rate, and 
powerful British army under General Burgoyne. A w y 
connected account of these transactions requires that 
we should now go back a few months in the order of 
time, to the beginning of the campaign in the north. 

30. 4 Early in the spring of 1777, General Burgoyne, 4. what is 
who had served under Governor Carleton in the pre- Bv,r%ynTl 
vious campaign, arrived b at Quebec ; having received b Mayf 
the command of a powerful force, which was designed 

to invade the states by the way of Lake Champlain 
and the Hudson. 

31. On the. 16th of June, Burgoyne, at the head of June i«. 
his army, which consisted of more than seven thousand 2rmy% 
British and German troops, and several thousand Ca- 
nadians and Indians, left St. John's for Crown Point, 
where he established magazines ; and then proceeded %££&? 
to invest" 1 Ticonderoga.;}; 6 At the same time a detach- a. July 2. 
rnent of about two thousand men, mostly Canadians e x P ?£' t j'£ l 
and Indians, proceeded by the way of Oswego,* against %X'uy^ri l 
Fort Schuyler, on the Mohawk ; hoping to make an e. n. i>. 242. 

* Germantown lies on a street three miles long, and is centrally distant six miles 
N.W. froci Philadelphia. (See Map. p. 152 ) 

t Skippack Creek is an eastern branch of Perkiomen Creek, which it enters abnnl 
twenty-three miles N.W. from Philadelphia. Perkinnen Creek enters the Schuylkill 
from the N., about twenty-two miliis from Philadelphia. (See Map, p. 237.) 

1 The important fortress of Ticoideroga was situated at the mouth of the outlet of 



240 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART ITL 



lWt 



1. Of the 
Course pur- 
sued by St.. 
Clair i 



2. Of the 

investment 

iif T-iconde- 

roga I 



p What de- 
tig n ivas St. 
Clair obli- 
ged f> aban- 
don, and 
why I 



4. What ar- 
duous work 
did the Brit- 
ish under- 
take and 
accomplishJ 
a. July 5. 



5. Give an 
account of 
tiie evacua- 
tion of Ti- 
conderoga. 
b. July 5, 6. 



6. Of the 
retreat and 
reverses of 
the Amer- 
icans. 



easy conquest of that post, and afterwards to rejoin the 
main army on the Hudson. 

32. 'On. the approach of the enemy, General St. Clair, 
who commanded at Ticonderoga with a force of but 
little more than 3000 men, unable to defend all the 
outworks, withdrew to the immediate vicinity of the fort. 
2 The British troops, now extending their lines in front 
of the peninsula, invested the place on the northwest ; 
while their German allies took post on the opposite 
side of the lake, in the rear of Mount Independence, 
which had likewise been fortified, and was then occu- 
pied by the Americans. 3 St. Clair had at first con- 
templated the erection of fortifications on Mount De- 
fiance, which commands the peninsula; but finding 
his numbers insufficient to garrison any new works, 
the design was abandoned. 

33. 4 The English generals, perceiving the advan- 
tage that would be gained if their artillery could be 
planted on the summit of Mount Defiance, immedi- 
ately undertook the arduous work ; and on the fifth* 
of the month the road was completed, the artillery 
mounted, and ready to open its fire on the following 
morning. 5 St. Clair, seeing no possibility of a longer 
resistance, immediately took the resolution to evacuate 
the works, while yet it remained in his power to do so. 
Accordingly, on the night b of the fifth of July, the fires 
were suffered to burn out, the terns were struck, and 
amid profound silence the troops commenced their re- 
treat ; but, unfortunately, the accidental burning of a 
building on Mount Independence, revealed their situa- 
tion to the enemy. 

34. 6 On the following day, the baggage, stores, and 




Lake George, on a peninsula of about 500 
acres, elevated 100 feet above Lake Cham- 
plain, and surrounded, on three sides, by 
rocks steep and difficult of access. The 
only approachable point to the fort was 
across the neck of the peninsula, a part of 
which was covered by a swamp, and the 
other part defended by a breastwork. It 
was, however, commanded by Mount Defi- 
ance, a hill 750 feet high, on the S. side of 
the outlet, and one mile distant. Mount 
Independence is an elevation half a mile dis 
tant, on the opposite side of the Lake. (See 
Map.) 



CHAP. HI.] EVENTS OF 1777. 241 

provision?, which, had been embarked on South River, 1777. 
or Wood Creek," were overtaken and destroyed at ^ N , „_ m \ 
Skeenesborough. b The rear division of the main b. Notop. 
body, which had retreated by way of Mount Independ- t^.^fn, 
ence. was overtaken at Hubbardton,* on the morning 
of the 7th, and, after an obstinate action, was routed July 7. 
■with considerable loss. At length the remnants of the 
several divisions arrived at Fort Edward, on the Hud- c. July 12. 
son, the head-quarters of General Schuyler ; having 
lest, in the late reverses, nearly two hundred pieces of 
artillery, besides a large quantity of warlike stores and 
provisions. 

35. l Unable to retain Fort Edward with his small 1. nkat 
force, which then numbered but little more than four "u'cntai 
thousand men, General Schuyler soon after evacuated ^ursil&i 
that pos^ and gradually fell back along the river until 

he had retired to the islands at the mouth of the Mo- 
hawk. 2 Here, by the arrival of the New England ^.\vhatr& 
militia under General Lincoln, and several detach- £$%£%& 
ments from the regular army, his number was in- t^recetveJ 
creased, by the middle of August, to thirteen thousand 
men. 3 The celebrated Polish hero, Kosciusko, was in s.whowas 
the army as chief engineer. neeri 

36. 4 General Schuyler, in his retreat, had so ob- 1. m m t mf- 
structed the roads, by destroying the bridges, and fell- ^ullrgoynz 
ing immense trees in the way, that Burgoyne did not toe t "™ wl ' 
reach Fort Edward until the 30th of July. s Here " July 30. 
finding his army greatly straitened for want of pro- 5 j ie "°tem d P f 
visions, and it being difficult to transport them from ^/^'^ 
Ticonderoga, through the wilderness, he dispatched 11 Q . Aug. e, 
Colonel Baum, a German officer of destination, with 

500 men, to seize a quantity of stores which the Amer- 
icans had collected at Bennington. t 

37. 'This party, being met e near Bennington by e . Aug. 16. 
Colonel Stark, at the head of the New Hampshire «• }}' h p? s 

.... ■ 1 t r i 1 p sald "J the 

muitia, was entirely defeated ; and a re ntorcement defeat oj m 
which arrived the same day, after the discomfiture, Banning- 
was likewise defeated by Coionel Warner, who fortu- ton 

* Hnbbardton is in Rutland Co., Vermont, about seventeen miles S.E. from Ticon 
detusa. 

t HennivgUm village, in Bennington County, Vermont, is about thirty-five miles S.E 
from Fort Edward. The battle was fought on the western border of the town of Beu- 
ninaton, and partly within the town of Hoosick, iu the state of New York. 

11 



242 



THE REVOLtrncW. 



[PART nt 



1777. nately arrived with a continental regiment at the same 
time. The loss of the enemy in the two engagements 
was about seven hundred men, — the greater part pris- 
oners, — while that of the Americans was less than one 
hundred. 
i. what was 38. 'The battle of Bennington, so fortunate to the 
thebiuilff Americans, caused a delay of the enemy at Fort Ed- 
Be "on? s ~ ward nearly a month ; during which time news ar- 
rived of the defeat of the expedition against Fort 
Schuyler.* 2 This fortress, under the command of 
Colonel Gansevoort, being invested 1 by the enemy, — 



a. Aug. 3. 
2. Give an 
account of „. , TT , . ,, - . 

ihesiegeand Lreneral Herkimer collected the militia in its vicinity, 
Fort'schuy- and marched to its relief; but falling into an ambus- 



b. Aug. 



cade, he was defeated b and slain. At the same time, 

however, a successful sortie from the fort penetrated the 

camp of the besiegers, killed many, and carried off a 

c. Aug. 22. large quantity of baggage. Soon after, on the news of 

3 - g2 ffl the approach of Arnold to the relief of the fort, the 

m ofBu e r nt sava g e allies of the British fled, and St. Leger was 

goynei forced to abandon the siege. 

d i3? < i4. t ' 39. 3 About the middle of September Burgoyne cross 
ed' 1 the Hudson with his whole 
army, and took a position on the 
heights and plains of Saratoga. f 



FORT SCHUYLER. 













* Fort Schuyler was situated at the head 
of navigation of the Mohawk, and at the car- 
rying place between that river and Woo* 
Creek, whence boats passed to Oswego. In 
1758 Fort Stanwix was erected on this spot, 
but in 1776 it was repaired and named For, 
Schuyler. The Fort occupied a part of the 
site of the present village of Rome, In Oneida 
County. It has been confounded by some 
with a Fort Schuyler which was built, in the 
French wars, near the place wheie Utica 
now stands, but which, at the time of the re 
volution, had gone to decay. (See Map.) 

\ Saratoga is a town on the west bank of 
the Hudson, from twenty-six to thirty-two 
miles north from Albany. Fish Creek runs 
through the northern part of the town. On 
the north side of its entrance into the Hud 
son is the village of Schuylerville, immedi 
ately south of which, on the ruins of Fort 
Hardy, which was built during the French 
and Indian wars, occurred the surrender of 
Burgoyne. The place then called Saratoga 
was a small settlement on the south side of 
Pish Creek.— (The Map on the left shows 
the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater; that 
on the right, the camps of Gates and Bur 
goyne, at the time of the surrender.; 




CIIAP. UI.J EVENTS OF 17T7. 243 

'General Gates, who had recently been appointed to the 
command of the northern American army, had moved 
forward from the mouth of the Mohawk, and was then 
encamped near Stillwater.* Burgoyne continued to 
advance, until, on the 13th, he had arrived within two 
miles of the American camp. 2 On the 19th of Sep- Sept. 19. 
tember some skirmishing commenced between scout- %£%£?$ 
ing- parties of the two armies, which soon brought on "u/lf'J"'. 
a general battle, that continued three hours without water. 
any intermission. Night put an end to the contest. 
The Americans withdrew to their camp, while the 
enemy passed the night under arms on the field of 
battle. Both parties claimed the victory, but the loss 
of the enemy was the greatest. 

41. 3 Burgoyne now intrenched himself for the pur- %.wnatthe% 
pc%e of awaiting the expected co-operation of General goynedo, 
Clinton from New York. His Canadian and Indian l M?//"e" t t- 
forces began to desert him, and, cut off in a great ^"'^■m'ft 
measure from the means of obtaining supplies of pro- 
visions, he was soon obliged to curtail his soldiers' ra- 
tions. 4 On the 7th of October, an advance of the ene- 0ct 7 
my towards the American left wing, again brought on «• Give an 
a general battle, which was fought on nearly the same the bauie of 
ground as the former, and with the most desperate 'oxl'tlr 
bravery on both sides ; but at length the British gave 

way, with the loss of some of their best •officers, a 
considerable quantity of baggage, and more than four 
hundred men. while the loss of the Americans did not 
exceed eighty. 

42. 5 On the night 1 after the battle the enemy fell a - 0ct - T < 8 - 
back to a stronger position, and the Americans in- s 'thenexf* 
stantly occupied their abandoned camp. 8 Soon after, ^'thTtwo 
Burgoyne retired 5 to Saratoga, and endeavored to re- arm ' es? 

o7 b Oct. S 9 

treat to Fort Edward ; but finding himself surrounded, e . whatar- 
his provisions reduced to a three days' supply, and de- cl aTien?fh 
spairing of relief from General Clinton, he was reduced co>» pe l'ed 
to the humiliating necessity ol proposing terms of ca- surrender? 
pitulation ; and, on the 17tk of October he surrendered ct. n 
his army prisoners of war. 

* The town of Stillwater is on the W. bank of the Hudson, from eurhteen to twenty- 
fix miles N. from Albany. The village of the same name adjoins the ri"er, about 
.wenty-one miles N. from Albany. In this town! three or four miles N. from \he vii- 
age, were fought the battles of Sept 19th and Oct. 7Ui. (See Map, previcus page x 



244 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART ni 



1777. 43. 'The Americans thereby acquired a fine train 
of brrf.ss artillery, nearly five thousand muskets, and an 
immense quantity of other ordinary implements of war. 
The news of this brilliant victory caused the greatest 
exultation throughout the country, and doubts were no 
longer entertained of the final independence of the 
American colonies. 

44 2 The army of Gates was immediately put in 
iectqfGen. motion to stop the devastations of General Clinton, 
who had proceeded up the Hudson with a force of 
3000 men, with the hope of making a diversion in fa- 
vor of Burgoyne. 3 Forts Clinton* and Montgomery, 
after a severe assault, fell 1 into his hands, — and the 
village of Kingston 1 " was wantonly burned, — but on 
hearing the news of Burgoyne's surrender, Clinton 
immediately withdrew to New York. -At the same 
time, Ticonderoga and all the forts on the northern 
frontier were abandoned by the British, and occupied 
by the Americans, s In the latter part of October, 4000 
of the victorious troops of the north proceeded to join 



1. What were 
the advan- 
tages and 
happy ef- 
fects i if this 
victory i 



E. Wlial loos 
the next ob- 



i What is 
said of the 
movements 
of General 
Clinton I 
a. Oct. 6. 
9. N. p. 124. 
c. Oct. 13. 
4. Of the 
northern 
posts } 



FORTS ON THE HUDSON. 



5. Of the 
destination 
of the troops 

of the north/ t h e arm y f Washington ; and we now return d to the 

U. See p. 239. * " . .' 

scene of events in the vicinity of Philadelphia. 
th^Amerf- 45. 6 A short distance below Philadelphia, the Amer- 
Kinman a dof icans had fortified Forts Mifninf and Mercer,! on °P" 
th wafeT P os i te sides of the Delaware, by which they retained 
7. Give an the command of the river, and thu§ prevented any 
Thfdeflnce communication between the British army and their 
"torment neet ? men moored at the head of Delaware Bay. 

46. 7 Both these forts were attacked by 
the enemy on the 22d of October. The at- 



* Fort Clinton was on the VV. side of Hudson River, at the 
northern extremity of Rockland County, and on the S. side 
of Peploaps Kill. On the north side of the same stream, in 
Orange County, was Fort Montgomery. (See Map.) 

t Fort Mifflin was at the lower extremity of Mud Island, 
near the Pennsylvania side of the Delaware, seven or eight 
miles below Philadelphia. It 
is still kept in repair, and is gar 
risoned by U. S. troops. 

| Fort Mercer, now in rains, 
was a little above, at Red Bank, 
on the New Jersey side, and lit 
tie more than a mile distant 
from Foil Mifflin. It was then, 
and is now, enshrouded by a 
gloomy pine forest. (Soe Map.) 





CHAP, in.] EVENTS OF 1777. 245 

tack on Fort Mercer, then garrisoned by less than 500 1777. 

men, was made by nearly 2000 Hessian grenadiers, who. . Forts 

after forcing an extensive outwork,were finally compelled il ^ 1 fS' u ^ ni 

to retire with a loss of nearly 400 of their number. The 

Hessian general, Count Donop, was mortally wounded, 

and fell into the hands of the Americans. The attack 

on Fort Mifflin was at first alike unsuccessful ; but after 

a series of attacks, the fort was at length abandoned, 11 a Xov 16 

—the garrison retiring to Fort Mercer. In a few days 

Fort Mercer was abandoned, 6 and the navigation of b. Nov. is. 

tie Delaware was thus opened to the enemy's shipping. 

47. ^oon after these events, Washington advanced other move- 
to White Marsh,* where numerous unsuccessful at- ''"fJoarmi'ef 
tempts c were made by Howe to draw him into an en- "[^neTi 
gagement; after which, the British general retired" 1 to c. From the 
winter quarters in Philadelphia. 2 Washington en- 2d df D e e e 8th 
camped c at Valley Forge, f where his troops passed a d. Dec. 8. 
rigorous winter, suffering- extreme distress, from the e - Dec - Um 

• » i ■ . 2 Whet is 

want of suitable supplies of food and clothing. 3 Many sa>a of the 
officers, urrable to obtain their pay, and disheartened d ail e Twer°- 
with the service, resigned their commissions : and . ™ nsf . 

.' ° .1.3. Of restg 

murmurs arose m various quarters, not only in the nations; 

, i-ii ill murmurs, 

army, but even among poweriul and popular leaders $-c. i 
in congress. 

48. 4 The brilliant victory at Saratoga was contrasted 4. of the 
with the reverses of Washington in New York, New ^f",/,° 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania ; and a plot was originated Ge l l n stont h ' 
for placing General Gates at the head of the armies. 
Washington, however, never relaxed his exertions in 

the cause of his country ; and the originators of the 
plot at length received the merited indignation of the 
army and the people. 

•*9. s After the colonies had thrown off their alle- 5 -}Y h f! 1 ' 
giance to the British crown, and had established sep- necessity of 

^i . . -i 1 c .1 some load 

arate governments in the states, there arose the farther of union 
necessity for some common bond of union, which would a "siaus l t 
better enable them to act in concert, as one nation. 

* White Marsh is situated on Wi^ahiekon Creek, eleven miles N.W. from Phiiadcl 
phia. (See Map, p. 15-.!.) 

t Valley Furge is a deep and raized hollow, on the S.W. side nf the Schuylkr 
twenty miles N.W. from Philadelphia. Upon the mountainous flanks of this vallf / 
and upon a vast plain which overlooks it and the adjoining country, the army of Waj i- 
injrton encamped. Through the valley flows Valley Creek. At its jurciion with !.aa 
Schuylkill is now the small village of Valley Forge. (See Map, p. 237.) 



246 



TIIE REVOLUTION. 



[PART m. 



a. 1776. 

B. Of the ac- 
tion of Con 
greis re- 
spectin. 



1777. L In the summer of 1775, Benjamin Franklin had pvo- 
7. of the posed, to the American congress articles of confedera- 
propo»tiion tion and union among the colonies ; but the majority 
Frankim? in congress not being then prepared for so decisive ;* 
step, the subject was for the time dropped, but was re- 
sumed again Shortly before the declaration of inde- 
pendence, in the following year. 

50. a On the 11th of June, a congress appointed r 
committee to prepare a plan of confederation. A plan 
was reported by the committee in July following, and, 

P fediration'i a ^ er various changes, was finally adopted by congress 
s.o/ the rat- on the 15th of November, 1777. "Various causes 
duVr'tici'es prevented the immediate ratification of these articles 
%io°nbl J the by all the states ; but at length those states which 
%tates? claimed the western lands having ceded them to the 
Union, for the common benefit of the whole, the arti- 
cles of confederation were ratified by Maryland, the 
last remaining state, on the first of March, 1781 ; at 
which time they became the constitution of the country. 

51. 4 The confederation, however, amounted to little 
more than a mere league of friendship between the 

„ TO , , states : for although it invested congress with many ol 

&. What led . ' - & . P J 

too. region the powers oi sovereignty, it was detective as a per- 
teme, maiient government, owing to the want of all means to 

t see p. 233. enforce its decrees. B While the states were bound to 
gether by a sense of common dan- 
ger, the evils of the plan were little 
noticed ; but after the close of the 
war they became so prominent as 
to make a revision of the system 
necessarv. b 



4. What was 
the charac- 
ter of the 
confederal 




OENEUAL OATE&. 



CHAPTER IV. 

EVENTS OF 1113, 



e. matiiad 1. "Previous to the defeat of Burgoyne, the Britis 
l mifistry h ministry had looked forward, with confidence, to the 
r «ySf speedy termination of the war, by the conquest of the 
ete - f rebellious colonies. The minority in parliament en- 



CHAP. IV.] EVENTS OF 1T78. 247 

deavored, in vain, to stay the course of violent meas- lTYS. 
ures, and the warlike policy of the ministers was sus- 
tained by powerful majorities in both houses. 'But 1. What ef- 
the unexpected news of the surrender of the entire surrender 
northern British army, produced a great change in the ernarmy' 
aspect of affairs, and plunged the nation into a dejec- P ruducel 
tion as profound as their hopes had been sanguine, and 
the promises of ministers magnificent. 

2. 2 Lord North, compelled by me force of public »• Feb. 
opinion, now came forward 1 with two conciliatory \ } X''e'iheT 
bids., by which England virtually conceded all that br ^, l f r f^ r ' 
had been the cause of controversy between the two L %f/%£ th * 
countries, and offered more than the colonies had asked were they 
or desired previous to the declaration of independence. 

These bills passed rapidly through parliament, and 
received the royal assent. 5 b. March u. 

3. Commissioners were then sent to America, with 3 What pro . 
proposals for an amicable adjustment of differences ; but %£tetov>n- 
these were promptly rejected by the congress, which sr* s *. and 

r l j j j o / to fiat ioas 

refused to treat with Great Britain until she should tiieresuiti 

either withdraw her fleets and armies, or, in positive 

and express terms, acknowledge the independence of 

the states. 4 One of the commissioners then attempted 4 Uliatun . 

to ffain the same ends by private intrigue and bribery, worthy act 

° . , . ii ii c . J ' is mention- 

— which coming to the knowledge of congress, that ' ed. and 
body declared it incompatible with their honor to hold congress t*- 
any correspondence or intercourse with him. 

4. s Soon after the rejection of the British terms of 5 . niiae 
accommodation, congress received the news of the ac- ^™//$£*^ 
knowled^ment of American independence by the court didcongres* 

p -n B ii l • p J r ii- SlJ0 " a f ter 

oi h ranee, and the conclusion or a treaty of alliance receive! 
and commerce between the two countries. 6 The treaty Feb 6 
vvas signed the sixth of February, by Benjamin Frank- 6. By whom 
lin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee, on the part of Amer- treaty sign- 
ica, and was ratified by congress on the fourth of May w e ^nran- 
following. &*■* 

5. 7 In the second part of the treaty it was stipulated, 7.whatwen 
that, should war occur between France and England, tfomoftha 
the two parties should assist each other with counsel tTeaty 
and with arms, and that neither should conclude truce 

or peace with Great Britain without the consent of the 8. how wo* 
other. 8 This treaty was considered equivalent to a regarded" 



248 THE REVOLUTION. [PART 111 

1TT§. declaration of war by France against Great Britain ; 
and the two European powers made the most active 
preparations for the approaching contest. 
a. April is. 6. l A French fleet, under the command of Count 
l ' n 'iie at 'm re D'Estaing, was dispatched 1 to America, with the de- 
hosniemccs- sign of blockading the British fleet in the Delaware, 
France? while Washington should hold the land forces in check 
2 whanoere m New Jersey. 2 But Admiral Howe had already an- 
"'1t' l0 f e id ticipated the scheme, and, before the arrival of D'.Es 
Ki : nu tiuwe taing, had sailed for New York, where all the British 
. cuntoni forces had been ordered to concentrate. General Clin- 
ton, who had succeeded General Howe in the com- 
mand of the land forces, evacuated Philadelphia on 
Jane is. the 18th of June, and with about eleven thousand men, 
and an immense quantity of baggage and provisions, 
commenced his retreat towards New York. 

3. of wash- 7. 3 Washington, whose numbers exceeded those of 
xngtoni Clinton, followed cautiously with the main body of his 

army, while detachments were sent forward to co- 
operate with the Jersey militia in harassing the ene- 

4. what pre- m J: an( l retarding their march. 4 The commander-in- 
gcnerat&i- chief was anxious to try a general engagement, but 
gagcment? hj s opinion was overruled in a council of officers. 

5. Neverthe- sNevertheless, when the British had arrived at Mon- 

less,whator- . M __ T ' . .... . , 

aers aid Lee mouth * Washington, unwilling to permit them to 
receive reSiC \y t ne se cure heights of Middletownf without a 

battle, ordered General Lee, who had been previously 

exchanged, to attack their rear. 
6. what 8. 6 On the morning; of the 28th, the lio-ht-horse of 

events oc- T n -, i-l.i.1 i . i • 

cuiredon Laiayette advanced against the enemy, but, bemg 
'qfthewihf briskly charged by Cornwallis and Clinton, was forced 
to fall back. Lee, surprised by the sudden charge of 
the enemy, ordered a retreat across a morass in his rear, 
for the purpose of gaining a more favorable position ; 
but part of his troops, mistaking the order, contin- 

battle of monmouth. . *, Monmmtk, how the village of Freehold, 

in Monmouth County, is about eighteen miles 

S.E. from New Brunswick. The principal 

! part of the battle was fought about a mile and 

I a half N.W. from the village, on the roar] to 

Englishtown. (See Map; also Map, p. 220.) 

t Middletown is a small village twelve miles 

N.E. from Monmouth, on the road to Sandy 

-j Hook. The Heights mentioned are the Nevi- 

sink Hills, bordering Sandy Hook Bay on the 



jj south. (See Map, p. 226.) 



CHAP. IV ] EVENTS OF 1778. 249 

ued to retreat, and Lee was compelled to follow, briskly 177§. 
pursued by the enemy. At this moment, Washington, 
coming up, and both surprised and vexed at observing 
the retreat, or rather flight of the troops, addressed 
Lee with some warmth, and ordered him to rally his 
troops and oppose the enemy. 

0. 'Stuns: bv the reproaches of his sreneral, Lee 1. rsiu 

, . ° •> ■ r . n j i • i ■ i 'fie pro:, .e-n 

made extreme exertions to rally, and, having disposed and end of 
his troops on more advantageous ground, opposed a pow- ' e M M ' 
erful check to the enemy, until at length, overpowered 
by numbers, he was forced to fail back, which he did, 
however, without any confusion. The main body soon 
coming up in separate detachments, the battle became 
general, and was continued until night put an end to 
the contest. 2 Washington kept his troops under arms 2. wimtoe-- 
during the night, designing to renew the battle on the /"//oTy/«5 
coming morning ; but Clinton, in the mean time, si- «***" 
lently drew off his troops, and proceeded rapidly on his 
route towards New York. 

10. 3 The British left upon the field of battle about z.wnatims- 
three hundred killed; while the loss of the Americans M \ a uu,df~ 
was less than seventy. On both sides many died of 

the intense heat of the weather, added to the fatigue of 
the day. 4 General Lee, who had been deeply irritated 4. wimtwa* 
by the reprimand of Washington on the day of battle, "gcLlm/ 
addressed to him two haughty and offensive letters, 
demanding reparation. 'The result was the arrest of 5 m iat f ur . 
Lee, and his trial, by a court-martial, on the charges "of/J,^ 
of disobedience of orders, misbehavior before the ene- 
my, and disrespect to the commander-in-chief. He 
<vas found guilty, and was suspended from his com- 
mand one year. He never rejoined the army, but 
died in seclusion at Philadelphia, just before the close 
of the war. 

1 1. 'After the battle of Monmouth, the British pro- 6 -"^^" s 
cceded without further molestation to Sandy Hook, quent move- 
whence they were taken on board the British fleet, tvoarmie*? 
ind transported 1 to New York. Washington pro- a. July 5. 
needed to White Plains, where he remained until late b.N.p.234. 
in autumn, when he retired to winter quarters at Mid- "L^fJ^ 
dlebrook, b in New Jersey. 7 On the 11th of July the n&gjfL. 
fleet of Count D'Estaing appeared off Sandy Hook, tarns* 

11* 



250 THE REVOLUTION. I.PAE.T m. 

IT 7 8. but being unable to pass the bar at the entrance of 
New York Bay, was forced t«. abandon the design of 
attacking the British fleet, and, by the advice of Wash- 
1. of the higton, sailed for Newport, in Rhode Island. 'Soon 
B jieea a ^ ter tne departure of D'Estaing, several vessels arrived 
at New York, and joined the British fleet ; when Ad- 
miral Howe, although his squadron was still inferior 
to that of the French, hastened to Rhode Island for the 
relief of General Pigot. 
^wiiatioerc 12. 2 In the mean time General Sullivan, with a de- 
menu™/ tachment from Washington's army, and with reinforce- 
iuln cl n ments from New England, had arrived at Providence, 
Greenland with the design of co-operating with the French fleet 
a aye. e. ^ an attack on the British force stationed at Newport. 
Sullivan was subsecpuently joined by Generals Greene 

a. n. p. 85, and Lafayette, and the army took post at Tiverton,"- 
p. ii2. ' whence, on the 9th of August, it crossed the eastern 
Aug. 9. passage of the bay, and landed on the northern part of 

b. N.p.214. Rhode Island." 

. „„ , 13. 3 A simultaneous attack by land and sea had 

3. What pre- . i t-» ■ ■ i i i ■ 

vented an been planned against the British ; but, on the morning 
Aug. io. °f the tenth, the fleet of Lord Howe appeared in sight, 
and D'Estaing immediately sailed out to give himbat- 
4. what tie. 4 While each commander was striving to get the 
ev imcedf' advantage of position, and at the very moment when 
they were about to engage, a violent storm arose, which 

c. Aug. i2. parted the combatants, and greatly damaged the fleets. 
Aug. 20. 14. 5 On the 20th, D'Estaing returned to Newport, 

5 " dluhe T ^ Ut soon sailed 3 to Boston to repair damages, contrary 
Jle $aiu en t0 ^ e stron §' remonstrances of the Americans. The 

d. Aug. 22. British fleet returned to New York. *General Sulli- 
i. what hap- van m the mean time, had advanced to the siege of 

pened to * > , p 

the army of Newport, but seeing: the allied fleet retire, he was forced 

Sullivan, in, • i i i • mi -n v i i 1 

the mean to withdraw his army. Ine Lnghsh pursued, and 
e Aug. 29. attacked* 5 him in the northern part of the island, but 
were repulsed with considerable loss. On the night 
Aug. 3o. of the 30th Sullivan regained the mainland, narrowly 
i. Aug. 31. escaping being intercepted by General Clinton, who 
\ccount a of arrived the nexf day, with a force of four thousand 
the ixpedi- m en and a light squadron, for the relief of Newport. 

/icmofGen. ,_ __. ..° -^ ' ^ i /-«v , 

Gre V and 15. binding JNewport secure, General Ghnton re- 
gZZ^m. T turned to New York, and soon after detached General 



CHAP. IV.] EVENTS OF 1778. 251 



a. Sept. 5. 



Grey, on an expedition against the southern shores of 1Y7S. 
Massachusetts, and the adjoining islands. Arriving 11 
in Buzzard's Bay,* a place of resort for American pri- 
vateers, he burned about 70 sail of shipping, — destroyed 
a large amount of property in New Bedfordf and Fair 
Haven, and made a descent 1 - upon Martha's Vineyard. b . s eP t. 7. 
A similar expedition, under the command of Captain c . sailed 
Ferguson, was soon after undertaken against Little Scpt - 3 °- 
Egg Harbor,;]; in New Jersey, by which a considerable 
amount of stores fell into the hands' 1 of the enemy. d. oci. e. 

1 6. l In the early part of the summer, a force of about 1. Give an 
!600 tories and Indians, under the command of Col. "tnTXM 
John Butler, a noted and cruel tory leader, appeared "Sang? 
near the flourishing settlements in the valley of Wy- 
oming,^ situated on the banks of the Susquehannah. 

About 400 of the settlers, who marched out to meet 
the enemy, were defeated e with the loss of nearly their e. July 3. 
whole number. The fort at Wyoming was then be- 
sieged, but the garrison, being drawn out to hold a 
parley with the besiegers, was attacked, and nearly the 
whole number was slain. f f. July 4. 

17. 2 On the morning following the day of the battle, 2 . Relate th 
humane terms of surrender were agreed upon be- {^'S CT tn % 
tween the besieged and the enemy ; and the survivors assatanu. 
in the fort departed for their homes in fancied secur- 
ity. But the savages, thirsting for blood and plun- 
der, could not be restrained. They spread over the 
valley, and at night-fall began their work of death. 

The tomahawk spared neither age nor sex ; the dwell- 
ings of the inhabitants were burned ; and the hate 
blooming paradise was converted into a scene of 
desolation. Only a few of the settlers escaped. ^wtSmv 

18. 3 A retaliatory expedition was undertaken in expeditions 
October, against the Indians on the upper branches of on-taken? 

* Buzzard's Bay lies on the S. coast of Massachusetts, E. from Rhode Island The 
distance from the head of this bay across the peninsula of Cape Cod is only five miles 

+ ■M'ew Bedford is a large village on the W. side of an arm of the sea that sets up from 
Buzzard's Bay. A bridge near the centre of the village connects it with Fair Haven 
Jii the E. side of the stream. 

t Little Egg Harbor Bay, River, and Town, lie at the southeastern extremity of Bur- 
•ingtrm Co., about sixty-five miles S. from Sandy Hook. The British troops passed 
\bout fifteen miles up the river. 

§ The name Wyoming was applied to a beautiful valley on both, sides of the Susque- 
nannah in the present county of Luzerne, Pennsylvania, The small village of Wyo- 
ming is on the W. gide of the Susqueiannah, nearly opposite Wilkesbarre. 



252 THE REVOLUTION. JI *RT ID. 

17T§. the Susquehannah ; and one eirly in the following 

year, by Colonel Clark, against the settlements estab- 

i.wuhwhat lished by the Canadians west of the Alleghanies. 'The 
success f t01 .y settlers, filled with dismay, hastened to swear al- 
legiance to the United States ; and the retreats of the 
hostile tribes on the Wabash* were penetrated, and 
their country desolated. 
2. what is 19. 2 In November, a repetition of the barbarities of 
'attaffc'on Wyoming was attempted by a band of tories, regulars, 
v'au&yi an d Indians, who made an attack* upon the Cherry 
i.Nov.ii,i2 Valleyf settlement in New York. Many of the in- 
habitants were killed, and others were carried into 
captivity ; but the fort, containing about 200 soldiers, 
3 or the was not ta ' cen - 3 These excursions were the only 
remainder events, requiring notice, which took place in the mid- 

of the year .. i i ■ «•■ i i ■> 

17783 die and northern sections ol the country during the re- 
mainder of the year 1778. The scene of events was 
now changed to the south, which henceforth became 
the principal theatre on which the British conducted 
offensive operations. 
b. Nov. s. 20. 4 Early in November the Count D'Estaing sailed b 
^'themllf- 6 for the West Indies, for the purpose of attacking the . 
me 'hostae he British dependencies in that quarter. On the same 
jieets? (j a y 5 the British admiral Hotham sailed from Sandy 
ov. 3. fjook . an( j j n December, he was followed by Admiral 
Byron, who had superseded Admiral Howe in the 
5. what command of the British fleet. s In November Colonel 
occurred in Campbell was despatched 11 from New York, by Gen- 
d! Nov 27 era ^ Clinton, with a force of about 2000 men, against 

Georgia, the most feeble of the southern provinces, 
e. Dec. 29. 21. 6 Late in December the troops landed e near Sa- 
account'of vannah, which was then defended by the American 
SMJcmnaL S eneTa h Robert Howe, with about 600 regular troops, 
and a few hundred militia. General Howe had re- 
cently returned from an unsuccessful expedition against 
East Florida, and his troops, still enfeebled by disease, 
were in a poor condition to face the enemy. Being 

* The Wabash River rises in the western part of Ohio, and after running a short dis- 
tance N.W. into Indiana, passes S.W. through that state, and thence south to Ohio 
River, forming about half the western boundary of Indiana. 

t Cherry Valley, town and village, is in Otsego Co., N. Y., fifty two miles W. from Al- 
bany, and about fifteen 8. from the Mohawk River. It was fir's t settled In 1740. The 
luxuriant growth of Wild Cherry gave it the name of Cherry Valley, which was for a 
long timo applied to a large section of country S. and W of the present village. 



CHAP. V.] 



EVENTS OF 1779. 



253 



attacked* near the city, and defeated, with the broken 
remains of his army he retreated up the Savannah, and 
took shelter by crossing into South Carolina. 

22. 'Thus the capital of Georgia fell into the hands 
of the enemy ; — the only important acquisition which 
they had made during the year. The two hostile 
armies at the north, after two years' maneuvering, had 
been brought back to nearly the same relative posi- 
tions which they occupied at the close of 1776 ; and the 
offending party in the beginning, now intrenching 
himself on New York Island, was reduced to the use 
of the pickaxe and the spade for defence. 2 In the lan- 
guage of Washington, " The hand of Providence had 
been so conspicuous in all this, that he who lacked 
faith must have been worse than an infidel ; and he, 
more than wicked, who had not grat'vude to acknowl- 
edge his obligations.'" 



1779. 



1. What is 

said of the 
result of t/if 
campaign, 

and tlie rel- 
ative posi- 
tions of the 
two armies 
at its dose ? 



2. How teas 
this result 
viewed by 
Washing- 
ton! 




CHAPTER V. 

EVENTS OF 17 7 9 

1. 3 The military operations dur- 
inst the year 1779, were carried 
on in three separate quarters. 
The British force at the south was 
engaged in prosecuting the plan 
of reducing Georgia and South 
Carolina; the forces of Washing- oenekal wayne. 

ton and Clinton were employed in the northern sec- 3 - J7 °"' w ' re 
tion of the union ; and the fleets of France and En- 
land contended for superiority in the West Indies. 

2. 4 Soon after the fall of Savannah, General Prevost, 
with a body of troops from East Florida, captured b the 
fort at Sunbury,* the only remaining military post in ™a«uh% 
Georgia ; after which, he united his forces with those /( %J£J!r' 
of Colonel Campbell, and took the chief command of 
the southern British army. An expedition which he 
sent against Port Royal, in South Carolina, was at- vk^T™* 

• Snnbury Is on the S. side of Medway Elver, at the head of St Catharine's Sound, 
about twenty-eight miles S. W. from Savannah. 



operc 
lions of the 

year 1779 
conducted ? 

b Jan. 9. 

«. What 



254 THE REVOLUTION. [PART IIL 

Vt*Z9. tacked by the Carolinians under General Moultrie, 

and defeated with severe loss. 
i. why aid 3. l \n order to encourage and support the loyalists, 
advanceto large numbers of whom were supposed to reside in the 
Augusta? interior an d northern portions of the province, the Brit- 
a. what is ish advanced to Augusta. 2 A body of tories, having 
T bodyoftt> risen in arms, and having placed themselves under the 
Vol %oyci command of Colonel Boyd, proceeded along the west- 
ern frontiers of Carolina in order to join the royal army. 
committing great devastations and cruelties on the way. 
When near the British posts, they were encountered* 
by Colonel Pickens at the head of a party of Carolina 
militia, and, in a desperate engagement, were totally 

a. Feb. H. defeated."- Colonel Boyd was killed, and seventy of 

his men were condemned to death, as traitors to their 

country, — but only five were executed. 

b. what ex- 4. s £ncouraged by this success, Genera- Lincoln, 

p aJn. a Lin Ui wuo had previously been placed in command. of the 

across er the. sout hern department, and who had already advanced 

savannah? to the west bank of the Savannah, sent a detachment 

of nearly 2000 men, under General Ash, across the 

river, for the purpose of repressing the incursions of 

the enemy, and confining them to the low country 

near the ocean. 

b. March 3. 5. 'Having taken a station on Brier Creek,f Gen- 
account a qf era ^ Ash was surprised and defeated 11 by General Pte- 
the defeat of Y0SC w itli the loss of nearly his whole army. Most oi 

Gen. Ash. ,'.... J . ■ J 

the militia, who rled at the first fire oi the enemy, were 

either drowned in the river, or swallowed up in the 

i.withwhat surrounding marshes. 6 The subjugation of Georgia 

m General was complete ; and General Prevost now busied him- 

Prevostnext . r t J . . • , 

tusy him- self in securing the farther co-operation oi the loyalists, 
and in re-establishing, for a brief period, a royal legis- 
lature. 
». what it 6. 'Although, by the repulse at Brier Creek, Gen- 
"s'itultim era ' Lincoln had lost one-fourth of his army, yet, by 
'desi&mvr tne extreme exertions of the Carolinians, by the middle 
Gen. Lin- of April he was enabled to enter the field anew, at the 
head of more than five thousand men. Leaving Gen- 



* At Kettle Creek, on the S.W. side of the Savannah River. 

t Brier Creek enters the Savannah from the west, fifty-three miles N. from Savan- 
nah The battle was fought on the N. bank, near the Savannah. 



CHAP. V.] EVENTS OF 1779. 255 

eral Moultrie to watch the movements of General Pre- 1779. 
vost, he commenced* his march up the left bank of the a ~ ., ~ 
Savannah, with the design of entering Georgia by the 
way of Augusta. 

7. 'General Prevost, in the mean time, had marched \.whatwen 
upon Charleston, before which he appeared on the 11th movements 
of May, and, on the following day, summoned the town °armiIsT 
to surrender ; but the approach of Lincoln soon com- 
pelled him to retreat. On the 20th of June the Amer- 
icans attacked 1 " a division of the enemy advantageously ki 

J o J b. June JO. 

posted at the pass of Stono Ferry,* but, after a severe 
action, were repulsed with considerable loss. The 
British soon after established a post at Beaufort, on c . see Map 
Port Royal Island, after which the main body of the p " **• 
army retired to Savannah. The unhealthiness of the 
season prevented, during several months, any farther 
active operations of the two armies. 

8. 2 While these events were transpiring at the South, 2. Howioere 
the forces of Clinton, at the North, were employed in ^cunton 
various predatory incursions ; — ravaging the coasts, and e "^ m ^^ t 
plundering the country, with the avowed object of ren- timef 
dering the colonies of as little avail as possible to their 

new allies the French. 

9. 3 In February, Governor Tryon, at the head of d N.p.224. 
about 1500 men, proceeded from Kingsbridge, d as far 3. Give an 
as Horse Neck, in Connecticut, where he destroyed aoi U Tnj- 
some salt works, and plundered the inhabitants, but ^^! 
otherwise did little damage. General Putnam, being a nj C ofPut- 
accidentally at Horse Neck, e hastily collected about a na ^'' ea ' 
hundred men, and having placed them, with a couple c. n. p. 122 
of old field-pieces, on the high ground near the meet- a p. £^. p ' 
ing-house, continued to fire upon the enemy until the 
British dragoons were ordered to charge upon him ; 

ivhen, ordering his men to retreat and form on a hill 
at a little distance, he put spurs to his steed, and plunged 
down the precipice at the church ; escaping uninjured 4 . \rkatt$ 
by the many balls that were fired at him in his descent. %£$hij£ 

10. 4 In an expedition against Virginia, public and a * a Jl'*! a v ? iT 
private property, to a large amount, was destroyed f at f. W u. 

* Stono Ferry, ten miles W. from Charleston, is the passage across Sto)io Ricer, lead 
tag from John's Island to the mainland. 



256 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART HI. 



1779. 



I. Of the 
expedition 
of Clinton 
up the Hud 

son I 
a. May 31. 
I> June 1. 



2. Of the 
second ex- 
•petition of 
■jicv. Tryon 
against 
Connecti- 
cut! 
c. Seep. 107. 

d. July 5. 
e. 7th— 12th. 



3. What 
brilliant 
achieve- 
ment occur- 
red about 
this time ? 

July 15. 

4. Whatwas 

the time 
and what 
the plan of 
the attack ? 



5. Give an 
account of 
the success 
of the en- 
terprise. 



15th, 16th. 



B.Whatwere 
the losses on 
each side 1 



Norfolk, Portsmouth,* and the neighboring towns and 
villages, — the enemy every where marking their route 
•by cruelty and devastation. 'In an expedition up the 
Hudson, conducted by General Clinton himself, Stony 
Pointf was abandoned, 1 and the garrison at Verplank's 
PointJ was forced to surrender 15 after a short but spirit- 
ed resistance. Both places were then garrisoned by 
the enemy. 

11. 2 Early in July, Governor Tryon, with uhcut 
2600 men, was despatched against the maritime towns 
of Connecticut. In this expedition New Haven was 
plundered, 1 ' and East Haven, Fairfield, and Norwalk, 
were reduced to ashes. e Various acts of cruelty were 
committed on the defenceless inhabitants ; and yet the 
infamous Tryon boasted of his clemency, declaring 
that the existence of a single house on the coast was a 
monument of the king's mercy. 

12. 3 While Tryon was desolating the coasts of Con- 
necticut, the Americans distinguished themselves by 
one of the most brilliant achievements which occurred 
during the war. This was the recapture of Stony 
Point, on the Hudson. 4 On the 15th of July General 
Wayne advanced against this fortress, and arrived at 
the works in the evening, without being perceived by 
the enemy. Dividing his force into two columns, 
both marched in order and silence, with unloaded mus- 
kets and fixed bayonets. 

13. s As they were wading through a deep morass, 
which was covered by the tide, the English opened 
upon them a tremendous fire of musketry, and of can- 
non loaded with grape shot ; but nothing could check 
the impetuosity of the Americans. They opened their 
way with the bayonet, — scaled the fort, — and the two 
columns met in the centre of the works. 6 The British 
lost upwards of six hundred men in killed and prison- 
ers, besides a large amount of military stores. The 
American loss was about 100. 



* Portsmouth, Virginia, is on the west side of Elizabeth River, opposite to, and one 
mile distant from Nor"ulk. (See Norfolk, p. 213.) 

t Stoyiy Point is a high rocky promontory at the head of Haverstraw Bay, on the W 
bank of Hudson River, about forty miles N. from New York. A light-house has beer 
erected on the site of the old fort. (See Map, p. 244.) 

1 Verplank's Point is on tne E.side of the Hudson River, nearly opposite Stony Point 
See Map, p. 241.) 



CHAP. V.J EVENTS OP 1779. 257 

14. 'Soon after the taking of Stony Point, Major 17T9. 
Lee surprised 1 a British garrison at Paulus Hook,* — ~ July ~ ' 
killed thirty, and took one hundred and sixty prisoners. 1. whatoc- 
2 These successes, however, were more than counter- C S„°' 
oalanced by an unsuccessful attempt on a British post ff0< * 2 
which had recently been established on the Penobscot wemtheae 
River. 3 A flotilla of 37 sail, fitted out by Massachu- ouunmbto, 
setts, proceeded against the place. b After a useless b s ^ ve ' d 
delay, during a siege of 15 days, the Americans were July 25. 

n the point of proceeding to the assault, when a Brit- account™ 
.eh fleet suddenly made its appearance, and attacked' thl pf£e? r ~ 
and destroyed the flotilla. Most of the soldiers and <■-• Aug. 13. 
sailors who escaped made their way back by land, 
through pathless forests, enduring the extremes of hard- 
ship and suffering. 

15. 4 The Six Nations, with the exception of the t What u 
Oneidas, incited bv British asrents, haj long 1 carried on said of the 

,. ' . J •111 hostilities oj 

a distressing warfare against the border settlements, the six xa- 
s To check their depredations, a strong force, under the 5 . f ttie 
command of General Sullivan, was sent against them ^m^d'im 
during the summer of this year. Proceeding 1 '- up the 
Susquehanna h, from Wyoming, with about three thou- 
sand men, at Tioga Pointf he wasjoined e by General e . Aug. 22. 
James Clinton, from the banks of the Mohawk, with 
an additional force of 1600. 

16. 6 On the 29th of August they found a body of Aug. 29. 
Indians and tories strongly fortified at Elmira,| where "btaaetf 
was fought the "Battle of the Chemung," in which %£$fa 
the enemy were defeated with such loss that they 
abandoned all thoughts of farther resistance. 7 Suili- 7 of the 
van then laid -waste the Indian country as far as the ^'3'^ 
Genesee River,^ burned forty villages, and destroyed stauvani 
more than one hundred and fifty thousand bushels of Aug - Sept 
corn. The Indians were greatly intimidated by this 

* Paulus Hook-, now Jersey City, is a point of land on the W. side of the Hudson, 
opposite New York City. (See Map, p. 117.) 

1 'J'ivffn Point is at the confluence of the Tioga River and the Susquehannah, in 1 ba 
iinrtli:m part of Pennsylvania. The village of Athens now occupies the place of Sul- 
livan's encampment. 

t Ehuira, formerly called Newtown, is situated on the N. side of the Chemung 01 
Tioga River, about twenty miles N.VV. from Tioga Poinv. 

§ The Genesee River rises in Pennsylvania, and running N. through New York, en 
lers Lake Ontario seven miles north of Rochester. 



them ! 
d. July 3'. 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART I1L 



1779. 

The effect nf 
the expedi- 
tion i 

a. Sept. 9. 
i. What is 

said of 
Count D'Es- 
tains , and 
9/ the siege 
of Savan- 
nah I 

b. Oct. 9. 



2. What 
events fol- 
lowed the 
repalsefiom 
Savannah J 
c. Oct. 18. 



d. Oct. 25. 



9. WJiy did 
Spain de- 
clare war? 
e. June is. 

4. Wliat U 
said of an 
attempt to 
invade Gt, 
Britain f 
i. Aug. 

b. What de- 
feated the 
project ? 
e- Aug. 



6. What w 

said of the 

siege of 

Gibraltar') 



Sept. 23. 
/. What bat- 
tle was 



expedition, and their future incursions became leas 
formidable, and less frequent. 

17. 'Early in September, the Count D'Estaing, re- 
turning from the West Indies, appeared* with his fleet 
on the coast of Georgia, and soon after, in concert with 
the American force under General Lincoln, laid siege 
to Savannah. After the expiration of a month, an 
assault was made b on the enemy's works, but the as- 
sailants were repulsed with the loss of nearly a thou ' 
sand men in killed and wounded. Count Pulaski, a 
celebrated Polish nobleman, who had espoused the 
cause of the states, was mortally wounded. 

18. s The repulse from Savannah was soon followed 
by the abandonment of the enterprise — Count D'Estaing 
again departing 11 with his whole fleet from the Amer- 
ican coast, and General Lincoln retreating into South 
Carolina. Late in October, Sir Henry Clinton, fearing 
an attack from the French fleet, ordered his forces in 
Rhode Island to withdraw to New York. The retreat d 
was effected with so much haste, that the enemy left 
behind them all their heavy artillery, and a large 
quantity of stores. 

19. 3 During the summer of this year, Spain, anxious 
to recover Gibraltar,* Jamaica, and the two Floridas, 
seized the favorable opportunity for declaring 8 Avar 
against Great Britain. 4 An immense French and 
Spanish armada soon after appeared 1 " on the coasts of 
Britain, with the evident design of invading the king- 
dom ; but a variety of disasters defeated the project. 

20. s At the very time when a landing was designed 
at Plymouth, a violent gale s from the northeast drove 
the combined fleet from the channel into the open sea. 
Added to this, a violent epidemic, raging among the 
soldiers, swept off more than five thousand of their 
number. 6 The important post of Gibraltar, however, 
was soon after besieged by the combined fleets of 
France and Spain, and the siege was vigorously car| 
ried on, but without success, during most of the re- 
maining three years of the war. 

21. 7 On ihe 23d of September, one of the most 



* Gibraltar is a well known, high and narrow promontory, iu the S. of Spain, on the 
strait which connects the Atlantic with the Mediterranean 






CHAP. V.J EVENTS OF 1779. 259 

bloody naval battles ever known was fought on the 1779. 
coast of Scotland, between a flotilla of French and j ought on 
American vessels under the command of Paul Jones, J^wtumd 
and two English frigates that were convoying a fleet inseptem- 
of merchantmen. l At half past seven in the evening, 
the ship of Jones, the Bon Homme Richard, 1 of 40 a. GpodMan 

i i n • rt ' • i ' r • c i • Richard. 

runs, engaged the cerapis, a British irigate ox 44, i.Givem 
'inder command of Captain Pearson. The two frig- %fewnta 
ites coming in contact, Jones lashed them together, tf^e *«"*«• 
md in this situation, for two hours, the battle raged 
with incessant fury, while neither thought of surren- 
dering. 

22 While both ships were on fire, and the Richard 
on the point cf sinking, the American frigate Alliance 
came up, and, in the darkness of the night, discharged 
her broadside into the Richard Discovering her mis- 
take, she fell with augmented fury on the Serapis, 
which soon surrendered. Of three hundred and «ev- 
enty-five men that were on board the vessel of Jones, 
three hundred were killed or wounded. The Richard 
sunk soon after her crew had taken possession of the 
conquered vessel. At the same time the remaining 
English frigate, after a severe engagement, was 
captured. 

23. 2 Thus terminated the most important military a- yp«*j* 
events oi 1779. I he nattering hopes inspired in the result of the 
minds of the Americans, by the alliance with France events of 
in the former year, had not been realized ; and the 1779? 
failure of every scheme of co-operation on the part of 

the French fleet, had produced a despondency of mind 
unfavorable to great exertions. 3 The American army z. of the 
was reduced in number, and badly clothed ; the na- "%£*$££? 
tional treasury was empty ; congress was without iamanny 

t j i J -ii i- • • i • i c i andthepeo- 

credit ; and the rapidly diminishing value or the paper pie'i 
currency of the country, brought distress upon all 
classes, — occasioned the ruin of thousands, — and even 
threatened the dissolution of the army. 

24. 4 On the part of Britain, a far different scene was 4 . ftu 
presented. Notwithstanding the formidable combina- T Q t % c fi' a f n 
tion of enemies which now threatened her, she dis- and her re- 

... ' netoed exer 

played the most astonishing resources, and made re- tton*firthe 

1 * m ' conoitcst of 

newed exertions for the conquest of the colonies. Par- thecaioniesi 



2<50 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART ra. 




1780. 

!. What is 
laid of tlie 
scene of mil- 
itary opera- 
tions for the 
year I7SU? 

a. Dec. 26, 

1779. 

%Witat were 
the move- 
ments of 
Gen. Clin- 
ton previous 
to the coni- 
mencement 
of the siege 
of Charles- 
ton / 

b. Fell. 11. 
c. March 29. 

April 1. 



April 9. 
3. What >s 
said of Ad- 
miral Ar- 

butlmot? 

4. Of the 
tummons to 
surrender? 
(I. April 9. 
5. What is 
said of Gen. 
lluzer, and 

of tin' de- 

taclniient 

ant uzu.nst 

him I 

* See Jiap. 



C April 11. 



GENERAL MAHION. 



liament voted for the service of the 
year 1780, eighty-five thousand 
seamen, and thirty-five thousand 
troops in addition to those already 
abroad ; and, for the service of the 
same year, the House of Commons 
voted the enormous sum of one 
hundred millions of dollars. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EVENTS OF 1780. 



1. •During the year 1780, military operations wer<; 
mostly suspended in the North, in consequence of the 
transfer of the scene of action to the Carolinas. 2 Late 
in December of the previous year, Sir Henry Clinton, 
leaving General Knyphausen at New York, sailed* 
with the bulk of his army to the South, under convoy 
of Admiral Arbuthnot, and arrived on the coast oi 
Georgia late in January. On the 10th of February 
he departed from Savannah for the siege of Charleston, 
then defended by General Lincoln, and after taking 
possession 1, of the islands south of the city, crossed the 
Ashley River with the advance of the army, and on 
the first of April commenced erecting batteries within 
eight hundred yards of the American works. 

2. 3 On the 9th of April, Admiral Arbuthnot, favored 
by a strong southerly wind and the tide, passed Fort 
Moultrie with little damage, and anchored his fleet in 
Charleston harbor, within cannon shot of the city. *A 
summons J to surrender being rejected, the English 
opened d their batteries upon the town. s The Amer- 
icans, in the mean time, in order to form a rail) ins 
point for the miiitia, and, possibly, succor the city, had 
assembled a corps under the command of General Hu. 
ger on the upper part of Cooper River, at a place called 
Monk's Corner.* Against this post Clinton sent a de- 
tachment of fourteen hundred men, commanded by 
Webster, Tarleton, and Ferguson, which succeeded in 
surprising' the party, — putting the whole to flight,— 



nup vi.] 



EVENTS OF 1780, 



26J 



a. Slav 6. 
i.Whaiwen 



and capturing a large quantity of arms, clothing, and ITSO. 
ammunition. 

3. 'Soon after, an American corps was surprised 1 on 
the Santee,* by Colonel Tarleton. The enemy over- 
ran the country on the left side of the Cooper River, — Brufsheocn 
Fort Moultrie surrendered on the 6th of May, — and "{<*' ? 
Charleston thus found itself completely enclosed by the 
British forces, with no prospect of relief, either by land 

or by sea. In this extremity, the fortifications being 
mostly beaten down, and the enemy prepared for an 
assault, on the 12th of May the city surrendered. Gen- May 12. 
eral Lincoln and the troops under his command became 
prisoners of war. 

4. 2 Having possession of the capital, General Clin- ~J^fJ^ 
ton made preparations for recovering the rest of the did General 

± 1 m o Clinton 

province, and for re-establishing royal authority. Three next make. 
expeditions which he despatched into the country were said of the 
completely successful. One seized the important post tentfmTtL 
of Ninety-six \\ another scoured the country bordering c " unln J' t 
on the Savannah; while Lord Cornwallis passed the 3.irhaikap- 

1 li- if . r i~\ j. o t penedtoCol. 

Santee, and made himself master 01 Georgetown.! A ' 

body of about 400 republicans, under Colonel Buford, 

retreating towards North Carolina, being pursued by 

Colonel Tarleton, and overtaken 13 at Waxhavv Creek, ^ 

was entirely cut to pieces. 'Many of the inhabitants 

now joined the royal standard ; and Clinton, seeing the ure $ r $' iR 

province in tranquillity, left 

1 



Buford ? 
b. May 29 
4. What is 
said of the 
success of 
the royal 
cause, and 
the depart- 



Lord Cornwallis in com- 



* Santee River, tho principal river of 
South Carolina, is formed by the con- 
fluence of the Wateree from the E. 
anil the Congaree from the W., eighty- 
five miles N.W. from Charleston. — 
Running S.E. it enters the Atlantic, 
about fifty miles >J.E. from Charles- 
ton. (See Map.) 

t The post of Ninety-six was near 
the boundary line between the pres- I 
ent Edgefield and Abbeville Counties, j 
S. Carolina, five miles S.W. from the j 
Saluda River, and 150 miles N.W. I 
from Charleston. (See Map.) 

t Georgetown is on the W. bank of j 
the Pedee, at its entrance into Win- ', 
yaw Bay. about sixty miles N.E. from j 
Charleston. (See Map.) 

$ IVajuhaw Creek, rising in N. Caro- I 
Una, enters the Wateree or the Ca- I 
tawba from the E., 155 miles N.W. I 
from Charleston. 'See Map.) I 






V 



■Mount Mr=0 j^W 

f\ &2JbVktJattU. '*, 

■,c a w^o 

A ci\Sxrsta '^-f^.SYrfW* 
& Q \^ \* W &o% \jUbri. 




262 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART in. 



lYgO. mand of the southern forces ; and, early in June, with 
a large body of his troops, embarked"- for New York. 

5. 'But notwithstanding the apparent tranquillity 
which prevailed at the time of Clinton's departure, 
bands of patriots, under daring leaders, soon begau to 
collect on the frontiers of the province, and, by sudden 
attacks, to give much annoyance to the royal troops. 
2 Colonel Sumpter, in particular, distinguished himself in 
these desultory excursions. In an attack b which he made 
on a party of British at Rocky Mount* he was repulsed, 
but not disheartened. He soon after surprised and com- 

Aug. «. pleteJy defeated a large body of British regulars and 
tories posted at Hanging Rock. f 3 This partisan war- 
fare restored confidence to the republicans, — disheart- 
ened the loyalists, — and confined to more narrow limits 
the operations of the enemy. 

6. 4 In the mean time a strong force from the North, 
under General Gates, was approaching for the relief 
of the southern provinces. The British general, Lord 
Rawdon, on receiving tidings of the approach of Gates, 
concentrated his forces at Camden|, where he was soon 

d.Aug. 13,14. after joined d by Lord Cornwallis from Charleston. On 
the night of the 15th of August, Gates advanced from 
Clermont,^ with the view of surprising the British 
camp. At the same time Cornwallis and Rawdon 
were advancing from Camden, with the design of sur 
s. Give an prising the Americans. 

vfebauieff 7. s The two vanguards met in the night near San- 
S cree/c S ' ders' Creek, when some skirmishing ensued, and in 
e. Aug. i6. the morning a general engagement commenced 18 be- 
tween the two armies. The first onset 
decided the fate of the battle. The Vir- 
ginia and Carolina militia wavering, tho 



a. June 5. 
1. How were 
the British 

much an- 
noyed! 



1. What m 
said of Col. 
Samp/erf 
b. July 30. 



3. The ef- 
fects of tliiM 
partisan 
■warfare 1 



4. What, in 

the mean 
time, were 
the move- 
ments of 
Gates and 
Rawdon I 



BA.T. OF BANDERS CREEK 



Up! 



^'SanderS 



"ft*', 






* Rocky Mount is at the northern extremity of the pres 
ent Fairfield County, on the W. bank of the Wateree, 
thirty-five miles N.W from Charleston. (Map. p. 261.) 

t Hanging Rock is a short distance E. from the t'a 
tavvba or Wateree River, in the present Lancaster County 
and about thirty-five miles N. from Car iden. (Map, p. 261.) 

% Camden is on the E. bank of the Wateree, 110 miles 
N.W. from Charleston. The battle of the 16th took 
place a little N. from Sanders' Creek, about eight miles N. 
from Camden. (See Map; also Map, p. 261.) 

§ Clerm mt is about thirteen miles N fr »m Oamdea 
(See Map p. 261.; 



CHAP. VI.] EVENTS OP 1780. 263 

British*eharged them with fixed bayonets, and soon 1T§0. 
put them to flight ; but the Maryland and Delaware 
regiments sustained the fight with great gallantry, 
and several times compelled the enemy to retire. At 
length, being charged in the flank by Tarleton's cav- 
alry, — surrounded, — and overwhelmed by numbers, 
they were forced to give way, and the rout became 
general. 

8. 'The Americans lost in this unfortunate engage- t wlM 
Dent, in killed, wounded, and captured, about a thou- losses dm 

-.' t •' i ii i • - -ii ' • • each, party 

and men, besides all their artillery, ammunition wag- sustain in 
ons, and much of their baggage.* The Baron De 
Kalb, second in command, was mortally wounded. 
The British reported their loss at three hundred and 
twenty-five. 2 With the remnant of his forces Gates 2 \mthe, 
rapidly retreated to Hillsboro',f in North Carolina. Httrfat? 

9. 3 The defeat of Gates was soon followed by the z.whatbe- 
surprise and dispersion of Sumpter's corps. This offi- f|"/^,"^ 
cer, who had already advanced between Camden and soon after? 
Charleston, on learning the misfortune of his superior, 
retired promptly to the upper parts of Carolina, but at 
Fishing Creek| his troops were surprised by Tarleton's 
cavalry, and routed 1 with great slaughter. a . Aug. is. 

10. 4 Cornwallis, again supposing the province sub- 4. whatss- 
dued, adopted measures of extreme severity, in order to re v %"dh?' 
compel a submission to royal authority. Orders were Co ^^"" M 
given to hang every militia man who, having once 
served with the British, had afterwards joined the 
Americans ; and those who had formerly submitted, 

but had taken part in the recent revolt, were impris- 
oned, and their property was taken from them or de- 
stroyed. s But these rigorous measures failed to accom- s }rfiatw(U 
plish their object ; for although the spirit of the people 'Jjgjjf eeteif 
was overawed, it was not subdued. The cry of ven- uresi 
geance arose from an exasperated people, and the Brit- 
ish standard became an object of execration. 

11. *In September, Cornwallis detached Colonel 

* (The British accounts, Stedman, ii. 210, Andrews iv. 30, &c, estimate the Amei 
lcsn loss at about 0000.) 

t Hill.iboro', in N. Carolina, is situated on one of the head branches of the Neuse Rivei. 
thirty five miles N.W. from Raleigh. 

i Fishing Creek enters the Wateree from the W., about thirty miles N.W. from 
Camden. (See Map, i>. 261.) 



264 THE REVOLTJTION. [PART m. 

ITS©. Ferguson to the frontiers of North Carolina,'" for the 

e <What is P ur P ose °f encouraging the loyalists to take arms, A 

*$er*£Jm considerable number of the most profligate and aban- 

amihis doned repaired to his standard, and, under the conduct 

■. y of their leader, committed excesses so atrocious, that 

the highly exasperated militia collected to intercept 

their march, and arming themselves with whatever 

chance threw in their way, attacked the party in the 

post which they had chosen at King's Mountain.* 

a. Oct. 7. x The attack* was furious, and the defence exceedingly 
uPifKinf's obstinate ; but after a bloody fight, Ferguson himself 
Mountain? was s [ a i n? aXi( [ three hundred of his men were killed 

1770. or wounded. Eight hundred prisoners were taken, 

1676. and amongst the spoil were fifteen hundred stands of 

arms. The American loss was about twenty. 

12. Notwithstanding the defeat of General Sumpter, 

' cesses of he had again collected u band of volunteers, with which 

'ir'soonJoC he continued to harass the enemy ; and although many 

lowed. pi ans were l a id f or hig destruction, they all failed in the 

b. Nov. i2, execution. In an attack b which was made on him by 
! 'ii?ver d Major Wemys, the British were defeated, and their 

commanding officer taken prisoner.! On the 20th of 
November he was attacked by Colonel Tarleton, at 
Blackstocks,! but after a severe loss Tarleton was 
obliged to retreat, leaving Sumpter in quiet possession 
of the field. 
3. n-hatii 13. 3 Another zealous officer, General Marion, like 
'^Marion?' w ^ se distinguished himself in this partisan warfare, and 
4 of events ^Y Pitting off straggling parties of the enemy, and 
durfngm keeping the tories in check, did the American cause 
iftheyear? valuable service. 4 No further events of importance 
took place in the South during the remainder of the 
year, and we now return to notice the few which oc- 
curred during the summer in the northern provinces. 
c.June 7. 14. 5 Early in June, five thousand men, under Gen- 
nirred du- eral Knyphausen, passed from Staten Island into New 



* King's Mountain is an eminence near the boundary between N. Carolina and S. 
Carolina, W. of the Catawba Kiver. (See Map, p. 261.) 

t This occurred on the eastern hank of Broad River (a northern branch of the Con 
&aiee). at a place called Fishdam Ferry, 52 miles N.W. from Camden. (See Map. p. 261.) 
J Blackst.ocks is on the southern bank of Tiger River (a western branch of Broad 
River), in the western part of Union County, seventy-five miles N.W. from Camden 
See Map, p. 261.) (There is anther place called Blackstocks in Chester County, forty 
wiles E. from this.) 



CHAP. VI. J EVENTS OF 1780. 265 

Jerseyy — occupied Elizabethtown, — burned Connecti- 1T§0. 
cut Farms,* — and appeared before Springfield ; but n -„„ Ge ~' 
the advance of a body of troops from Morristown, in- eraiKnyp- 

t I, ..,•' * J . hau-sen's ex- 

duced them to withdraw. Soon alter, the enemy again petition 
advanced into New Jersey, but the-, were met and Jersey? 
repulsed by the Americans at Springfield. 

15. : On the 10th of July the Admiral de Ternay a. in Rhode 
arrived at Newport, 1 with a French fleet, having on , \^' ti3 
board six thousand men. under the command of the ^"{^f 
Count de Rochambeau. Although high expectations Admiral de 
had been indulged from the assistance of so powerful andofma- 
a force against the enemy, yet no enterprise of im- auonsdll' 
portance was undertaken, and the operations of both nmtnderof 
parties, at the North, were mostly suspended during the " iesea3uni 
remainder of the season. 

10. 2 While defeat at the South, and disappointment i.what oan- 
at the North, together with the exhausted state of the se th> s w ume a 
finances, and an 'impoverished country, were openly 'ThT'lmer? 
endangering the American cause, domestic treachery iu>- ncausei 
was secretly plotting its ruin. 3 The traitor was Ar- 3 lVh0Wta 
nold ; — one of the first to resist British aggression, i/te traitor, 
and, hitherto, one of the* most intrepid defenders of MidqfTim? 
American liberty. In recompense for his distinguished 
services, congress had appointed him commandant at 
Philadelphia, soon after the evacuation of that city by 
the English. 

17. 4 Here he lived at great expense, indulged in ga- 4 . what is 
ming, and, having squandered his fortune, at length ha''ft° f c>iar- 
appropriated the public funds to his own uses. Al- ^^fuSa* 
though con/icted by a court-martial, and reprimanded ""g^f--" 
by Washington, he dissembled his purposes of revenge, 
and having obtained the command of the important for- 
tress of West Point,! he privately engaged to deliver it 
into the hands of the enemy, for 10,000 pounds ster- 
ling, and a commission as brigadier in the British army. 

13. 6 To Major Andre, aid-de-camp to Sir Henrv s-." 7 "" 6,s - 

„.. ii- i r i T-. ■ ■ i J sines* tpa* 

Clinton, and adjutant-general of the British army, a intrusted to 
young and amiable officer of uncommon merit, the ' drei 

* Connecticut Farms, now called Union, is six miles S.W. from Newark, on the road 
from Rliznbeth'own to Springfield. 

t The iiii|Mjrtiiit fortress of West Point is situated on the W. hank of the Hudson, 
fifty-two miles from New York City. It is the seat of the United States Military Acad- 
emy, established by act of Congress in 1802. (See Map, p. 244.1 

12 



266 THE REVOLUTION. [PART HL 

IT 80. business of negotiating with Arnold was mtrus.ed. 
i. what were having passed up the Hudson, near to West Point, for 
tke circum- the purpose of holding a conference with the traitor, 

nances un- i i • it i ° t 1 i i 

aer which he and being obliged to attempt a return by land ; when 

was ■made m , * i i i i >i' • i 

prisoner! near 1 arrytown* he was stopped* by three militia sol- 
a. sept. 23. diers, — John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac 
Van Wert ; who, after searching their prisoner, con- 
ducted him to Colonel Jameson, their commanding 
%HoiDdid officer. 2 Andre was incautiously suffered to write to 
Ar mptt*~ Arnold ; when the latter, taking the alarm, immedi- 
ately escaped on hoard the Vulture, a British vessel 
lying in the river. 
3.ivhatwaa 19. 3 The unfortunate Andre was tried by a court- , 
11 Andrtf^ martial ; upon his own confession he was declared a 
spy, and, agreeably to the laws and usages of nations, 
4 whatmore was condemned to death. 4 Arnold received the stipu- 
iS A S -" id id"{ l ate< l rewar d of his treason; but even his new com- 
panions viewed the traitor with contempt, and thf 
world now execrates his name and memory. 6 Eacl 
captors of of the captors of Andre received the thanks of con- 
Andrei g resS5 a silver medal, and a pension for life. 
s.Whatwere ^0. e In the latter part of this year, another Europeap 
the circum- power was added to the open enemies of England 

stances un- f t i i i ■ i c i •• r t-« • 

der which Holland, leaious oi the naval superiority of Britain 

England de- 11 i 7J 1 r • n i »• i 

stared war had long been iriendly to the American cause ; she 
Boiiand i had given encouragement and protection to American 
privateers, and had actually commenced the negotia- 
tion of a treaty with congress, the discovery of which 
a. Dee. 20. . immediately called forth a declaration* of war on the 

part of England. 

i. what re- 21. Thus the American Revolution had already 

madVupon involved England in war with three powerful nations 

X bf England °^ Europe, and yet her exertions seemed to increase 

**?«■ with the occasions that called them forth. Parliament 

again granted a large amount of money for the public 

service of the coming year, and voted the raising of 

immense armaments by sea and land, 

* Tarryt(ncm is on the E. bank of the Hudson, twenty-eight miles N. from New York 
(Pee Map, p. 'i-2r>.) Andre was arrested about a quarter of a mile M. from the village. 
He was executed and buried on the W. side of the river, a quarter of a mile west from 
the village ol'Tappan, a few rods south of the New Jersey line. 




SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLI3 ''See p. 278. 

CHAPTER VII. 

EVENTS OF 178 1. 

1. 1 The condition of the army of Washington, at the 
oeginning of the year 1781, was widely different from 
that of the royal forces under the command of Clinton. 
While the latter were abundantly supplied with all the 
necessaries and comforts which their situation required, 
the former were suffering privations arising from want 
of pay, clothing, and provisions, which at one time 
seriously threatened the very existence of the army. 

2. 2 So pressing had the necessities of the soldiers 
become, that, on the first of January, the whole Penn- 
sylvania line of troops, to the number of one thousand 
three hundred, abandoned their camp at Morristown, — 
declaring their intention of marching to the place where 
congress was in session, in order to obtain a redress of 
their grievances. 

3. 'The officers being unable to quell the sedition, 
the mutineers proceeded in a body to Princeton, where 
they were met by emissaries from Sir Henry Clinton, 



1781. 



Of what 

doesChapter 
VII. treat 1 



l.Wltatioert 

the relative, 
situa'ions 
of the two 
armies at 
Vie begin- 
ning of this 
year * 



2. To what 
course was 
a portion of 
the Ameri- 
can army 
driven by 
necessity 1 



3. What 
course was 
ta'.-en by tht 
mutineers} 



268 THE REVOLUTION. [PART in 

1781. who sought to entice them into th<? British service. 
Indignant at this attempt upon their fidelity, they 
seized the British agents, and delivered them to Gen- 
eral Wayne, to be treated as spies. 
1. what 4. 'A committee from congress, and also a deputa- 

eV k>wedf' t i° n from the Pennsylvania authorities met them, first, 
at Princeton, and afterwards at Trenton ; and after 
liberal concessions, and relieving their necessities in 
part, induced those whose terms of service had not ex- 
pired, to return to their duties, after a short furlough. 

s. Bow dm 2 Being offered a reward for apprehending the British 

reply to an emissaries, they nobly refused it; saying, that their 

M»3?iF" necessities had forced them to demand justice from 

their own government, but they desired no reward for 

doing their duty to their country against her enemies. 

3 whatvm ^ 3 This mutiny, and another in the Jersey line 
the effect of which was instantly suppressed, aroused the attention 

Vmmutiny, c . , J rr ' . , , , . . 

ami one in or the states, and of congress, to the miserable condition 
urn? of the troops, and called forth more energetic measures 

4 si/ what f° r theu ~ re li e f- ^Taxation was resorted to, and readily 
"/««»* " ,e '« acquiesced in; and money, ammunition, and clothing; 

Vie wants of ^ . '. ■" ' _, . P] 

the army were obtained in Europe ; but the most efficient aid 

«upp it wag derived from the exertions of Robert Morris, a 

wealthy merchant of Philadelphia, whom congress had 

recently appointed superintendent of the treasury. 

B.matwas 6. 5 He assumed the collection of taxes, contracted to 

enMorr%, furnish flour for the army, and freely used his own 

laieji'tshave ample means and personal credit to sustain the gov- 

b ut"d a io r his eminent. Tn the course of the year the Bank of North 

aid? America was established under his care, which exerted 

a highly beneficial influence upon the currency, and 

upon public credit. It has been asserted, that to the 

financial operations of Robert Morris it was principally 

owing that the armies of America did not disband, and 

tha! congress was enabled to continue the war with 

vigor and success. 

e. aive an 7. 6 Early in January of this year, General Arnold, 

"Arnold' / ihen a brigadier in the royal army, made a descent 

t P virtlnm. u P on Virginia, with a force of 1600 men, and such a 

number of armed vessels as enabled him to commit 

extensive ravages on the unprotected coasts. Having 

a. Jan. s. destroyed* the public stores in the vicinity of Rich- 



CHAP Vil.J EVENTS OF 1781. ^69 

niond, 1 and public and private property to a large 17§1. 

amount, in different places, he entered b Portsmouth, a N 

which he fortified, and made his head-quarters ; when b. Jan. 20. 

a plan was formed by Washington to capture him and c - N - p- 256 - 
his army. 

8. 'Lafayette, with a force of 1200 men. was sent t of the. 
into Virginia ; and the French fleet, stationed at f*gj£l\£ 
Rhode Island, sailed' 1 to co-operate with him; but the ^ n .f its ' 
English being apprised of the project, Admiral Arbuth- ^ March's, 
not sailed from New York, — attacked" the French e. March i& 
fleet, and compelled it to return to Rhode Island. 

Thus Arnold escaped from the imminent danger of 
falling into the hands of his exasperated countrymen. 
2 Soon after, the British general Philips arrived f in the f JIarch ^ 
Chesapeake, with a reinforcement of 2000 men. After 2. what is 
joining Arnold he took the command of the forces, and sa phuipsT' 
proceeded to overrun and lay waste the country with 
but little opposition. 

9. 3 After the unfortunate battle near Camden, men- e.seep. 262. 
tioned in the preceding chapter, 6 congress thought X^fif 
proper to remove General Gates, and to appoint Gen- officer was 
eral Greene to the command of the southern army, the battle 
4 Soon after taking the command, although having a 4 n"ani'«» 
force of but little more than two thousand men, hedes- tiiefimt 

1 . measure 

patched General Morgan to the western extremity of taken by 
South Carolina, in order to check the devastations of ureenei 
the British and loyalists in that quarter. 6 Cornwallis, 5 . what did 
then on the point of advancing against North Carolina, c° Tn ™* Ua 
unwilling to leave Morgan in his rear, sent Colonel 
Tarleton against him, with directions to " push him to 
the utmost." 

10. 'Morgan at first retreated before the superior «. -\vhai 
force of his enemy, but being closely pursued, he halted c p °u"uelTy 
at a place called the Cowpens,* and arranged his men - MOT 'S' ' li? 
in order of battle. Tarleton, soon coming up, con- . Jan 17 
fidentofan easy victory, made an impetuous attack h iGiwun 
upon the militia, who at first gave way. The British thebatiiettf 
cavalry likewise dispersed a body of the regular troops, 
but while they were engaged in the pursuit, the Amer- 
icans rallied, and in one general charge entirely routed 

* Cowpens is near the northern boundary of S. Carolina, In Spartanburg district, five 
miles S. from Broad River. (See Map, p. 261.) 



the Cow- 
pen 



270 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART HL 



17§1. 

\. What loss 
teas sustain- 
ed by each, 
party I 



2. What did 
Cornwallis 
3o, oil hear- 
ing of 
Tarleton i 
defeat t 



3. What 
events fol- 
lowed! 



4. What is 
said of Gen. 
Greene,— of 
the pursuit 

by Corn- 
wallis, and 
of his sec- 
ond disap- 
pointment 1 
b. Jan. 31. 



5. What is 
taid of tliis 

singular 
rise of the 
waters on 

two occa- 
sions 1 



the enemy, who fled in confusion. 'The British lost 
three hundred in killed and wounded ; while five 
hundred prisoners, a large quantity of baggage, and 
one hundred dragoon horses, fell into the hands of the 
conquerors. The Americans had only twelve men 
killed and sixty wounded. 

11. 2 On receiving the intelligence of Tarleton's de- 
feat, Cornwallis, then on the left bank of the Bro^d 
River,* destroyed his heavy baggage, and commenced 
a rapid march towards the fords of the Catawba,f 
hoping to arrive in time to intercept the retreat of Mor- 
gan before he could pass that river. 3 After a toilsome 
march, Morgan succeeded in reaching the fords, and 
crossed 1 the river in safety ; but only two hours later 
the van of the enemy appeared on the opposite bank. 
It being then in the evening, Cornwallis halted and 
encamped ; feeling confident of overtaking his adver- 
sary in the morning. During the night a heavy rain 
raised the waters of the river, and rendered it impassa- 
ble for two days. 

12. 4 At this time General Greene, who had left the 
main body of his army on tbe left bank of the Pedee,;}; 
opposite Cheraw,§ arrived 6 and took the command of 
Morgan's division, which continued the retreat, and 
which was soon followed again in rapid pursuit by 
Cornwallis. Both armies hurried on to the Yadkin, 
which the Americans reached first ; but while they 
were crossing, their rear-guard was attacked by the 
van of the British, and part of the baggage of the re- 
treating army was abandoned. Again Cornwallis 
encamped, with only a river between him and his 
enemy ; but a sudden rise in the waters again retarded 
him, and he was obliged to seek a passage higher up 
the stream. s The rise of the. waters, on these two 
occasions, was regarded by many as a manifest token 



* Broad River rises in the western part of N. Carolina, and flowing S. into S. Caro- 
lina, receives 1'acolet and Tiger Rivers from the W., and unites with the Saluda two . 
miles N. from Columbia to form the Congaree. (See Map, p. 281.) 

t Cutaioba is the name given to the upper part of the Wateree. Cornwallis crossed 
at Gowan's Ford, 30 miles N. from the northern boundary of S. Carolina. (Map, p. 2lil.) 

t The Great Pedee River rises in the Blue Ridge, in the northwestern part of N. Car- 
olina, and flowing S.E through S. Carolina, enters the Atlantic through Winyaw Bay 
tixty miles N E. from Charleston. In N. Carolina it bears the name of Yadkin River. 

§ Cheram is on the W. bank of the Pedee, ten miles S. from the N. Carolina line. 
*tee Map, p 261.) The Americans crossed the Yadkin near Salisbury, 



CHAP, vn.] 



EVENTS OP 1781. 



271 



of the protection which Heaven granted to the justice 
of the American cause. 

13. 'After crossing the Yadkin, General Greene 
proceeded to Guilford Court House, and after being 
joined* by the remainder of his army, b continued his 
retreat towards Virginia, still vigorously pursued by 
Cornwallis, who a third time reached the banks of 



1T§1. 



g. Feb. 25. 



1. Deicribi 
the retreat 
after cross- 
ing the 
Yadkin 
a. Feb. 7. 

b. See I2tb 
verse. 

c. Feb. 15. 

a river, d just as the American rear-guard had crossed a. The Dan 
safely to the other side. 2 Mortified at being repeat- g. how <na 
edly disappointed after such prodigious efforts. Corn- 'tenfunat'e't 
wallis abandoned the pursuit, and turning slowly to 
the South, established himself at Hillsboro'." e. n. p. 263 

14. 3 Soon after, General Greene, strengthened by a r. Feb. 21, 22 
body of Virginians, recrossed f the Dan* into Carolina. 3 -^^ w f e 
Learning that Tarleton had been sent into the district movement* 
between Hawf and Deep Rivers, to secure the coun- ' Greene; 
tenance of a body of loyalists who were assembling iefeUa.com- 
there, he sent Col. Lee with a body of militia to oppose van ^Jf y ' 
him. On the march, Lee fell in with the loyalists, 
three hundred and fifty in number, who, thinking they 
were meeting Tarleton, were easily surrounded/ 
While they were eager to make themselves known by 
protestations of loyalty, and cries of " Long live the 

king," the militia fell upon them with fury, killed the 
greater portion, and took the remainder prisoners. 

15. 4 Having received additional reinforcements, i. Give an 
which increased his number to 4400 men, Grepne no S^Vauuoj 
longer avoided an engagement, but advancing to Guil- G Q Q l {[ T T t d 
ford Court House,;); posted his men on advantageous House. 
ground, and there awaited the enemy. Here, on the 

15th of March, he was attacked by Cornwallis in per- March is. 
son. At the first charge, the Carolina militia retreated 
in disorder. The regular troops, however, 
sustained the battle with great firmness ; 
but after an obstinate contest a general re- 
treat was ordered, and the Americans fell 

* Dan River, rising in the Blue Ridge, in the southern 
part of Virginia, and flowing E., unites with the Staunton to 
form the Roanoke. 

t Haw River from the N.W., and Deep River from the 
W., unite in Chatham County, thirty miles S.W. from Ra- 
leigh, to form Cane Fear River. 
J The present Guilford Court JTou^e (or Greensborough) 



BATTLE OF GUILFORD 
COURT HOUSE. 



Is about sis miles south of the ' 
revolutionary memory. 



Guilford Court noose" of 




272 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART m. 



1781. back several miles, leaving the field in the posses- 
i what were s ^ on °^ me enem y- 'The American loss, in killed 
the josses qf and wounded, was about 400; but the number of 

each ■party 1 „ . . . > . . ' . . 

lugitives, who returned to their homes, increased the 
total loss to 1300. The British loss was about 500, 
among whom were several valuable officers. 
2. what is 16. 2 The result of the battle was little less than a 
r S /"ui°{f"the defeat to Cornwallis, who was unable to profit by the 
hattis, and advantage which he had gained. He soon retired to 
movements Wilmington,* and, after a halt of nearly three weeks, 
warns"? directed his march b upon Virginia. 3 General Greene, 
a. April 7. m the mean time, defiling to the right, took the daring 
resolution of re-entering South Carolina; and, after 
various changes of position, encamped on Hobkirk's 
Hill,* little more than a mile from Lord Rawdon's 
post at Camden. 
April 25. 17. 4 Here he was attacked on the 2"»th of April, 
tfJbauietf anc ^ so stron o'y did victory for a time incline to the 
side of the Americans, that Greene despatched a body 
of cavalry to intercept the enemy's retreat. A Mary- 
land regiment, however, vigorously charged by the 
enemy, fell into confusion ; and in spite of the exertions 
of the officers, the rout soon became general. The 
killed, wounded, and missing, on both sides, were 
nearly equal. 

18. s Soon after, Lord Rawdon evacuated Camden, 



3. What 
course was 
taken by 
General 
Greene ? 



Hobkirk 
Hill, 



May 10. 
What is 



S re d trfato l f anc * re ^ re( ^ with his troops beyond the Santee River 



Lord , 
dunl 



Raw when, learning that Fort Watsonf had surrendered, 
and that Fort Mottt together with the nosts at Gran- 



bat. of hobkirk's hill. by§ and Orangeburg, || were closely 




c >-.ri JO''»S -i-i -V' Cj\> ; H. 



in- 
vested, he retreated still farther, and en- 
camped at Eutaw Springs. IT e These posts, 

* Hobkirk's Hill. (See Map.) 

t Fort Watson was on the E. bank of the Santee, in the 
S.W. part of Sumpter County, about fifty-five miles from 
Camden. (See Map, p. 2G1.) 

% Fort Molt was on the S. bank of the Congaree, near its 
junction with the Wateree, about forty miles S. from Cam- 
den. (See Map, p. 261.) 

§ Grnnby i=> on the S. bank of the Congaree, thirty miles 
above Fort Molt. (See Map, p. 261.) 

|| Orangeburg is on the E. bank of the JVorth Edisto, 
twenty-five miles S.W. from Fort Mott. ,'See Map, p. 2G1.) 

TT Eutaw Springs is the name given to a small stream 
that enters the Santee from the S., at the N.W. extremity 
of Charleston district, about fifty miles from Charleston 
(See Map, p. 261.) 



CHAP. VII.] EVENTS OF 1781. 273 

tog-ether with Augusta, soon fell into the hands of the 1T§1 
Americans; and by the 5th of June the British were 
confined to the three posts — Ninety-six, Eutaw Springs, 
and Charleston. 

19. 'After the retreat of Lord Rawdon from Cam- l.whatu 
den, General Greene proceeded to Fort Granby, and s s %'^e f dnd 
thence against Ninety-six. a place of great natural 'J/^ly! 
strength, and strongly fortified. After prosecuting the *^? 
siege of this place nearly four weeks, and learning that 

Lord Rawdon was approaching with reinforcements, 
General Greene determined upon an assault, which 
was made on the 18th of June ; but the assailants were June 18 
beaten off, and the whole army raised the siege, and 
retreated, before the arrival of the enemy. 

20. 2 After an unsuccessful pursuit of the Americans, g ]Vhatw 
again Lord Rawdon retired, closely followed by the the-vwve- 
army of Greene, and took post at Orangeburg, where moan/ma 
he received a reinforcement from Charleston, under repuiseat 
the command of Col. Stewart. Finding the enemy Ninet w&* 
too strong to be attacked, General Greene now retired,* a. July. 
with the main body of his army, to the heights* be- 
yond the Santee,'to spend the hot and sickly season, 

while expeditions under active officers were continu- 
ally traversing the country, to intercept the communi- 
cations between Orangeburg and Charleston. 3 Lord 3. what 
Rawdon soon after returned to England, leaving Col- uniis'hcom- 
onel Stewart in command of his forces. m cufredf c ' 

21. 4 Before his departure, a tragic scene occurred at 4 . wimtac- 
Charleston, which greatly irritated the Carolinians, and g^^oftfm 
threw additional odium on the British cause. This ^afnef' 
was the execution of Colonel Isaac Hayne, a firm pa- 
triot, who, to escape imprisonment, had previously 

given in his adhesion to the British authorities. When 
the British were driven from the vicinity of his resi- 
dence, considering the inability to protect, as a dis- 
charge of the obligation to obey, he took up arms 
against them, and, in this condition, was taken prisoner. 

22. He was brought before Col. Balfour, the com- 
mandant of Charleston, who condemned him to death, 
although numerous loyalists petitioned in his favor. 

* The Santee Hills are E. of the Wateree River, about twenty miles south fron» 
Camden. (See Map, rs 261.1 

12* 



274 THE REVOLUTION. [FART HI 

1781 . •Lord llawdon, a man of generous feeling-?, after having 
\~vrw~is m vam exerted his influence to save him, finally gave 
muitf Lma, his sanction to the execution. 2 The British strongly 

llawdon or<. . o J 

thisooca- urged the justice of the measure, while the Americans 

2. of the condemned it as an act of unwarrantable cruelty. 
1l meiuu{e! & 23. 3 Early in September, General Greene again 

3. awe an, advanced upon the enemy, then commanded by Col- 
tebanie'of onel Stewart, who, at his approach, retired to Eutaw 

springs. Springs.* On the 8th the two armies engaged, with near 

a. n. p. 272. ly equal forces. The British were at first driven in con- 

fusion from the field, but at length rallying in a favor- 
able position, they withstood all the efforts of the Amer- 
icans, and after a sanguinary conflict, of nearly four 
hours, General Greene drew ofF his troops, and returned 
to the ground he had occupied in the morning. During 
the night, Colonel Stewart abandoned his position, and 

b. n. p. 260. retired to Monk's Corner. b 4 The Americans lost, in 
the losses"} this battle, in killed, wounded, and missing, about 300 
each party i men _ 'p ne loss sustained by the enemy was somewhat 

greater. 
s. Whatu 24. 6 Shortly after the battle of Eutaw Springs, the 
ctofeXt'the British entirely abandoned the open»country, and re- 
inthl a caro- ^ed to Charleston and the neighboring islands. These 
Unas? events ended the campaign of 1781, and, indeed, the 
6. of the revolutionary war, in the Carolinas. 6 At the com- 
eirci'ilfJtan- mencement of the year, the British were in possession 
^occw-ret of Georgia and South Carolina ; and North Carolina 
duri £ l f} ha was thought to be at their mercy. At the close of the 
year, Savannah and Charleston were the only posts in 
their possession, and to these they were closely confinec 1 
by the regular American troops, posted in the vicinity, 
and by the vigilant militia of the surrounding country. 
7. what is 25. 'Though General Greene was never decisively 
re Gmerai victorious, yet he was still formidable when defeated, 
Greene? an( j ever y Da ttl e which he fought resulted to his ad- 
vantage. To the great energy of character, and the 
fertility of genius which he displayed, is, principally, 
to be ascribed the successful issue of the southern 
c /n«--», campaign. 

6. Give an r & ; _ ■ t > 

account of 2o. 8 Having followed, to its termination, the order 

ments of of the events which occurred in the southern depart- 

iMx^ru. ment, we now return to the movements of Cornwallis, 



CHAT. VII. J EVENTS OF 1781. 275 

who, late in April, left Wilmington, 1 with the avowed 17§I. 

object of conquering Virginia. Marching- north by the " ~ „ " 

f II IT * i • ., ,.,? f. a.aeep.2,2. 

way oi Halifax, and crossing, with little opposition, 
the large and rapid rivers that flow into Roanoke and 
Albemarle Sounds, in less than a month he reached 6 fa. Biay2o. 
Petersburg,! where he found the troops of General 
Philips, who had died a few days before his arrival. 
•The defence of Virginia was at that time intrusted i. To whom 
principally to the Marquis de Lafayette, who, with a w fenc¥nf~ 
fcree of only three thousand men, mostly militia, could y ^MtSm 
is little more than watch the movements of the enemy, tntrustedt 
at a careful distance. 

27. 2 Unable to bring Lafayette to an engagement, 2. mmt 
Cornwallis overran the country in the vicinity of James cormotaiu 
River, and destroyed an immense quantity of public adopl - 
and private property. s An expedition under Tarleton 3 . intaifr 
penetrated to Charlottesville,^ and succeeded in making T s a f t %^ t 
prisoners of several members of the Virginia House of expeditumi 
Delegates, and came near seizing the governor of the 

state, Thomas Jefferson. 4 After taking possession of i.whywas 
Richmond and Williamsburg, Cornwallis was called cauSta am 
to the seacoast by Sir Henry Clinton ; who, apprehen- seacoasa 
sive of an attack by the combined French and Amer- 
ican forces, was anxious that Cornwallis should take a 
position from which' he might reinforce the garrison of 
New York, if desirable. 

28. ^Proceeding from Williamsburg to Portsmouth, s.ivhatoc- 
when on the point of crossing James River he was at- c Yinzi*e 
tacked' by Lafayette, who had been erroneously in- SoTnwaiL 
formed that the main body had already crossed. Gen- c. July 6. 
eral Wayne, who led the advance, on seeing the whole 
British army drawn out against him, made a sudden 
charge with great impetuosity, and then hastily re 
treated with but little loss. Cornwallis, surprised a 

this bold maneuver, and perhaps suspecting an ambus- 
cade, would not allow a pursuit. 



* Halifax, in N. Carolina, is situated on the W. bank of Roanoke River, at the head 
of sloop navigation, about 150 miles N. from Wilmington. 

t Petersburg, Virginia, is on the S. bank of Appomattox River, twelve miles above 
Its entrance into James River. 

% Charlottesville is about sixty-five miles N.W. from Richmond. It is the 3eat of the 
University of Virginia, an institution planned by Mr. Jefferson. The residence of Mr 
Jeffersonwasat^foBtiteWo, three miles S.E. from Charlottesville. 



276 



THE REVOLUTION. 



[PART in. 



ITSl. 29. 'After crossing James River be proceeded to 
*~ a From Portsmouth ; but not liking the situation for a perma- 
Au?. 1-22. nen t pogtj he soon evacuated the place, and concen- 
xA tt!e a next e trated* his forces at Yorktown,* on the south, side of 
of co"nwai York River, which he immediately commenced forti- 
%Jiere a didhe fy m o- Gloucester Point, on the opposite side of the 
jinaiiy am- r iver, was held bv a small force under Colonel Tarleton. 

centrate his J J - ■ 

forces? 30. 2 ln the mean time, General Washington had 

plan had formed the plan of attacking Sir Henry Clinton ; and 

l f a rme"d S i!i n ^ ate m J une ? tne French troops from Rhode Island, 

the mean under Count Rochambeau, marched to the vicinity of 

xchat 'move- New York, for the purpose of aiding in the enterprise, 

made oy the. 3 The intention was abandoned, however, in August, m 

tr'oTps? consequence of large reinforcements having been re- 

z.whywas ceived by Clinton, — the tardiness with which the con- 

the plan . J 'tit i i r ■ r 

abandoned? tinentai troops assembled, — and the fairer prospect of 
success which was opened by the situation of Corn- 
wallis. 
4. n^at is 31, 4 A French fleet, commanded by the Count do 
amende- Grasse, was expected soon to arrive in the Chesapeake; 
v< the U conf an ^ Washington, having effectually deceived Clinton 
lined ar - until the last moment, with the belief that New York 
Avas the point of attack, suddenly drew off the com- 
bined French and American army, and, after rapid 
marches, on the 30th of September appeared before 
Yorktown. 

32. s The Count de Grasse had previously entered' 

'i'hmptreat the Chesapeake, and, by blocking up James and York 

%scuVZff~ Rivers, had effectually cut off the escape of Cornwallis 

andiyiand? D Y sea i while a force of two thousand troops, under 

the Marquis St. Simon, landed from the fleet, and joined 

Lafayette, then at Williamsburg, with 

the design of effectually opposing the 

British, should they attempt to retreat 

upon the Southern States. 6 A British 

fleet from New York, under Admiral 

Graves, made an attempt to relieve 

Cornwallis, and to intercept the French 

fleet bearing the heavy artillery and 

* Yorktown, the capital of York County, Vir 
ginia,ison the S. side of York River, about "even 
miles from its entrance into the Chesapeake, (See 
Map. 



Sept. 30. 



D.Auff. 28,30 
How was 



SIEGE OF YORKTOWN. 




CHAT. VII.] 



EVENTS OF 178i. 



277 



military stores, from Rhode Island. A partial action 
took place 1 off the capes, but the French avoided a 
general battle, and neither party gained any decided 
advantage. The object of the British, however, was 
defeated. 

33. 'After General Clinton had learned the destina 
tion of the army of Washington, hoping to draw off a 
part of his forces, he sent Arnold on a plundering ex- 
pedition against Connecticut. 2 Landing b at the mouth 
of the river Thames, Arnold proceeded in person 
against Fort Trumbull, a short distance below New 
London,* which was evacuated on his approach. 
New London was then burned, and public and pri- 
vate, property to a large amount destroyed. 

34. 3 In the meantime a party had proceeded against 
Fort Griswold, on the east side of the river, which, 
after an obstinate resistance, was carried by assault. 6 
When Colonel Ledyard, the commander of the fort, 
surrendered his sword, it was immediately plunged 
into his bosom ; and the carnage was continued until 
the greater part of the garrison was killed or wounded. 
4 This barbarous inroad did not serve the purpose of 
Clinton in checking the advance of Washington against 
Corn wall is. 

35. s In the siege of Yorktown the French were 
posted in front, and on the right of the town, extending 
from the river above, to the morass in the centre, where 
they were met by the Americans, who extended to the 
river below. d 6 On the evening of the ninth of Octo- 
ber, the batteries were opened against the town, at a 
distance of 600 yards ; and so heavy was the fire, that 
many of the guns of the besieged were soon dismount- 
ed, and silenced, and the Avorks in many places de- 
molished. Shells and red hot balls reached the British 
ships in the harbor, several of which were burned. 
7 On the evening of the 11th the besiegers ad- 
vanced to within three hundred yards of the 
British lines. 



1781. 




3. Give, an 

account of 
the capture 
of Fort Grig- 

wold. 
c. Sept. 6 



4. What is 
said of the. 
purpose of 
this barbar- 
ous inroad? 

5. How wen 
the combi- 
ned forces 
arranged at 
the siege of 
Yorktownl 
d. See the 

Map. 
6. When 
were the 
batteries 
opened, ana 
with what 
effect) 

7. Uliatad 

vance was 

made on tliv 

AUH1 



* JVcw London, in Connecticut, is situated on the VV. bank of 
he River Thame;, three miles from its entrance into Long Island 
Sound. Fort Trumbull is situated on a projecting point, about 
a mile below the city. Fort Griswold Is situated opposite Fort 
Trumbull, on an eminence In the town of Groton. (See Map,) 




278 THE REVOLUTION. [PART m. 

1781. 36. 'On the 14th, two redoubts, in advance and on 
0ct 14 the left of the besieged, were carried by assault ; the 
i.whatoc- one by an American, ind the other by a French de- 
c me'uth? tachment. These were then included in the works of the 
a said"of a tkc besiegers. On the 1 Gth, nearly a hundred pieces of heavy 
P t/Ksie°e{ ordnance were brought to bear on the British works, 
and with such effect that the walls and fortifications 
were beaten down, and almost every gun dismounted. 
2. of the 37. 2 No longer entertaining any hopes of effectual 
UeBritS resistance, on the evening of the same day Cornwallis 
tcretrtat; attempted to retreat by way of Gloucester Point; 
hoping to be able to break through a French detach- 
ment posted in the rear of that place, and, by rapid 
s. of the marches, to reach New York in safety, frustrated 
^m-jaowru m this attempt by a violent storm, which dispersed his 
boats after one division had crossed the river, he was 
reduced to the necessity of a capitulatidn ; and, on the 
Oct. i9. 19th, the posts of Yorktovvn and Gloucester, containing 
more than seven thousand British soldiers, were sur- 
rendered to the army of Washington, and the shipping 
in the harbor to the fleet of De Grasse. 
d. Oct. 24. 38. 4 Five days after the fall of Yorktown, Sir Henry 
i'urreT'five Clinton appeared 11 at the mouth of the Chesapeake, 
days after with an armament of 7000 men ; but learning that 
<ier? Cornwallis had already surrendered, he returned to 
New York. The Victorious allies separated soon 
" i7°'Y after the surrender. The Count de Grasse sailed b for 
■position was the West Indies ; Count Rochambeau cantoned his 
"anted for? army, during the winter, in Virginia ; and the main 
body of the Americans returned to its former posi- 
tion on the Hudson, while a strong detachment under 
General St. Clair was despatched to the South, to re- 
inforce the army of General Greene. 
„ , m 39. 6 By the victory over Cornwallis the whole coun- 

6. What was J J ■,.__.. _ . . 

the effect of try was, in eftect, recovered to the Union — the .British 

this import- J -, -, , ■, -, f, -, 

ant victory t power was reduced to merely defensive measures — and 
was confined principally to the cities of New York, 
Charleston, and Savannah. At the news of so im- 
portant a victory, transports of exultation broke forth, 

7. what re- and triumphal celebrations were held throughout the 
u ioimmtnt Union. 'Washington set apart a particular day for 
.^ngton*' tne performance of divine service in the army j recom- 



CHAP. VIII.] 



CLOSE OF THE WAR, ETC. 



279 



mending that "all the troops should engage in it with 17§1. 
serious deportment, and that sensibility of heart which make, and 
the surprising and particular interposition of Provi- recommend) 
dence in their favor claimed." 1. wiiatwas 

40. 'Congress, on receiving the official intelligence, d gr l et s b oYuiu 
went in procession to the principal church in Phil- ocaMionf 
adelphia, "To return thanks to 
Almighty God for the signal suc- 
cess of the American arms," and 
appointed the 13th of December 
as a day of public thanksgiving 
and prayer. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

CLOSE OF THE "WAR, AND ADOP- 
TION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 




GENEEAL GKEKNE. 



1. 2 When intelligence of the defeat and capture of 
Cormvallis reached London, the king and ministry 
evinced a determination still to continue the war for 
the reduction of the " rebellious colonies ;" but, fortu- 
nately, the war had become almost universally un- 
popular with the British nation. 3 From the 12th of 
December to the 4th of March, repeated motions were 
made in the House of Commons for terminating the 
war j and on this latter day a the House resolved, that 
those who should advise the king to continue the war 
on the continent of North America, should be declared 
enemies of the sovereign and of the country. 

2. *On the 20th of March the administration of Lord 
North was terminated, and the advocates of peace im- 
mediately came into power. Early in May, Sir Guy 
Carleton, who had been appointed to succeed Sir Henry 
Clinton in the command of all the British forces, arrived 
at New York, with instructions to promote the wishes 
>f Great Britain for an accommodation with the United 
States. In accordanco with these views, offensive Avar 
mostly ceased on the part of the British, and Washing- 
ton made no attempts on the posts of the enemy. The 
year 1782 consequently passed without furnishing any 
military operations of importance ; although the hostile 



2. How did 

the king 
and minis- 
try receive 
the news of 
the capture 
of Corn toal- 
list 



3.\Vhatv;a> 
done in the 
House of 
Commons? 

1782. 

a. March 4. 



March 20. 

4. What 

events, and 

what state 

of things 

followed t/U 

retirement 

of Lori 

North > 



280 CLOSE OF THE WAR. [PAR.T IIL 

1 T82. array of armies, and occasional skirmishes, still denoted 
' ' the existence of a state of war. 



Nov. 30. 3. iOn the 30th of November, 1782, preliminary 

ticiefand articles of peace were signed at Paris, by Mr. Oswald, 
'^ignei'm 6 ' a commissioner on the part of Great Britain, and John 
V til'r"nnw- Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry 
mgyearl Laurens, on the part of the United States. Prelimi- 
nary articles of peace between France and England 
1783. were likewise signed on the 20th of January follow- 
Jan. 20. j n g ■ an( j on thg 3J f September, of the same year, 
definitive treaties of peace were signed by the com- 
missioners of England, with those of the United States, 
France, Spain, and Holland. 
i.\rnc.tioere 4. 2 By the terms of the treaty between England and 
' ihefreaty the United States, the independence of the latter was 
Enguuli acknowledged in its fullest extent ; ample boundaries 
"united were allowed them, extending north to the great lakes, 
states} an( ] vvest to the Mississippi, — embracing a range of ter- 
ritory more extensive than the states, when colonies, 
had claimed ; and an unlimited right of fishing on the 
^dlnewitt banks of Newfoundland was conceded. 3 The two 
th idalY' Fioridas, which had long been held* by England, 
a.sincei763. were restored to Spain. 

April i9, 5. 40n the 19th of April, the eighth anniversary of 
t.ivhatwerc th e battle of Lexington, a cessation of hostilities was 
'iH^enei'its proclaimed in the American army ; and on the 3d of 
"^ mr> ear November, the army was disbanded by general orders 
of congress. Savannah was evacuated by the British 
troops in July, New York in November, and Charles- 
ton in the following month. 
5. wruu £ G. •'Notwithstanding all had looked forward with 

said of the , o 

ditfcuiaes joyful hope to the termination of the war, yet the dis- 
the disband- banding of the American army had presented difficul- 
m army.i e ties and dangers, which it required all the wisdom of 
congress and the commander-in-chief to overcome. 
Neither officers nor soldiers had, for a long time, re- 
ceived any pay for their services ; and although in 
1780 congress had adopted a resolution promising half 
pay to the officers, on the conclusion of peace, yet the 
state of the finances now rendered the payment impos- 
sible. The disbanding of the army would, therefore, 
throw thousands out of the service, without oompen- 



CHAP. VTL-J ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 281 

sation for the past, or substantial provision for the 1T§3. 
future. 

7. 'In this situation of affairs, it was feared that an }■ in this 

111 i ii i situation of 

open insurrection would break out, and that the army affairs what 

' . . , , 1(l . . . '. i . i .1 was feared/ 

would attempt to do itself the justice which the country- 
was slow to grant. 2 In the midst of the excitement, an 2. nimt is 
anonymous address, since ascertained to have been a^'fref/cir- 
written by Major John Armstrong, — composed with th rou%uhe 
great ingenuity, and recommending an appeal to the army* 
fears of congress, and the people, was circulated 1 through a- March u. 
the army ; calling a meeting of the officers., for the pur- 
pose of arranging the proper measures for obtaining re- 
dress. Such was the state of feeling in the army, that 
a Avar between the civil and the military powers ap- 
peared inevitable. 

8. 3 The firmness and prudence of Washington, how- 3. Whatioai 
ever, succeeded in averting the clanger. Strong in the e the C 'iujia- 
love and veneration of the people and the army, and washing. 
possessing an almost unbounded influence over his of- wnf 
ficers, he succeeded in persuading the latter to disre- 
gard the anonymous call, and to frown upon all dis- 
orderly and illegal proceedings for obtaining redrew. 

4 In a subsequent meeting, called by Washington him- 4. Whatwat 
self, General Gates presiding, the officers unanimously subsequent 
declared, that " No circumstances of distress or danger mted% 
should induce a conduct that might tend to sully the himl 
reputation and glory which they had acquired at the 
price of their blood, and eight years faithful services," 
and th>e#they still had " unshaken confidence in the 
justice of congress and their country." 

9. 5 Notlong after, congress succeeded in making the 5 matar . 
proper arrangements for granting: the officers, accord- rangmunt* 

•i- r ri? • 1,-iir were " ,ade 

mg to their request, five years full pay, in place of half bycon- 
pay for life ; and four months full pay to the army, in 
part payment for past services. 'Their work com- G -what is 
p'.t ted. — their country independent, — the soldiers of the "refurn^ 
revolution returned peaceably to their homes; bearing th V^^ r * 
with them the public thanks of congress, in the name ht»M»l 
of th sir grateful country. . _ , , ,, 

& J . 7. Relate ttu, 

10. 7 Washington, having- taken leave of his officers ctrcumstan- 

, • 1 a 1 • 1 stances of 

and army, repaired to Annapolis, where congress was wasittng- 
then in session ; and there, on the 23d of December, nation. 



282 CLOSE OF THE WAR. [TART in 

17 §3. before that august body of patriots and sages, and a 
large concourse of spectators, — in a simple and affec- 
tionate address, after commending the interests of his 
country to the protection of Heaven, he resigned his 
commission as commander-in-chief of the American 
army. 
i. what is 1.1. l After an eloquent and affecting reply by Gen- 
reciremJiu? eral Mifflin, then president of the congress, Washing- 
ton withdrew. He then retired to his residence at 
Mount Vernon,* exchanging the anxious labors of the 
camp, for the quiet industry of a farm, and bearing 
with him the enthusiastic love, esteem, and admiration 
of his countrymen. 
2. To what 12. independence and peace being now established, 
tentlonltf the public mind, relieved from the excitement incident 
ww direct- to a state °f war > was turned, to examine the actual 
edt condition of the country. In addition to a foreign 
debt of eight millions of dollars, a domestic debt of 
more than thirty millions, due to American citizens, 
and, principally, to the officers and soldiers of the rev- 
olution, was strongly urged upon congress for payment. 
i.\vhy could 3But by the articles of confederation congress had not 

not congress J _ . , , ,. ii> 

. discharge the power to discharge debts incurred by the war ; it 
could merely recommend to the individual states to 
raise money for that purpose. 
«. For what 13. 4 The states were therefore called upon for funds 
nates called to discharge, in the first place, the arrears of pay due 
c i^f?™. to the soldiers of the revolution. 6 The states listened 

5.11 hat pre- . . 

voited their to these calls with respect, but their situation was em- 
barrassing; — each had its local debts to provide for, 
and its domestic government to support, — the country 
had been drained of its wealth, and taxes could not be 
collected ; and, besides, congress had no binding power 
8. what to compel the states to obedience. 6 Some of the states 

tS^tton attempted, by heavy taxes upon the people, to sup- 
%usfttsi P ort their credit, and satisfy their creditors. In Massa- 
chusetts, an insurrection was the consequence, and an 
armed force of several thousand men was necessary to 

a. Cr. 1787. SUppi'eSS it. a 

* Mount Vernon, in Virginia, the former residence of Washington, is on the W. bant 
rtf the Potomac, six miles below Alexandria. It contains the mansion and the tomb of 
•he Father of his country, and many a citizen and travellor have made a pilgrimage to 
2tus hallowed spot. 



CHAP. VH1.J ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION. 283 

14. 'With evils continually increasing, the neces- 1786. 
sity of a closer union of the states, and of an efficient J Wlmt ~ 
gfenerai government, became more and more apparent, became ay- 

f . & . P ' . . - . rf parent i 

2 A convention of commissioners from six states, held ^whatam- 
at Annapolis, in September, 1786, for the purpose of v /f e " /d ' a '- Zi i 
establishing a better system of commercial regulations, " a ^gV" 
led to a proposition for revising the articles of confed- 
eration. Accordingly, a convention of delegates, from 1707 
all the states, except Rhode Island, met a at Philadel- a . May.' 
phia for this purpose in 1787. ^Finding the articles 3. what is 
of confederation exceedingly defective as a form of conie°{/ion 
government, the convention rejected their former pur- w23«r^a- 
pose of revising them, and proceeded to the consider- ateiptuain 
ation of a new constitution. — 4 In July of this year, a i.whatneio 
large extent of territory north of the Ohio River was Malformed 
formed into a territorial government by the general inJul 'J l 
congress, and called the Northwestern Territory.* 

15. s After four months' deliberation a constitution h. Sept. 17. 
was a?reed b on, which, after being- presented to con- s. what u 

° i-i • ° ■ e 1 1 said °f lhe 

press, was submitted to conventions of the people in new coma- 

1 1 /• .1 • .• c *■ i-> • tution, and 

the several states lor their ratification. Previous to, ofusadop- 

and during the year 1788, majorities of the people in yraa 

eleven of the states adopted the constitution, although 

not without strong opposition ; as many believed that 

the extensive powers, which the new government gave 

to the rulers, would be dangerous to the liberties of the 

people. 

1G. 6 The supporters of the constitution, who advo- s.whatpar 

, . /.' 1 i 1 ty names 

cated a union of the several states under a strong gov- now arose'} 
eminent, were denominated Federalists, and their op- 
posers anti-Federalists. 'Provision having been made election of 
for the election of officers under the new government, blunder 
George Washington was unanimously elected Presi- th ermmntT 
dent of the United States for the term of four years, c. votes 



counted 



and John Adams Vice-president. Aprii6 

* The Northwestern Territory then embraced the present states of Ohio, Indiana, 
Minois, Michigan, and Wisconsin Territory. See chart, p. 10, for the several changes 
since made ill the N.W. Territory. 



PART IV. 

THE UNITED STATES, 

ffROM THE ORGANIZATION OF 
THE GOVERNMENT UNDER 
THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION, 
IN 17S9, TO THE YEAR 1S53. 



CHAPTER I. 

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, 




WASHINGTON. 



rnoM apeil 30, 1789, to harcii 4, 1797. 

1. 'On the 30th of April, 1789, Washing-ton ap- 
peared before congress, then assembled in the city of 
New York, and taking' the oath of office required by 
the constitution, was proclaimed President of the Uni- 
ted States.* 2 In an impressive address to both houses 
of congress, he expressed his distrust in his own quali- 
fications for the important office to which the partiality 
of his country had called him, — offered his " supplica- 
tions to that Almighty Being who rules over the uni- 
verse, and presides in the councils of nations," that He 
would " consecrate to the liberties and happiness of 
the people of the United States a government instituted 
by themselves," — and that He would enable all ' : em- 
ployed in its administration, to execute, with success, 
the functions allotted to their charge." 

2. 3 Adhering to the principles upon which he had 
acted while commander-in-chief, he now likewise de- 
clined all pecuniary compensation for his presidential 
duties, and closed by requesting congress to accompany 
him, in humble supplication, to the benign Parent of 
the human race, for the divine blessing on all those 
measures upon which the success of the government 



1T§9. 

1. When and 
wtiere did 

Washington 

enter tipon 

the duties 

of president} 

2. What ac- 
covnt is giv- 
en of his ad- 
dress on that 

occasion ? 



3. To what 
•principles 

did he sti'l 
adhere, and 

how did he 
Close his 
address ! 



* Washincton was inaugurated in the nailery of the old C ity Hall, which stood on 
the site of the present Custom House, in Wall Street 



S.S6 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

17 §9. depended. 'Immediately after the address, both houses 

1. What is °f congress, with the president, attended divine service; 
said of the and with this public acknowledgment of a Supreme 

wanner in . r © J 

wivcitthe. Being as the ruler of the universe, and controller of 

new ?ov- . ° . ... i • i 

ermiientwru human actions and human destiny, the government 

commenced? i .i_ ,-. .• J P 

under the new constitution was commenced. 
scpt^ 8 ^' 2 The legislature, during its first session,** was 

2. in what principally occupied in providing revenues for the long 
gtsuaureoc- exhausted treasury ; in organizing the executive de- 
rtng 'its flm payments ; in establishing a judiciary ; and in,frarning 

session/ amendments to the constitution. 3 For providing a 
measures revenue, duties were levied on the tonnage of vessels, 
/orpro»l? an ^ likewise on foreign goods imported into the Uni- 
d Jnue a and te( ^ States. For the purpose of encouraging American 
f orencoura- shipping, these duties were made unequal; being the 
ican'sh/p- heaviest on the tonnage of foreign vessels, and on goods 
introduced by them. 

4. what a* 4. *To aid the president in the management of the 

partments ~, . „ * . . ° 

wereesiab- aflairs of government, three executive departments were 

^kepresi- established, — styled department of foreign affairs, or of 

dentl state ; department of the treasury, and department of 

5. wh-atdu- war; with a secretary at the head of each. fi The 
qSred'ofihe heads of these departments had special duties assigned 

hca^ of them ; and they were likewise to constitute a council, 

menu) which might be consulted by the president, whenever 

he thought proper, on subjects relating to the duties of 

6. who had. their offices. 6 The power of removing from office the 
' 'removal f heads of these departments, was, after much discussion, 
iwhatap- l e ft w ^ tn tne president alone. 7 Thomas Jefferson was 
wei"e l "iade S ? a PP omte d secretary of state, Hamilton of the treasury, 

and Knox of the war department. 

z.wimtis 5. 8 A national judiciary was also established during 

na/fon f ai%- this session of congress ; consisting of a supreme court, 

d lf a amend d having one chief justice, and several associate judges ; 

menu to the anc [ circuit and district courts, which have jurisdiction 

twn? over certain cases specified in the constitution. John 

Jay was appointed chief justice of the United States 

and Edmund Randolph attorney-general. Several 

* A Session of Confess is one sitting, or the time during which the legislature meets 
daily for business. Congress has but one session annually ; but as the existence of each 
congress continues during two years, each congress has two sessions. Thus we speak 
-f the 1st session of the 20th congress ;— the 2d session of the 25th congress &c 



chap, i.] Washington's administration. 28? 

amendments to the constitution were proposed by con- 1789. 
gress, ten of which were subsequently ratified by the 
constitutional majority of the states. 'In November j „ tigg 
North Carolina adopted the constitution, and Rhode states last 

t i i • i i t r 1 1 i i • i adopted tlie 

Island in the May following, thus completing the num.- constitv- 
ber of the thirteen original states. 

6. 2 Early in the second session, the secretary of the 1790. 
treasury brought forward, 1 at the request of congress, a a - Ja r n - 15 ; 
plan for maintaining the public credit. He proposed, sauiofHam 
as a measure of sound policy and substantial justice, f™main" 
that the general government should assume, not only ^itcrl&uj 
the public foreign and domestic debt, amounting to 

more than fifty-four millions of dollars, but likewise 
the debts of the states, contracted. during the war, and 
estimated at twenty-five millions. 

7. 3 Provision was made for the payment of the for- 3. Whatwa* 
eign debt without opposition ; but respecting the as- (/(^S 
sumption of the state debts, and also the full payment 

of the domestic debt, — in other words, the redemption 
of the public securities, then, in a great measure, in 
the hands of speculators who had purchased them for 
a small part of their nominal value, much division pre- 
vailed in congress ; but the plan of the secretary was 
finally adopted. 

8. 4 During this year a law was passed, fixing the A.xvnat was 
seat of government, for ten years, at Philadelphia; and fating to a 
afterwards, permanently, at a place to be selected on ^uo/'goi^ 
the Potomac. *In 1790, the " Territory southwest of the ermnenti 
Ohio," embracing the present Tennessee, was formed htoriaigo^ 
into a territorial government. w%tf"rmed 

9. s Duringf the same year, an Indian war broke out in 1790? 

? r J .' . . „ 6. What ae- 

on tne northwestern frontiers; and pacific arrange- count is 

ments having been attempted in vain, an expedition, s ind?anwat 

under General Harmar, was sent into the Indian coun- m fmtern h 

try, to reduce the hostile tribes to submission. Many f ro " tier,f 

of the Indian towels were burned, and a larga quantity 

of corn destroyed ; but in two battles," near the con- k Oct. n 

fluence of the rivers St. Mary's* and St. Joseph's in In- and:a 

diana, between successive detachments of the army 



* The St. Mary's from the S. and St. Joseph's from the N. unite at Fort Wayne, In 
the N.E. part of Indiana, and form the Maumee, which flows into the west end of Lako 
Erie 



2S8 The united states. [part iv 

1'790. and the Indfans, the former were defeated with con 

siderable loss. 

1791. 10. J Early in 1791, in accordance with a plan pro- 

laki'ofthe P ose d by the secretary of the treasury, an act was 

estabim- passed by congress, for the establishment of a national 

national bank, called the Bank of the United States; but not 

without the most strenuous opposition ; on the ground, 

principally, that congress had no constitutional right to 

/ charter such an institution. 

a. Feb. is. 11. 2 During the same year, Vermont,* the last set- 
hnfreiated ^°d °f tne New England States, adopted the constitu- 
cfYermono tion, and was admitted 11 into the Union. The territory 

of this 'state had been claimed both by New York and 
New Hampshire ; — each had made grants of land 
within its limits ; but in 1777 the people met in con- 
vention, and proclaimed Vermont, or New Connecticut, 
an independent state. Owing to the objections of 
New York, it was not admitted into the confederacy ; 
nor was the opposition of New York withdrawn until 
1789, when Vermont agreed to purchase the claims of 
New York to territory and jurisdiction by the payment 
of 30,000 dollars. 
iJrefafier 12 - 3After the defeat of General Harmar in 1790, 
Vomeral anotner expedition, with additional forces, was planned 
harmar in against the Indians, and the command given to Gen- 

1790 1 £> 7 o 

eral St. Clair, then governor of the Northwestern 

b. Sept. and Territory. 4 In the fall of 1791, the forces of St. Clair, 



Oct. 
Give an 



numbering about 2000 men, marched b from Fort 
accoitntrf Washington,! northward, about eighty miles, into the 

theexpedi- T , . « '' . ' , . , s c i, ', . 

Hon ami vie Indian country, where, on the 4th ol .[November, tney 

Genmtist. were surprised in camp,! an( l defeated with great 

0lair ' slaughter. Out of 1400 men engaged in the battle, 

nearly 600 were killed. Had not the victorious In- 

* VERMONT, one of the Eastern or New England States, contains an area of about 
8000 square miles. It is a hilly country, and is traversed throughout nearly its whole 
le'ijrth by the Green Mountains, the loftiest points of which are a little more than 1000 
fc<>L high. The best lands in the state are \V. of the mountains, near Lake Champlaiu ; 
but the soil generally, throughout the state, is better adapted to grazing than to tillage. 
The first, settlement in the state was at Fort Duumier. now Brattleboro'. A fort was 
erected here in 1723, and a settlement commenced in the following year. 

t Fort Washington was on the site of the present Cincinnati, situated on the N. side 
of the Ohio River, near the S.W. extremity of the state of Ohio. The city is near the 
eastern extremity of a pleasant valley about twelve miles in circumference. 

% The camp of St. Clair was in the western part of Ohio, at the N.W. angle of Dark 
County. Fott Recovery was afterwards built there. Dark County received its name 
from Colonel Dark, an officer in St. Clair's army. 



CHAP. \.. 



Washington's administration. 



289 



dians been called from the pursuit to the abandoned 
camp in quest of plunder, it is probable that nearly the 
whole army would have perished. 

13. J On the 1st of June, 1792, Kentucky,* which 
had been previously claimed by Virginia, was admit- 
ted into the Union as a state. The first settlement in 
the state was made by Daniel Boone and others, at a 
plate called Boonesboro',f in the year 1775. During 
the early part of the revolution, the few inhabitants 
suffered severely from the Indians, who were incited 
by agents of the British government; but in 1779 
General Clarke, as before mentioned, 11 overcame the 
Indians, and laid waste their villages ; after which, the 
inhabitants enjoyed greater security, and the settle- 
ments were gradually extended. 

14. 2 In the autumn of 1792 General Washington 
was again elected president of the United States, and 
John Adams vice-president. 3 At this time the revolu- 
tion in France was progressing, and early in 1793 
news arrived in the United States of the declaration of 
war by France against England and Holland. 4 About 
the same time Mr. Genet arrived b in the United States, 
as minister of the French republic, where he was 
warmly received by the people, who remembered with 
gratitude the aid which- France had rendered them in 
their struggle for independence, and who now cher- 
ished the flattering expectation that the French nation 
was about to enjoy the same blessings of liberty and 
self-government. 

15. 5 Flattered by his reception, and relying on the 
partiality manifested towards the French nation, Mr. 
Genet assumed the authority of fitting out privateers in 
the ports of the United States, to cruise against the ves- 
sels of nations hostile to France ; and likewise attempt- 
ed to set on foot expeditions against the Spanish settle- 



1791. 



1792. 

1. What is 
related of 
the early 
history of 
Kentucky 1 



a. See p. 252. 



2. What re 

election was 

made in 

1792? 

3. What 

events were 
at tliis time 
transpiring 
in France I 

1793. 

b. In April. 

4. What is 
said of Mr. 

Genet, and 
of the grat- 
itude of the 

Americans 
to France 1 



5. What 
course was 
pursued by 
Mr. (ienet, 

and what 
hud tlie 

president 

declared} 



* KENTUCKY, one of the Western States, contains an area of about 42,000 square 
stiiles. The country in the western parts of the state is hilly ami mountainous. A nar- 
low tract along the Ohio River, through the whole length of the state, is hilly and bro 
"rcen, but h;is a good soil. Between this tract and Greene River is a fertile region, fre 
quently denominated the garden of the state. The country in the S.W. part of the 
state, between Greene and Cumberland Rivers, is called "The Barrens," although it 
proves to be excellent grain land 

t Boonesboro' is on the S. side of Kentucky River, about eighteen miles S.E. from Lex- 
ington. 



13 



2!90 



THE tWITED STATES. 



fPAItT IV. 



I79S. 



a. May 9. 



t. Why did 

the presi- 
ient request 

his recall, 
end what in 

said of his 

successor ! 
b. July. 



e. Pro- 
Bounced, 
Fo-snii. 



cf.Seep. 288. 
2. What 

events oc- 
curred at 
the west af- 
ter the de- 
feat of St. 
Clair in 
1791? 

1794. 



e. N. p. 287. 
Aug. 2f>. 



3. What 

troubles 

arose from 

taxation} 



f. Aug. 7, and 

Sept. 25. 



4. What is 
said of the 
complaints 

between Gt. 

Britain and 

the United 

States ? 



merits in Florida and on the Mississippi, although the 
president had previously issued* a proclamation, de*- 
claring it to be the duty and interest of the United 
States to preserve the most strict neutrality towards the 
contending powers in Europe. 

16. 'As Mr. Genet persisted in his endeavors, in 
opposition to the efforts and remonstrances of the pres- 
ident, and likewise endeavored to excite discord and 
distrust between the American people and their gov- 
ernment, the president requested b his recall; and in 
the following year his place was supplied by Mr. Fau- 
chet, c who was instructed to assure the American gov- 
ernment that France disapproved the conduct of his 
predecessor. 

17. 2 After the defeat of St. Clair in 179 1, d Genera! 
Wayne was appointed to carry on the Indian war. Tn 
the autumn of 1793 he built Fort Recovery near the 
ground on which St. Clair had been defeated, where 
he passed the winter. In the following summer he 
advanced still farther into the Indian country, and 
built Fort Defiance ;* whence he moved down the 
Maumee, e and, on the 20th of August, at the head of 
about 3000 men, met the Indians near the rapids,t 
completely routed them, and laid waste their country. 

18. a An act, passed in 1791, imposing duties on do- 
mestic distilled spirits, the first attempt at obtaining a 
revenue from internal taxes, had, from the beginning 
been highly unpopular in many parts of the country 
and especially with the anti-federal or democratic party. 
During this year, the attempts to enforce the act led to 
open defiance of the laws, in the western counties of 
Pennsylvania. After two ineffectual proclamations 1, 
by the president, the display of a large military force 
was necessary in order to quell the insurgents. 

19. *Since the peace of 1783, between Great Britain 
and the United States, each party had made frequent 
complaints that the other had violated the stipulations 
contained in the treaty. 5 The former was accused of 



* Fort Defiance was situated at the confluence of the River Au Glaize with the Man 
mee, in the N.W. part of Ohio, and at the S.E. extremity of Williams Co tnty. 

t The rapids of the Maumee are about eighteen miles from the mouth of the river 
The British then occupied Fort Maumee, at the rapid's, on the N. side of t>.i> r*ver, a 
short distance above which, in the present town of Wayncsfield, the battle w w foiurfrt. 



CHAP. L] 



WASHINGTON S ADMINISTRATION. 



291 



1794. 

5. Qf what 

was Ihefw 
r>ier accu- 
sed.' 
1. The lat- 
ter? 



having carried away negroes at the close of the war, 
of making illegal seizures of American property at sea, 
and of retaining possession of the military posts on the 
western frontiers. 'The latter was accused of prevent- 
ing the loyalists from regaining possession of their 
estates, and British subjects from recovering debts con- 
tracted before the commencement of hostilities. 2 To 
such an extent had the complaints been carried, that, 
bv many, another war between the two countries was 
thought to be inevitable. 

20. 3 For the purpose of adjusting the difficulties, and 
preventing a war, if possible, Mr. Jay was sent to 
England : where he succeeded in concluding 1 a treaty, 
which, early in the following year, was laid before the 
senate for ratification. 4 After a long debate, and a 
violent opposition by the democratic party, and the 
friends of France throughout the country, the treaty 
was ratified b by the senate, and signed hy the president. 
By the terms of the treaty, the western posts were to 
be surrendered* to the United States ; compensation 
was to be made for illegal captures of American prop- 
erty ; and the United States were to secure to British 
creditors the proper means of collecting debts, which 
had been contracted before the war of the revolution. 

21. s During the same year, a treaty was concluded 
at Fort Greenville,! with the western Indians ; by 
which the various tribes ceded to the United States a 
large tract of country in the vicinity of Detroit, and 
west of Ohio. 6 In October, a treaty was concluded 
with Spain ; by which the boundaries between the 
Spanish possessions of Louisiana and Florida, and the 
United States, were settled ; the right of navigating 
the Mississippi, from its source to the ocean, was se- 
cured to the United States ; and New Orleans^ was 
granted to them, as a place of deposit, for ten years. 

* The British retained possession of Michigan, by vicinity of new Orleans. 
means of their post at Detroit, until 1796. 

t F?rt Greenville was built by General Wayne in 
1793. on a western branch of the Miami, and on the 
site of the present town of Greenville, the capital of 
Dark County, Ohio. Fort Jefferson was six miles 
S.W. of it, and Fort Recovery twenty-two miles N.E. 

4 New Orleans, now the capital of the state of 
Louisiana, is on the E. bank of the Mississippi River, 
105 miles from its mouth, by the river's course. It 
was first settled bj the French in 1717. The level 



2. W?wt re- 
sult was 
feared t 



3. What 
measure 
was taken 
for adjust- 
ing dijfficul 

ties? 
a. Nov. 19. 

1795. 

4. What is 
said of the 
ratification 
of this trea- 
ty, and what 
were its 
terms ? 
b. June. 



c. Aug. 3. 

5. What is 

said of the 
treaty con- 
cluded at 
Fort Green- 
ville ? 

6. Of the 
treaty with 

Spain I 




292 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1T95. 22. 'Peace was also established 1 with Algiers ; and 

"a." Nov. 28. American captives were redeemed by the payment of 

i. of t/ie an annual tribute to the dev, in accordance with the 

peace estab- , n , . , , . J c ' „ . -' 

ushedwith Jong established practice oi European nations. 2 ln 

""Vtqp June, 1796, the " Territory southwest of tne Ohio" was 

2 what oc erecte -d into an independent state, by the name of Ten- 
currcdin nessee,* and admitted into the Union. 

3 what is 23. 3 As the second term of Washington's adminis- 
waging- tration would expire in the spring of 1797, Washington 
rtngfrom previously made known his intention to retire from 

\Sfareioeu P UD ^ C ^ e - His farewell address, 1 * on that occasion, to 
address? the people of the United States, abounds with maxims 
b. sept. f t j ie hjghggt political importance, and sentiments of 
<. on his re- tfle warmest affection for his country. 4 On the retire- 
whai'was ment of the man on whom alone the people could unite, 
done? the two great parties in the United States brought for- 
ward their prominent leaders for the executive office 
of the nation. 
5. what is 24. s The federalists, dreading the influence of French 
^rfnfiptet sentiments and principles, — attached to the system of 
of vm two measures pursued by Washington, and desiring- its 

parties? . r . . J 1 1 • r 

continuance in his successor, made the most active ei- 
forts to elect John Adams ; while the republicans, be- 
lieving their opponents too much devoted to the British 
nation, and to British institutions, made equal exertions 
6. wiMwax t0 elect Thomas Jefferson. 6 The result was the elec- 
a'^efec U Jln f ? twn °f Mr. Adams as president, and Mr. Jefferson as 
vice-president. The inauguration of the former took 
place on the 4th of March, 1797. 

ef the city is from three to nine feet below the level of the river, at the highest water. 
To protect it from inundation, an embankment, called the Levee, has been raised on 
the border of the river, extending froiri forty-three miles below the city, to 120 mile< 
above it. (See Map, previous page.) 

* TENNESSEE, one of the Western States, contains an area of about 43,000 square 
miles. The Cumberland Mountains, crossing the state in the direction of N.E. and 
S.W., divide it into two parts, called East Tennessee and West Tennessee. The western 
part of the state has a black, rich soil : in the eastern part the valleys only are fertile 
The first settlement in Tennessee was made at Fort Loudon (see Note, p. 192) in 1757. 




CHAP. XI.J 



CHAPTER II. 

ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FBOM MABC1I 4, 1797, TO MAECH 4, 1801. 

1. 'During the administration 
of Washington, the condition of 
the country had been gradually- 
improving. A sound credit had 
been established, funds had been 
provided for the gradual payment 
of the national debt, treaties had been concluded with 
the western Indian tribes, and with England, Spain, 
and the Barbary powers, and the agricultural and 
commercial wealth of the nation had increased beyond 
all former example. "But, in the mean time, difficul- 
ties with France had arisen, which threatened to in- 
volve the country in another war. 

2. 3 On the breaking out of the war between France 
and England, consequent upon the French revolution, 
the anti-federal or republican party warmly espoused 
the cause of the French; while the government, then 
in the hands of the federal party, in its attempts to pre- 
serve a strict neutrality towards the contending powers, 
was charged with an undue partiality for England. 
4 The French ministers, who succeeded Mr. Genet, 
finding themselves, like their predecessor, supported 
by a numerous party attached to their nation, began 
to remonstrate with the government, and to urge upon 
it the adoption of measures more favorable to France. 

3. 5 The French Directory, failing in these measures, 
and highly displeased on account of the treaty recently 
concluded between England and the United States, 
adopted regulations highly injurious to American com- 
merce ; and even authorized, in certain cases, the cap- 
ture and confiscation of American vessels and their 
cargoes. 'They likewise refused to receive the Amer- 
ican minister, Mr. Pinckney, until their demands 
against the United States should be complied with. 
Mr. Pinckney was afterwards obliged, by a written 
mandate, to quit the territories of the French republic. 

4. 7 In this state of affairs, the president, by procla- 



179^ 

1. What had 
been accom- 
plished dur 

ing Wash- 
ington's ad 
m in istra- 
tion t 

2. Wliat dif 
Jicultiex had 

arisen ? 

3. Itoio did 
the different 

parties re- 
gard the 
warbctween 
France and 

England? 



i. What is 
said of the 

co urxe 
adopted by 
the French 
ministers t 



S.Whatwaa 

done bij the 
French Di- 
rectory ? 



6. Horn inas 

the Anieri- 

camninister 

treated f 

1. What 
course did 
the presi- 
dent pur- 
sue! 



294 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1797. mation, convened congress on the 15th of June ; and, 

in a firm and dignified speech, stated the unprovoked 

i. what ad- outrages of the French government. 'Advances were 

"S'" re again made, however, for securing a reconciliation ; 

w Zfciiia- ec ' an( ^ f° r tn * s P ur P ose > three envoys, at the head of whom 

aunt was Mr. Pinckney, were sent to France. 
t. what was 5. 2 But these, also, the Directory refused to receive , 
thcembas- although they were met by certain unofficial agents. 
** of the French minister, who explicitly demanded a 
large sum of money before any negotiation could be 
opened. To this insulting demand a decided negative 
was'given. Two of the envoys, who were federalists, 
were finally ordered to leave France ; while the third, 
who was a republican, was permitted to remain. 
1798. 6. 3 These events excited general indignation in the 
\welvmtt United States ; and vigorous measures were immedi- 
Mwpftqh ate ^y adopted 11 by congress, for putting the country in 
ceremMe a P r0 P er state °f defence, preparatory to an expected 
for war? war. Provision was made for raising a small standing 
a. in May. army, the command of which was given 1 ' to General 
b. July. Washington, who cordially approved the measures of 
the government. A naval armament was decided upon, 
captures of French vessels were authorized, and all 
treaties with France were declared void. 
4. now far 7. *The land forces, however, were not called into 
dijnc'u'uies action ; and after a few encounters at sea, in which an 
whatmea* American armed schooner was decoyed into the power 
TaZ'n for °f me enemy, and a French frigate captured, the French 
se themf Directory made overtures of peace. The president, 
c [799 therefore, appointed ministers, who were authorized 
to proceed to France, and settle, by treaty, the difficul- 
ties between the two countries. 
». what is 8. 6 Washington did not live to witness a restoration 
"d'euthff of peace. After a short illness, of only a few hours, 
" "Uw?!*" ne C '^ at n ' s residence at Mount Vernon, in Virginia 
Dec 14. on the 14th of December, at the age of sixty-eigh 
do^lVcm- y ears - 'When intelligence of this event reached Phn 
p«»"r«- adelphia, congress, then in session, immediately ad- 
rw.'/i'j/'jsof journed. On assembling the next day, the house of 
representatives resolved, "That the speaker's chair 
should be shrouded in black, that the members should 
wear black during the session, and that a joint com- 



CHAP. Ii.j ADAMS' S ADMINISTRATION. 295 

mittee, from the senate and the house, should be ap- 1799. 
pointed to devise the most suitable manner of paying- 
honor to the memory of the man first in war, first in 
peace, arid first in the hearts of his countrymen." 

9. 'In accordance with the report of the committee, i. inu<ba> 
and the unanimous resolves ol congress, a funeral pro- ner <a<i ac- 
cession moved from the legislative hall to the German a'Jpeopie 
Lutheran church, where an impressive and eloquent %'rTeTon'iM* 
oration was delivered by General Lee, a representative 0CCMlrmi 
from Virginia. The people of the United States were 
recommended to wear crape on the left arm, for thirty 

days. This recommendation was complied with, and 
a whole nation appeared in mourning. In every part 
of the republic, funeral orations were delivered : and 
the best talents of the nation were devoted to an ex- 
pression of the nation's grief. 

10. 2 Washington was above the common size; his 2. c&«m»e 
frame was robust, and his constitution vigorous, and a %^'ra "cf. 
capable of enduring great fatigue. His person was and'cMrae- 
fine : his deportment easv, erect, and noble; exhibit- terrfWaxk- 
ing a natural dignity, unmingled with haughtiness, 

and conveying the idea of great strength, united with 
manly gracefulness. His manners were rather re- 
served than free ; he was humane, benevolent, and 
conciliatory ; his temper was highly sensitive by na- 
ture, yet it never interfered with the coolness of his 
judgment, nor with that prudence which was the 
strongest feature in his character. His mind was 
great and powerful, and though slow in its operations, 
was sure in its conclusions. He devoted a long life to 
the welfare of his country ; and while true greatness 
commands respect, and the love of liberty remains on 
the earth, the memory of Washington will be held in 
veneration. 

11. 3 During the summer of 1800, the seat of gov- 1800. 
eminent was removed from Philadelphia to Washing- s. ma- 
ton, in the District of Columbia.* During the same curved m 
year the territory between the western boundary of lscai 
Georgia and the Mississippi River, then claimed by 

* The District of Columbia was originally a tract of country ten miles squire, on both 
eides of the Potomac river, about 120 miles from its mouth, by the river's course. In 
1790 it was ceded to the United States by Virginia and Maryland, for the i irpose of be- 
coming the 6eat of government. It included the cities of Washington, Alexandria, and 



296 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART rv 



1§0O. 



a. ^gpt. 30. 

1. What is 

said of the 

treaty with 

France ■' 



2. Of the. 
efforts of 

parties to- 
wards the, 
close of 
Adams's ad- 
ministra- 
tion / 

3. Of the 
unpopular- 
ity of the 

federal 
party i 



\.Whatwere 
the princi- 
pal causes 
of public 

discontent/ 



5. Give an 

account of 

the alien 

and sedition 

laws. 



DISTRICT 



Georgia, and called the Georgia western territory, 
was erected into a distinct government, and called the 
Mississippi Territory. Two years later, Georgia ceded 
to the United States all her claims to lands within those 
limits. *In September,* 1 a treaty was concluded at 
Paris, between the French government, then in the 
hands of Bonaparte, and the United States ; by which 
the difficulties between, the two countries were hapnilv 
terminated. 

12. 2 As the term of Mr. Adams's administration drew 
towards its close, each of the great parties in the coun- 
try made the most strenuous efforts, — the one to retain, 
and the other to acquire the direction of the govern- 
ment. 3 Mr. Adams had been elected by the predom- 
inance of federal principles, but many things in his 
administration had tended to render the party to which 
he was attached unpopular with a majority of the 
nation. 

13. 4 The people, ardently attached to liberty, had 
viewed with a jealous eye those measures of the gov- 
ernment which evinced a coldness towards the French 
revolution, and a partiality for England ; because they 
believed that the spirit of liberty was here contending 
against the tyranny of despotism. The act for raising 
a standing army, ever a ready instrument of oppression 
in the hands of kings, together with the system of di- 
rect taxation by internal duties, had been vigorously 
opposed by the democratic party ; while the Alien and 
Sedition laws increased the popular ferment to a degree 
hitherto unparalleled. 

14. s The "alien law," authorized the president to 
order any foreigner, whom he should judge dangerous 
to the peace and safety of the United States, to depart out 
or colttmbia. of the country, upon penalty of imprison- 

§j 5 I ment. The "sedition law," designed to pun- 
%£ I ish the abuse of speech and of the press, inv 



Georgetown. Washington City stands on a point oi 
land between the Potomac River and a stream called the 
Eastern Branch. The Capitol, probably the finest senate 
house in the world, the cost of which has exceeded two 
millions of dollars, stands on an eminence in the eastern 
part of the city. In 1846 that portion of the District wes 
of the Potomac was ceded bac k to Virginia. (See Map.) 




CHAP. 



III.] 



jefferson's administration. 



297 



retjafded, 
and irhat 
wu* (heir 

effect f 

2. Give an 

account of 
the presi- 
dential elec- 
tion that 
fallowed. 



posed a heavy fine and imprisonment for " any false, 1 §00. 

scandalous, and malicious writing against the govern- _ 

ment of the United States, or either house of congress, 

or the president." 'These laws were deemed, by the i. now »«■> 

democrats, highly tyrannical ; and their unpopularity ' 

contributed greatly to the overthrow of the federal 

party. 

15. 'In the coming election, Mr. Jefferson and Mr. 
Burr were brought forward as the candidates of the 
democratic party, and Mr. Adams and Mr. Pinckney 
by the federalists. Jefferson and Burr received an 
equal number of votes ; and as the constitution pro- 
vided that the person having the greatest number 
should be president, it became the duty of the house 
of representatives, voting by states, to decide be- 
tween the two. After thirty-five 
ballotings, the choice fell upon Mr. 
Jefferson. Mr. Burr, being then 
the second on the list, was conse- 
quently declared to be elected 
vice-president. 




THOMAS JEFTEESOK. 



CHAPTER III. 

JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FBOM HABCII 4, 1801, TO HABCH 4, 1809. 

1. 3 0n the accession of Mr. Jefferson to the presi- 
dency, the principal offices of government were trans- 
ferred to the republican party. The system of internal 
duties was abolished, and several unpopular laws, pass- 
ed during the previous administration, were repealed. 

2. *ln 1802, Ohio,* which had previously formed a 
part of the Northwestern Territory, was erected into a 



3. 117m: 
changes 
fullowed 
the. acces- 
sion of Mr. 
Jefferson ? 
4. What is 
said of Ohio, 

trie treaty 
with Spain 
and its vio- 
lation? 



* OHIO, the northeastern of the Western States, contains an area of about 40,000 
square miles The interior of the state, and the country bordering on Lake Erie, are 
generally level, and in some places marshy. The country bordering on the Ohio Rivet 
is generally hilly, but not mountainous. The most extensive tracts of rich and level 
lands in the state, border on the Sciota, and the CJreat and Little Miami. On the 7th of 
April, 1788, a company of forty-seven individuals landed at the spot where Marietta 
now stands, and there corarnencpd the first settlement in Ohio. 



IS* 



298 THE UNITED STATES. J PART IV 

1S02. state, u and admitted into the Union. During the same 
a. const itu- y ear j the Spanish governor of Louisiana, in violation 
tioiiadopted f a recent treaty, b closed the port of New Orleans 
ber. against the United States. This caused great excite- 
in i?95 L "see ment, and a proposition was made in congress, to take 

page 29i. possession of all Louisiana. 

c Oct * 

i. By what 3. 'A more pacific course, however, was adopted, 
"cminffva* ^ n 1800, Louisiana had been secretly ceded to Fiance; 
louifiam and a negotiation was now opened with the latter 

obtained./ ° r 

1803 P ower 5 which resulted in the purchase" 1 of Louisiana for 
d April 30. fifteen millions of dollars. In December, 6 1803, pos- 
«. Dec. 20. session was taken by the United States. 2 That por- 
^dlvided ^ on °f the territory embracing the present state of 
andnmnrii Louisiana, was called the " Territory of Orleans ;" and 
the other part, the "Dist. of Louisiana," embracing a 
large tract of country extending westward to Mexico 
and the Pacific Ocean. 
ciaS d the ^' 3 Since 1801 war had existed* 1 between the United 
Bashaw, States and Tripoli, one of the piratical Barbary powers. 
i8oi. ' In 1803, Commodore Preble was sent into the Medi- 
3 'nu at terranean ) an d after humbling the emperor of Morocco, 
relied in appeared before Tripoli with most of his squadron. 
Tripoli? The frigate Philadelphia, under Captain Bainbridge / 
being sent into the harbor to reconnoitre, struck upon 
«■ pet 3i, a rock, and was obliged to surrender 5 to the Tripoli- 
tans. The officers were considered prisoners of war, 
but the crew were treated as slaves. This capture 
caused great exultation with the enemy ; but a daring 
exploit of lieutenant, afterwards Commodore Decatur, 
somewhat humbled the pride which they felt in this 
accession to their navy. 
1804. 5. 4 Early in February 11 of the following year, Lieu- 
fa- Feb. 3. tenant Decatur, under the cover of evening, entered 
acamnt a of the harbor of Tripoli in a small schooner, having on 
tureoTFhe board but seventy-six men, with the design of destroy- 
tiMfiaa!' m S me Philadelphia, which was then moored near tfia 
castle, with a strong Tripolitan crew. By the aid of 
his pilot, who understood the Tripolitan language, De- 
catur succeeded in bringing his vessel in contact with 
the Philadelphia ; when he and his followers leaped 
on board, and, in a few minutes, killed twenty of the 
Tripolitans, and dro ,r e the rest into the sea. 



CHAP. IH.J 



Jefferson's administration. 



299 



6. Under a heavy cannonade from the surrounding 
vessels and batteries, the Philadelphia was set on fire, 
and not abandoned until thoroughly wrapped in flames; 
when Decatur and his gallant crew succeeded in get- 
ting out of the harbor, without the loss of a single man. 
'During the month of August, Tripoli was repeatedly 
bombarded by the American squadron under Commo- 
dore Preble, and a severe action occurred 1 with the 
Tripolitan gun-boats, which resulted in the capture of 
several, with little loss to the Americans. 

7. 2 In July, 1804, occurred the death of General 
Hamilton, who fell in a duel fought with Colonel Burr, 
vice-president of the United States. Colonel Burr had 
lost the favor of the republican party, and being pro- 
posed for the office of governor of New York, w r as 
supported by many of the federalists, but was openly 
opposed by Hamilton, who considered him an unprin- 
cipled politician. A dispute arose, and a fatal duel 1 ' 
was the result.* 3 In the fall of 1804, Jefferson was 
re-elected president. George Clinton, of New York, 
was chosen vice-president. 

8. 4 At the time of Commodore Preble's expedition 
to the Mediterranean, Hamet, the legitimate sovereign 
of Tripoli, was an exile ; having been deprived of his 
government by the usurpation of a younger brother. 
Mr. Eaton, the American consul at Tunis, concerted, 
with Hamet, an expedition against the reigning sov- 
ereign, and obtained of the government of the United 
States permission to undertake it. 

9. 6 With about seventy seamen from the American 
squadron, together with the followers of Hamet and 
some Egyptian troops, Eaton and Hamet set out J from 
Alexandria! towards Tripoli, a distance of a thousand 
mites, across a desert country. After great fatigue and 
suffering, they reached 6 Deme,| a Tripolitan city on the 
Mediterranean, which was taken f by assault. After 
two successful engagements 5 had occurred with the 



1801. 



1. Continue 
the. account 

of the war 
with Trip- 
oli. 

a. Aug. 3. 



2. What is 

said of the 

death of 

Hamilton? 



b. July 11. 

3. Of the 

election of 

1801? 



i.V.lmtis 
said of Ha- 
met, and tht 
expedition 
planned by 
him and 
Eaton? 

1805. 

c. Feb. 23. 



5. Give an 
account of 
that expedi- 
tion. 
d. March 6. 



e. April 26. 

f. April 27. 

g. May 13, 
and June 10 



* Hamilton fell at Hoboken, on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, opposite 
the city of New York. 

t Alexandria, the ancient capital of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great in the 
year 331, A. C, is situated at the N.W. extremity of Egypt, on a neck of land between 
the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis. 

t Derne is about 650 miles E. from Tripoli. 



300 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[part IV. 



I §05. 



a. Treaty- 
concluded 
June 3, 1805. 

1. Wliat is 
laid of Mich- 
igan} 



.806. 

2. Of the 

conspiracy 

and trial 

of Col. 

Burr? 



3. Of the 
wars produ- 
ced by the 

French Rev- 
olution? 

4. Of the 
relative po- 
sitions of 
England 

and France? 



6. The posi- 
tion of the 
United 
States? 



8. What loaa 

done by 
England in 

1806? 
b. May 16. 



7. How did 
Bonaparte 
retaliate ? 
c. Nov. 21. 



Tripolitan army, the reigning bashaw offered terms 
of peace ; which being considered much more favor- 
able than had before been offered, they were accept- 
ed 1 by Mr. Lear, the authorized agent of the United 
States. 

10. 'In 1805, Michigan became a distinct territorial 
government of the United States. Previous to 1802 it 
formed, under the name of Wayne County, a part of 
the Northwestern Territory. From 1802 until 1805, 
it was under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory. 

11. 2 In 1806 Col. Burr was detected in a conspiracy, 
the design of which was to form, west of the Alleghany 
Mountains, an independent empire, of which he was to 
be the ruler, and New Orleans the capital ; or, failing 
in this project, it was his design to march upon Mexico, 
and establish an empire there. He was arrested, and 
brought, to trial in 1807, on the charge of treason, but 
was released for want of sufficient evidence to convict 
him. 

12. 3 The wars produced by the French revolution 
still continued to rage, and at this time Napoleon, em- 
peror of France, triumphant and powerful, had acquired 
control over nearly all the kingdoms of Europe. ''Eng- 
land alone, unsubdued and undaunted, with unwaver- 
ing purpose waged incessant war against her anr.ient 
rival ; and though France was victorious on land, the 
navy of England rode triumphant in every sea. 4 The 
destruction of the ships and commerce of other nations 
was highly favorable to the United States, which en- 
deavored to maintain a neutrality towards the contend- 
ing powers, and peaceably to continue a commerce 
Avith them. 

13. 6 In May, 1806, England, for the purpose of in 
juring the commerce of her enemy, declared* the con 
tinent from Brest* to the Elbef in a state of blockad6 / 
although not invested by a British fleet ;, and numerous 
American vessels, trading to that coast, were captured 
and condemned. 7 Bonaparte soon retaliated, by de- 
claring the British isles in a state of blockade ; and 



* Brest is a town at the northwestern extremity of France. 

t The Elbe, a large river of Germany, enters the North Sea or German Ocean tie 
'ween tlanover and Denmark, 750 miles N E. from Brest 



iovem- 



June 2 2. 



CHAr. UI.] JEFFERSON S ADMINISTRATION. 301 

American vessels, trading thither, became a prey to 1§07. 
French cruisers. 'Early in the following year, the 1 What tM ^ 
coasting- trade with France was prohibited 1 by the dtfEngiand 

t-, ■ . , ° n,, r , . , , ■■> . do, and what 

British government. lhese measures, highly miuri- was the ef- 

k ■ i • / ■ 1 b i l feet of them 

ous to American commerce, and contrary to the laws measures? 

of nations and the rights of neutral powers, occasioned a - Jlin - 7 - 

great excitement in the United States, and the injured 

merchants loudly demanded of the government redress 

and protection. 

14. 2 In June, an event of a hostile character occur- 2. What u 
red, which greatly increased the popular indignation pretension* 
against England. That power, contending for the offh^Bi-it- 
principle that whoever was born in England always "^f^f 
remained a British subject, had long claimed the right, 
and exercised the power of searching American ships, 
and taking from them those who had been naturalized 
in the United States, and who were, therefore,. claimed 
as American citizens. 

15. 3 On the 22d of Tune, the American frigate Ches- 
apeake, then near the coast of the United States, having 3. am. an 
refused to deliver up four men claimed by the English mattock 
as deserters, was fired upon by the British ship of war "Zte'ui'cia 
Ikopard. Being unsuspicious of danger at the time, P eake - 
and unprepared for the attack, the Chesapeake struck 

her colors, after having had three of her men killed, 
and eighteen wounded. The four men claimed as de- 
serters were then transferred to the British vessel. 
Upon investigation it was ascertained that three of 
them were American citizens, who. had been impressed 
by the British, and had afterwards escaped from their 
service. 4. wiiat tua 

16. 4 This outrage upon a national vessel was fol- lattonto 
lowed by a proclamation of the president, forbidding 'rage? 1 ' 
British ships of war to enter the harbors of the United ^^er'fo^le 
States, until satisfaction for the attack on the Ches- d ^fp r " r „", 
apeake should be made by the British government, and and Eng- 

1 . . - J • «t- tvt land adopt 

security given against future aggression. s ln iNovem- against tact 
her, the British government issued b the celebrated whaiwM 
11 onkrs in council" prohibiting all trade with France onAmerica\ 
tmd her allies ; and in December following, Bonaparte ^"^, r f/ 
issued the retaliatory Milan decree,* forbidding all e . Dec. 17. 

* So called from Milan-, a, city In the N. of Italy, whence the decree was issued 



802 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART IV 



1807. 



a. Dec 22. 
1. Wliatis 
said of the 
American 
vnbargo act 
from its 
passage to 
Us repeal / 



1809. 

It. March 1 



2. Of the 
close of Jef- 
ferson's ad- 
ministra- 
tion, and 
the ensuing 
election l 

z. March 4, 
1809. 



trade with England or her colonies. Thus almost 
every American vessel on the ocean was liable to be 
captured by one or the other of the contending powers. 

17. 'In December, congress decreed" an embargo, 
the design of which was, not only to retaliate upon 
France and England, but also, by calling home and 
detaining American vessels and sailors, to put the coun 
try in a better posture of defence, preparatory to an ex 
pected war. The embargo failing to obtain, from 
France and England, an acknowledgment of Amer- 
ican rights, and being likewise ruinous to the com- 
merce of the country with other nations, in March, b 
1809, congress repealed it, but, at the same time, inter- 
dicted all commercial intercourse with France and 
England. 

18. 2 Such was the situation of the country at the 
close of Jefferson's administration. Following and 
confirming the example of Washington, after a term 
of eight years Jefferson declined a re-election, and was 
succeeded in the presidency by James Madison. 
George Clinton was re-elected vice-president. 




CHAPTER IV. 

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FKOM MAECH 4, 1809, TO MARCH 4, 1817. 

WAR WITH ENGLAND. 
SECTION L — EVENTS OP 1809, '10, '11. 

1. "Soon after the accession of Mr. 
Madison to the presidency, he was 
assured by Mr. Erskine, the Brit- 
ish minister at Washington, that the British " orders in 
/ooowedxr. council," d so far as they affected the United States, 
accession 8 ? should be repealed by the 10th of June. The presi- 
d.jsee p. 301. dent, therefore, proclaimed that commercial intercourse 
would be renewed with England on that day. The 
British government, however, disavowed the acts of its 
minister ; the orders in council were not repealed; and 
t. au«. 19 non-intercourse with England was again proclaimed. 6 



JAMES MADISON. 



3. What 

events soon 






CHAP. IV.] 



MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION. 



303 




2. UTiat 
course was 

still pur- 
sued bij 
England I 



1811. 

b. May 16. 

3. What en- 
counter at 
sea is de- 
scribed } 



2. 'In March, 1810, Bonaparte issued* a decree of a 1810. 
decidedly hostile character, by which all American 
vessels and cargoes, arriving in any of the ports of 
France, or of countries occupied by French troops, 
were ordered to be seized and condemned ; but in No- 
vember of the same year, all the hostile decrees of the 
French were revoked, and commercial intercourse was 
renewed between France and the United States. 

3. 2 Eir.g; md, however, continued her hostile decrees ; 
and, for the purpose of enforcing them, stationed before 
the principal ports of the United States, her ships of 
war, which intercepted the American merchantmen, 
and sent them to British ports as legal prizes. On one 
occasion, however, the insolence of a British ship of 
war received a merited rebuke. 

4. 3 Commodore Rogers, sailing in the American 
frigate President, met," in the evening, a vessel on the 
coast of Virginia. He hailed, but instead of a satis- 
factory answer, received a shot, in return, from the un- 
known vessel. A brief engagement ensued, and the 
guns of the stranger were soon nearly silenced, when 
Commodore Rogers hailed again, and was answered 
that the ship was the British sloop of war Little Belt, 
commanded by Captain Bingham. The Little Belt 
had eleven men killed and twenty-one wounded, while 
the President had only one man wounded. 

5. 4 At this time the Indians on the western frontiers 
had become hostile, as was supposed through British 
influence; and in the fall of 1811, General Harrison, 
then governor of Indiana Territory,* marched against 
the tribes on the Wabash. On his approach to the 
town of the Prophet, the brother of the celebrated Te- 
cumseh, the principal chiefs Came out and proposed' a c . Nov. e. 
conference, and requested him to encamp lor the night. 
Fearing treachery, the troops slept on their arms in 

order of battle. Early on the following morning d the J- Nov. 7. 
camp was furiously assailed, and a bloody and doubtful 
contest ensued ; but after a heavv loss on both sides, 
the Indians were finally repulsed. \ 

* Indiana Territory, separated from the Northwestern Territory in 1800, embraced 
the present states of Indiana and Illinois. 

t This battle, called the Battle of Tippecanoe, was fought near the W. bank of Tip- 
pecanoe River, a.! its junction with the Wabash, la tho northern part of Tippeeano* 
bounty, Indiana 



4. Give an 
account of 
the Indian 
war at the. 

west, and 
the " Battle 

of Tippe- 
canoe." 




[part IV. 



SECTION II. 



COMMODOKE DEOATUB. 



a April 4 
1. Embargo 



b. Act de- 
claring war 
adopted by 
both houses 
June 18th. 



PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1S12. 

DIVISIONS. 

I. Declaration of War, and Events in tht 
West. — II. Events on the Niagxra Frdnr 
tier. — III. Naval Events. 

I. Declaration of War, and 
Events in the West. — 1. 'Early 
in April, 1812, congress passed 3 an 
act laying an embargo, for ninety days, on all vessels 
or isi2, and within the jurisdiction of the United States. On the 
tion o/ war. 4th of June following, a bill declaring war against 
Great Britain passed the house of representatives ; and 
on the 17th, the senate; and, on the 19th, the president 
issued a proclamation of war. b 
2. what 2. 2 Exertions were immediately made to enlist 25,000 
v we? r emaa! men ; to raise 50.000 volunteers ; and to call out 100,000 
f orthewar7 m ilitia for the defence of the seacoast and frontiers. 
Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts, an officer of the 
revolution, was appointed major-general and command- 
er-in-chief of the army, 
s. Give an 3. 3 At the time of the declaration of war, General 
account of Hull, then governor of Michigan Territory, was on his 

the move- ' p . . t> . J J 

mems of march from Ohio to Detroit, with a force of two thou- 

Gen. Hull. , . , . ., ' , , T , . 

sand men, with a view oi putting an end to the Indian 
hostilities on the northwestern frontier. Being vested 
with an authority to invade the Canadas, " if consistent 
with the safety of his own posts," on the 12th of July 
i.\vha,ioss- he crossed the river Detroit,* and encamped at Sand- 
Mne&by wich,f with the professed object of marching upon the 
m cinlV' British post at Malden.j; 

4. 4 In the mean time, the American 
!X33p§9] P ost a * Mackinaw^ was surprised, and a 



* Detroit River is the channel or strait that con 
nects Lake St. Clair with Lake Erie. (See Map.) 

t Sandwich is on the E, bank of Detroit River, twa 
miles below Detroit. (See Map.) 

i Fort Maiden is on the E. bank of Detroit River, 
fifteen miles S. from Detroit, and half a mile N. from 
the village of Ainherstburg. (See Map.) 

$ Mackinaw is a small island a little E. from the 
strait which connects Lake Michigan with Lake Hu- 
ron, about 270 miles N. W. from Detroit. The lbrt and 
village of Mackinaw are on the 9 E. side of the lslarui 



VICINITY OF DETROIT. 




chap. iv.J madison's administration. 305 

surrender demanded ; which was the first intimation of 1812. 
the declaration of war that the garrison had received. 
The demand was precipitately complied with, a and a - Jul y 17 - 
the British were thus put in possession of one of the 
strongest posts in the United States. Soon after, Ma- 
jor Van Home, who had been despatched by Gen- 
eral Hull to convoy a party approaching his camp 
with supplies, was defeated b by a force of British and b. Aug. 5. 
fnd'ans near Brownstown.* 

5. General Hull himself, after remaining inactive \.vnw.tu 
l.early a month in Canada, while his confident troops s f^f a }'^ 
were daily expecting to be led against the enemy, sud- Gen - Hull? 
dtnly recrossed, in the night of the 7th of August, to Aug. 7. 
the town and fort of Detroit, to the bitter vexation and 
disappointment of his officers and army, who could see 

no reason for thus abandoning the object of the ex- 
pedition. 2 He now sent c a detachment of several hun- c. Aug. 8. 
dred men, under Colonel Miller, to accomplish the ob- %p{ d ffi, jn 
ject previously attempted by Major Van Home. In K^'f 1 
this expedition a large force of British and Indians, the 
latter under the famous Tecumseh, was met' 1 and rout- u. Aug. 9. 
ed with considerable loss, near the ground on which 
Van Home had been defeated. 

6. 3 On the 16th of August General Brock, the Brit- Aug. 16. 
ish commander, crossed the river a few miles above account™) 
Detroit, without opposition, and with a force of about ^'iJfJJJ' 
700 British troops and 600 Indians, immediately march- troit - 
ed against the American works. While the American 
troops, advantageously posted, and numbering more 

than the combined force of the British and Indians, 
were anxiously awaiting the orders to fire, great was 
their mortification and rage, when all were suddenly 
ordered within the fort, and a white flag, in token of 
submission, was suspended from the walls. Not only 
the army at Detroit, but the whole territory, with all 
its forts and garrisons, was thus basely surrendered 8 to e . Aug a. 
the British. 

7. 'The enemy were as much astonished as^-the x . nmcwat 
Americans, at this unexpected result. General Brock, re r ^ r ^"L 
in writing to his superior officer, remarked, " When I the British* 

* Brownstown is situated at the mouth of Brownstown Creek, a short distance N 
from the mouth of Huron River, about twenty miles S.VV from Detroit. (Map, p. 304.' 



306 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART IV. 



8.. See Map, 
below. 



invading 
Canada, 
and of the 
attack on 
Queens- 
town. 



!§12. detail my good fortune you will be astonished." 'Gen- 
i whatls era ^ Hull was afterwards exchanged for thirty British 
laidqfGtM prisoners, when his conduct was investigated by a court- 
martial. The court declined giving an opinion upon 
the charge of treason, but convicted him of cowardice 
and unorficerlike conduct. He was sentenced to death, 
but was pardoned by the president ; but his name was 
ordered to be struck from the rolls of the army. 

II. Events on the Niagara Frontier. 11 — 1. 2 Du- 
ring the summer, arrangements were made for the in- 
Thtprepa- vas i° n °f Canada from another quarter. A body of 
fatten? far troops, consisting mostly of New York militia, was 
collected on the Niagara frontier, and the command 
given to General Stephen Van Rensselaer. Early on 
the morning of the 13th of October, a detachment of 
two hundred and twenty-five men, under Col. Solomon 
Van Rensselaer, crossed the river, gained possession 
of the heights of Queenstown,* and took a small bat- 
tery near its summit. Van Rensselaer was wounded 
at the landing, and the assault was led by Captains 
Ogilvie and Wool. 

2. 3 At the very moment of success, the enemy re- 
ceived a reinforcement of several hundred men under 
General Brock. These attempted to regain possession 
of the battery, but were driven back by an inferior 
force under Captain Wool, and their leader, General 
Brock, was killed. In the afternoon, the British re- 
ceived a strong reinforcement from Fort George,f while 
all the exertions of General Van Rensselaer, during 
the day, could induce only about one thousand of his 
troops to cross the river. These were attacked by a 
far superior force, and nearly all were killed or taken 
prisoners, in the very sight of twelve or fif- 
teen hundred of their brethren in arms on 
the opposite shore, who positively refused 
to embark. 

3. 4 While these men asserted that thejf 
were willing to defend their country when 



3. Describe 
the remain- 
ing events 
that occur- 
red at 
Queens- 
town. 



KIAOARA. FRONTIER. 




* Quecnstown, in Upper Canada, is on the W. bank of 
Niagara River, at the foot of CAueenstown Heights, seven 
miles from Lake Ontario. (See Map.) 

t Fort George was on the W. bank of Niagara River 
nearly a mile from Lake Ontario, (tsee Map.) 



CHAP. IV.J MADISON S ADMINISTRATION. 307 

attacked, they professed to entertain scruples about 1812. 
carrying on offensive war by invading the enemy's 4 \ Vhatre Z- 
territory. Unfortunately, these principles were en- }°" e y"f "{' 
tertained, and the conduct of the militia on this occa- men/or re- 
sion defended by many of *he federal party, who were, emiarki 
generally, opposed to the war. i. How ex- 

o J > 1 r \ -i r tensive loert 

4. 2 Soon after the battle of Queenstown, General theseprinct- 
Van Rensselaer retired from the service, and was sue- i.what 
ceeded 1 by General Alexander Smyth, of Virginia, fyfc'efsoi 
3 This c ihcer issued an address, b announcing his resolu- cu7 Zff e £f n 
tion of retrieving the honor of his country by another a. Oct. u. 
attack on the Canadian frontier, and invited the young b Kov - 10 - 
men of the country to share in the danger and glory account of 
of the enterprise. But after collecting between four Ingso/Gen. 
and five thousand men, sending a small party across c s ™v tn - 

/ o r J c_ Nov. 28. 

at Black Rock,* and making a show of passing with a 
large force, the design was suddenly abandoned, to the 
great surprise of the troops. Another preparation for 
an attack was made, and the troops were actually em- 
barked, when they were again withdrawn, and ordered 
to winter quarters. Dec. 

III. Naval Events. — 1. 4 Thus far the events of 4 . what is 
the war, on the land, had been unfavorable to the evem/ofuu 
Americans ; but on another element, the national v "f a j!\ us 
honor had been fully sustained, by a series of unex- 
pected and brilliant victories. 5 On the 19th of August, Aug 19 
the American frigate Constitution, of forty-four guns, 5. what is 
commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, engaged the Brit- thecoma- 
ish frigate Guerriere, of thirty-eight guns, commanded Guemfre? 
by Captain Dacres ; and after an action d of thirty min- d offthe 
utes, compelled her to surrender. The Guerriere was coastofMa* 
made a complete wreck. Every mast and spar were 
shot away, and one-third of her crew was either kill- 
ed or wounded. 

2. 6 In October, an American sloop of war, the Wasp, 6. 0/ the 
of eighteen guns, Captain Jones commander, while off mFroiici 
the coast of North Carolina, captured e the brig Frolic, e 0ct . 1B 
of twenty-two guns, after a bloody conflict of three 
quarters of an hour. On boarding the enemy, to the 
surprise of the Americans, only three officers and one 

* Black Rock is on the E. bank of Niagara River, two and a half nii'es N. from Buf 
falo, of which it may be considered a suburb. (Seo Map, p. 306.) 



30S THE UNITED STATES. . - Al C IV. 

1812. seaman were found on the forecastle u.ie the other 
decks, slippery with blood, were covei„d with the dead 
and the dying. The loss of the Frolic was about eighty, 
in killed and wounded, while that of the Wasp was 
only ten. On the same day the two vessels were cap- 
tured by a British seventy-four. 
a. Oct. 25. 3. X A few days later," the frigate United States, of 
i. of the forty-four guns, commanded by Commodore Decatur, 
wined engaged the British frigate Macedonian, of forty-nine 
Macedo- guns. The action continued nearly two hours, when 
b.'we'stof tne Macedonian struck her colors, being greatly in- 
tf lsiaiids ary j ure d hi her hull and rigging, and having lost, in killed 
and wounded, more than 100 men. The United States 
was almost entirely uninjured. Her loss was only five 
killed and seven wounded. The superiority of the 
American gunnery in this action was remarkably con- 
spicuous. 
2. of the 4. 2 In December, the Constitution, then commanded 
C a"d'jaim? by Commodore Bainbridge, achieved a second naval 
c. Dec. 29. victory ; capturing the British frigate Java, carrying 
forty-nine guns and 400 men. The action occurred 
off St. Salvador,* and continued more than three hours. 
Of the crew of the Java, nearly 200 were killed and 
wounded ; of the Constitution, only thirty-four. The 
Java, having been made a complete wreck, was burned 
after the action. 
3. what is 5- 3 I n addition to these distinguished naval victories, 
> naimi°uc* otners > ^ ess noted, were frequently occurring. Numer- 
cessesj ous privateers covered the ocean, and during the year 
1812, nearly three hundred vessels, more than fifty of 
which were armed, Avere captured from the enemy, 
and more than three thousand prisoners were taken. 
Compared with this, the number captured by the en- 
emy was but trifling. The American navy became 
the -pride of the people, and in every instance it added 
to the national renown. 

* St. Salvador is a large city on the eastern coast of Brazil. 




CHAP. rv. 

SECTION III. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1S13. 

DIVISIONS. 

T. "Events in the West and South. — IT. Events in 
the North. — 27/. Xaval Events. 

1. Events in the West and 
South. — 1. 'In the beginning of 
1813, the principal American forces 
vere arranged in three divisions. coxsludoze ?^v 
The army of the West was commanded by General 1§13. 
Harrison; the army of the centre, under General Dear- 1. Bow were 
born, was on the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and on P ai p JmeH- 
the Niagara frontier ; and the army of the North, under aTrangedL 
General Hampton, on the shores of Lake Champlain. lbl3f 

2. 2 Shortly after the disaster which befell the army 2 . whatott- 
under General Hull, the militia of the Western States, ^eweS; 
promptly obedient to the calls of their country, assem- X°°^} er 

fi i • J i ^■a• i i- • Hullssur- 

bled in great numbers at different and distant points, render? 
for the defence of the frontier, and the recovery of the 
lost territory. 3 It was the design of General Harrison z.tnatis 
to collect these forces at some point near the head of ^on's 1 ^-' 
Lake Erie, from which a descent should be made upon sisn1 
the British posts at Detroit and Maiden. 

3. 4 On the 10th of January, General Winchester, Jan. io 
with about 800 men, arrived at the rapids* of the Mau- a - ^.f', 290, 

i ii r t-» ■ • i it-- • " " at a 

race. Learning b that a body of British and Indians related of 
was about to concentrate at the village of French town,* under Gen. 
thirty miles in his advance, on the river Raisin ;f at the b. Jan. i3. r 
earnest solicitation of the inhabitants he detached c a c. Jan. 17. 
small party under Colonels Lewis and Allen for their 
protection. This party, finding the enemy already in 
possession of the town, successfully attacked 11 and routed d Jan 18 
diem ; and having encamped on the spot, was soon 
after joined e by the main body under General Win- e. Jan. st. 
Chester. 

* Frenchtnwn is an the north bank of the River Raisin, near its mouth, about twenty- 
five iniies S.W. from Detroit. The large village that has grown up on the S. side cf 
the stream at this place is now called Monroe. v 'See Map, p. 304.) 

t The River Raisin, so named from the numerous grape- vines that formerly lined its 
banks, enters Lake Erie from the W. two and a half miles below the village of Mori 
roe. 'See Map, p. 304." 



310 THE UNITED STATES. [PART iV, 

I§13. 4. ^ere, early on the morning of the 22d, the 

7 uive tin Americans were attacked by General Proctor, who 

tfu' C b l 't"i °of nac ^ marcne d suddenly from Maiden with a combined 

French- force of fifteen hundred British and Indians. The 

Americans made a brave defence against this superior 

force, and after a severe loss on both sides, the attack 

on the main body was for a time suspended ; when 

General Proctor, learning that General Winchester 

had fallen into the hands of the Indians, induced him, 

by a pledge of protection to the prisoners, to surrender 

the troops under his command. 

». Jan. 52. 5, s^he pledge was basely violated. General Proc- 

^hewounfed tor marched back 1 to Maiden, leaving the wounded 

treated™! without a guard, and in the power of the savages, who 

me Indians? wantonly put to death" those who were unable to travel, 

— carried some to Detroit for ransom at exorbitant 

prices, — and reserved others for torture. If the British 

officers did not connive at the destruction of the wound 

ed prisoners, they at least showed a criminal indifFer 

ence about their fate. 

iwhatwere 6. 3 General Harrison, who had already arrived at 

merits of the rapids of the Maumee, on hearing of the fate of 

< sona I t'tliis' General Winchester, at first fell back, expecting an 

'"' attack from Proctor, but soon advanced d again with 

d. Feb. i. about 1200 men, and began a fortified camp ; which, 

in honor of the governor of Ohio, he named Fort 

May i. Meigs.* <On the first of May the fort was besieged by 

4. of Gen. General Proctor, at the head of more than 2000 Brit- 

Proctor? . , i t j- 

ish and Indians. 

May 5. 7. sFive days afterwards, General Clay, advancing 

MiMedtj to the relief of the fort, at the head of 1200 Kentuck- 

Gen. ciay? j anS; attacked and dispersed the besiegers ; but a large 

body of his troops, while engaged in the pursuit, were 

May 8 themselves surrounded and captured. 6 On the eighth 

abandon- °^ May, most of the Indians, notwithstanding the en- 

vientoftne treaties of their chief, Tecumseh, deserted their allies; 

May 9. an d on the following day, General Pioctor abandoned 

the siege, and again retired to Maiden. 

done ly the 8. 7 In the latter part of July, about 4000 British and 

* Fort Meigs was erected at the rapids of the Maamee, on the S. side of the river, 
nearly opposite the former British post of Maumee, and a short distance S.W. finm the 
present village of Perrysburg. 



chap, rv.] Madison's administration. 3ll 

Indians, the former under General F roctor, and the 1§13. 
latter under Tecumseh, again appeared* befcxe Fort ~j^^ h ~^ 
Meigs, then commanded by General Clay. Finding Indians in 

i ■ i c l • i. m i Jul,j3 

the garrison prepared tor a.brave resistance, General a . July 21. 
Proctor, after a few days' siege, withdrew 15 his forces, b. July 23. 
and with 500 regulars and 800 Indians, proceeded 
against the fort at Lower Sandusky,* then garrisoned 
by only 150 men under Major Croghan, a youth of 
twenty one. 'A summons demanding a surrender, . ¥ _ . 

, J • 1 • , , 1 1 ° c ■ i- • ■ I' What it 

no accompanied with the usual threats 01 lnchscnmi- said of the 
ate slaughter in case of refusal, was answered by the surrender? 
young and gallant Croghan, with the assurance that 
he should defend the place to the last extremity. 

9. 2 A cannonade from several six-pounders and a 2. of the at- 
howitzer was opened upon the fort, and continued un- "sand" sky, 
til a breach had been effected, when about 500 of the defence? 
enemy attempted to carry the place by assault/ They c Aug 2 
advanced towards the breach under a destructive fire 

of musketry, and threw themselves into the ditch, when 
the only cannon in the fort, loaded with grape shot, 
and placed so as to rake the ditch, was opened upon 
them with terrible effect. The whole British force, 
panic struck, soon fled in confusion, and hastily aban- 
doned the place, followed by their Indian allies. The 
loss of the enemy was about 150 in killed and wound- 
ed, while that of the Americans was only one killed 
and seven wounded. 

10. 3 In the mean time, each of the hostile parties s.ivhttttf- 
was striving to secure the mastery of Lake Erie. By ^dlforth* 
the exertions of Commodore Perry, an American squad- ™«'«g/?f 

. . c . , J ' . r „ . >■ Lake hriei 

ron, consisting 01 nine vessels carrying nity-four guns, 
had been prepared for service ; while a British squad- 
ron of six vessels, carrying sixty-three guns, had been 
built and equipped under the superintendence of Com- 
modore Barclay. 

11. 4 On the tenth of September the two squadrons sept. 10. 
met near the western extremity of Lake Erie. In the %cmwtttf 
beginning of the action the fire of the enemy was di- thebattii 

1 • • n ■ it n on Lakt 

rected principally against the Lawrence, the flag-ship £««■ 
of Commodore Perry, which in a short time beoame 

* Lower Sandusky is situated on the W. bank of Sandusky River, about fifteen mils* 
9 from Lake Erie 



312 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

l§13. an unmanageable wreck, having all her crew, except 
four or five, either killed or wounded. Commodore 
Perry, in an open boat, then left her, and transferred 
his flag on board the Niagara ; which, passing through 
the enemy's line, poured successive broadsides into five 
of their vessels, at half pistol shot distance. The wind 
favoring, the remainder of the squadron now came up, 
and at four o'clock every vessel of the enemy had sur- 
rendered. 
i. what 12. intelligence of this victory was conveyed to 
.owed that Harrison in the following laconic epistle :" We have 
met the enemy, and they are ours." The way to Mai- 
den being now opened, the troops of Harrison were 
a. sept. 27. embarked, 1 and transported across the lake ; but Gen- 
eral Proctor had already retired with all his forces. 
Oct. 5. He was pursued, and on the 5th of October was over- 
taken on the river Thames,* about eighty miles from 
Detroit. 
2. aive an 13. 2 His forces were found advantageously drawn 
mbatiieof U P across a narrow strip of woodland, having the river 
the Thames. n the left, and on the right a swamp — occupied by a 
large body of Indians under Tecumseh. On the first 
charge, the main body of the enemy in front was bro- 
ken ; but on the left the contest with the Indians raged 
for some time with great fury. Animated by the voice 
and conduct of their leader, the Indians fought with 
determined courage, until Tecumseh himself was slain. 
The victory was complete ; nearly the whole force of 
Procter being killed or taken. By a rapid flight Proc- 
tor saved himself, with a small portion of his cavalry. 
$.Whatwere 14. 3 This important victory effectually broke up the 
ofvffvfc- g*£at Indian confederacy of which Tecumseh was the 
tor y i head; recovered the territory which Hull had lost; 
i.whatha& an d terminated the war on the western frontier. 4 But 
biftheln* before this, the influence of Tecumseh had been ex- 
Tecumseh? erte d upon the southern tribes, and the Creeks had 
taken up the hatchet, and commenced a war of plun- 
der and devastation. 
o. Aug. 30. 15. 8 Late in August, b a large body of Creek Indians 

* The Thames, a river of Upper Canada, flows S.W., and enters the southeastern ex 
tremity of Lake St. Clair. The battle of the Thames was fought near a place called 
the Moravian village. 



CHAP. IV.] 



madison's administration. 



313 



surprised Fort Mims,* and massacred nearly three hun- 
dred persons; men, women, and children. On the 
receipt of this intelligence, General Jackson, at the 
head of a body of Tennessee militia, marched into the 
Creek country. A detachment of nine hundred men 
under General Coffee surrounded a body of Indians at 
Tallushatchee,f east of the Coosa River, and killed* 
about two hundred, not a single warrior escaping. 

16. ir rhe battles* 5 of Talladega,;}; Autossee,^ Emucfau, || 
and others, soon followed ; in all which the Indians 
were defeated, although not without considerable loss 
to the Americans. The Creeks made their last stand 
at the great bend of the Tallapoosa ; called by the In- 
dians Tohopeka,1I and by the whites Horse Shoe Bend. 

17. 2 Here about one thousand of their warriors, with 
their women and children, had assembled in a fort 
strongly fortified. To prevent escape, the bend was 
encircled by a strong detachment under General Cof- 
fee, while the main body, under General Jackson, ad- 
vanced against the works in front. These were car- 
ried by assault; but the Indians, seeing no avenue of 
escape, and disdaining to surrender, continued to fight, 
with desperation, until nearly all were slain. Only 
two or three Indian warriors were taken prisoners. In 
this battle the power of the Creeks was broken, and 
their few remaining chiefs soon after sent in their sub- 
mission. 

18. 3 With the termination of the British and Indian 
war in the West, and the Indian war in the South, the 
latter extending into the spring of 1814, we now re- 



1§13. 

5. What is 

said of the 
attack on 
Fort Minis; 
and what 
was done 
in conse- 
quence/ 
a. Nov. 3. 



b. Nov. 8, 
Nov. 29 : ar 
Jan. 22, 18H. 
1. What bat- 
tles followed 
between the 

Americans 
and the In- 
dians I 



2. Give an 
account of 
the battle, of 
Tohopefca, 
or Horse 
Shoe Bend. 



c. March 27, 
1314. 



3. To what 
events do we 
noio return? 



* Fort Mints, in Alabama, was on the E. side of Ala- 
bama River, about ten miles above its junction with the j 
Tonibigbee, and forty miles N.E. from Mobile. (See II 
Map.) 

t TalluslLatch.ee was on the S. side of Tallushatchee 
('reek, near the present village of Jacksonville, in Hen- 
Ion County. (See Map.) 

t Talladega was a short distance E. from the Coosa 
River, in the present county ofTalladega, and nearly thirty 
miles south from Fort Strother at Ten Islands (Map.) 

§ liitossce was situated on the S. bank of the Tallapoosa, 
twenty miles from its junction with the Coosa, (Map.) 

|| Emucfau was on the W. bank of the Tallapoosa, at 
the mouth of Emucfau Creek, about thirty-five miles 
S.E. from Talladega. (See Map.) 

ir Tvlit>]ieka, or Horse Shoe Bend, is about forty miles 
S.E. from Talladega, near the N.E. corner of the present 
Tallapoosa County. (See Map.) 

14 



EAT OF THE CREEK WAR. 
■ , FtSt.-aihei- sjr-ri A . 

« i ( WaUfM^^h 
! : > / JTcAladetAi \ 
j! tuscaIoosA/^ JJ* ! 




314 THE UNITED STATES. fPART IV 

1§13. turn to resume the narrative of events on the northern 
frontier. 

\.Whatex- II. EVENTS IN THE NoRTH. 1. 'On the 25th of 

wafunter- April, General Dearborn, with 1700 men, embarked 
am e Dear- at Sackett's Harbor,* on board the fleet of Cummodore 
b Z>rii? Chauncey, with the design of making an attack on 
York,! the capital of Upper Canada, the gieat depos- 
itory of British military stores, whence the western 
a. What oc- posts were supplied. 2 0n the 27th the troops landed, 
TZidinJ'f' although opposed at the water's edge by a large force 
of British and Indians, who were soon driven back to 
the garrison, a mile and a half distant. 
3. Give an 2. 3 Led on by General Pike, the troops had already 
fte'Tvl'tis carried one battery by assault, and were advancing 
■ended't/ie against the main works, when the enemy's magazine 
:aP York° f blew up, hurling immense quantities of stone and tim- 
ber upon the advancing columns, and killing and 
wounding more than 200 men. The gallant Pike 
was mortally wounded, arid the troops were, for a mo- 
ment, thrown into confusion ; but recovering from the 
shock, they advanced upon the town, of which they 
soon gained possession. General Sheaffe escaped with 
the principal part of the regular troops, but lost all his 
baggage, books, and papers, and abandoned public 
property to a large amount. 
i. whither 3. «The object of the expedition having- been at- 

did the . ... • ■> J & 

squadron tained, the squadron returned to Sackett's Harbor, bu* 
5. Give an soon a ^ er sailed for the Niagara frontier. B The Brit- 
"manaek, ^ sn on tne opposite Canadian shore, being informed of 
•nsacketgs the departure of the fleet, seized the opportunity of 
making an attack on Sackett's Harbor. On the 27th 
of May, their squadron appeared before the town, and 
May 29. on the morning of the 29th, one thousand troops, com- 
manded by Sir George Prevost, effected a landing. 
tTheresuit. 4. 'While the advance of the British was checked 
by a small body of regular troops, General Brown ral- 
lied the militia, and directed their march towards the 
landing ; when Sir George Prevost, believing that his 



* Sacketfs Harbor is on the S. side of Black River Bay, at the mouth of Black Kiver, 
ond at the eastern extremity of Lake Ontario. 

t York, which has now assumed the early Indian name of Toronto, is situated on 
the N.W. shore of Lake Ontario, about thirty-five miles N. from Niagara. 



chap. iv. J Madison's administration. 315 

retreat was about to be cut off, re-embarked his troops 2 §13. 
so hastily, as to leave behind most of his wounded. 

5. 'On the very day of the appearance of the British i what 
before Sackett's Harbor, the American fleet and land Vumdon 
troops made an attack on Fort George, on the Niagara th f r onWe?* 
frontier ; which, after a short defence, was abandoned 1 ai £"/ t /? w 
by the enemy. The British then retreated to the a. May 27. 
heights at the head of Burlington Bay,* closely pur- 
sued by Generals Chandler and Winder at the head 

of a superior force. In anight attack b on the Amer- 0. June 6. 
can camp, the enemy were repulsed with consider- 
able loss; although in the darkness and confusion, 
both Generals Chandler and Winder wore taken 
prisoners. 

6. 2 During the remainder of the summer few events 2. whati* 
of importance occurred on the northern frontier. Tm- remainder 
mediately after the battle of the Thames, General Har- S'^VnYof 
rison, with a part of his regular force, proceeded to ^office"! 1 
Buffalo,f where he arrived on the 24th of October. 

Soon after, he closed his military career by a resig- 
nation of his commission. General Dearborn had 
previously withdrawn from the service, and his com- 
mand had been given to General Wilkinson. 

7. 3 General Armstrong, who had recently been ap- 3 „_ , u 
pointed secretary of war, had planned another invasion saidofam 
of Canada. The army of the centre, under the im- Gen. Arm- 
mediate command of General Wilkinson, and that of 

the North, under General Hampton, Avere to unite at 
some point on the St. Lawrence, and co-operate for the 
reduction of Montreal. 

8. 4 After many difficulties and unavoidable delays, &iembung 
late in the season the scattered detachments of the army , and em - 
01 the centre, comprising about 7000 men, embarked c tfthetroop* 
from French Creek.t down the St. Lawrence. s The c c ' / Nov ' 5 ; 

't . . 5. Liive an 

progress of the army being impeded by numerous par- account of 
ties of the enemy on the Canada shore, General Brown and rhuu 
was landed and sent in advance to disperse them. On ° atum. 



* Burlington Bay is at the western extremity of Lake Ontario, thirty -five miles W 
from Niafii.ra. 

t Buffalo City, N. Y., is situated at the northeastern extremity of Like Erie, neai 
the outlet of the lake, and on the N.side of Buffalo Creek, which constitutes its harbor 

X French Creek enters the St. Lawrence from the S. in Jefferson Count), twenty 
miles N. from Sackett's Harbor 



316 THE UNITED STATES. [PARI IV. 

!§I3. the 1 1th an engagement occurred near Williamsburg,* 

in which the Americans lost more than 300 in killed 

and wounded. The British loss was less than 200. 

On the next day the army arrived at St. Regis,f when 

General Wilkinson, learning that the troops expected 

from Plattsburg| would be unable to join him, was 

forced to abandon the project of attacking Montreal. 

He then retired with his forces to French Mills,§ where 

he encamped for the winter. 

i. what 9. 'In the latter part of the year, a few events de- 

afrred°on serving notice occurred on the Niagara frontier. In 

%mafr a in December, General McClure, commanding at Fort 

Jart'o/tL George, abandoned" that post on the approach of the 

year? British ; having previously reduced the Canadian vil- 

b Dec io ^ a S e °f Newark || to ashes. b A few days later, a force 

c Dec. is of British and Indians surprised and gained possession* 

of Fort Niagara ; and in revenge for the burning of 

Newark, the villages of Youngstown,^[ Lewiston,** 

Manchester,tfand the Indian Tuscarora village|| were 

reduced to ashes. On the 30th, Black Rock and Buf- 

Dec. 3o. falo were burned. 

2. whatu HI- Naval Events, and Events on the Seacoast 
!mvafc'on e — 1- 2 During the year 1813, the ocean was the theatre 
J l'ear'm3i °^ man y sanguinary conflicts between separate armed 
,i vesse ^ s pjF England and the United States. 3 On the 
account of 24th of February, the, sloop of war Hornet, commanded 
between m by Captain Lawrence, engaged* 1 the British brig Pea- 
IheVmcoW. cock, of about equal force. After a fierce conflict of 
d. ofl" the only fifteen minutes, the Peacock struck her colors, 

coast of De- t i • , • ■ i n i-. . m 

marara. displaying, at the same time, a signal of distress, bne 

* Williamsburg is on the northern shore of the St. Lawrence, ninety miles from 
Lake Ontario, and about the same distance S.W. from Montreal. 

t St. Regis is on the S. bank of the St. Lawrence, at the northwestern extremity of 
Franklin County, N. Y., twenty-five miles N.E. from Williamsburg. 

t Plattsburg, the capital of Clinton County, N. Y., is situated mostly on the N. side 
of Saranac River, at its entrance into Cumberland Bay, a small branch of Lake Cham- 
plain. It is about 145 mile?, in a direct line, from Albany. 

§ The place called French Mills, since named Fort Covington, from General Coving 
ton, who fell at the battle of Williamsburg, is at the fork of Salmon River, in Frank- 
lin County, i ine miles E. from St. Regis. 

|| Newark now called Niagara, lies at the entrance of Niagara River into Lake Op 
terio, opposite Fort Niagara. (Sue Map, p. 306.) 

IT Youngstown is one mile S. from Fort Niagara. 

** Lewiston is seven miles S. from Fort Niagara. (See Map, p. 306.) 

tt The village of Manchester, now called Niagara Falls, is on the American side of 
toe " Great Cataract," fourteen miles from Lake Ontario. (Map, p. 306, and p. 319.) 

tt The Tuscarora Village is three or four miles E. from Levi iston. (See Map, p. 308.) 



chap. iv.J madison's administration. 31? 

was found to be sinking rapidly, and although the 1§13. 
greatest exertions were made to save her crew, she ' 

went down in a few minutes, carrying with her nine 
British seamen, and three brave and generous Amer- 
icans. 

2. l The tide of fortune, so long with the Americans, L What „ c - 
now turned in favor of the British. On the return of ^tniftut 
Captain Lawrence to the United States, he was pro- JJjj^£j& 
moted to the command of the frigate Chesapeake, then c "^ n a d p ^ 
lying in Boston harbor. With a crew of newly en shanwmi 
listed men, partly foreigners, he hastily put to sea on 

the 1st of June, in search of the British frigate Shan- 
non ; which, with a select crew, had recently appeared 
off the coast, challenging any American frigate of ecpial 
force to meet her. On the same day the two vessels June i. 
met, and engaged with great fury, [n a few minutes 
eve'-y officer who could take command of the Ches- 
apeake was either killed or wounded ; the vessel, 
greatly disabled in her rigging, became entangled with 
the Shannon ; the enemy boarded, and, after a short, 
but bloody struggle, hoisted the British flag. 

3. 2 The youthful and intrepid Lawrence, who, by 2. What ?> 
his previous victory and magnanimous conduct, had cape. Law- 
become the favorite of the nation, was mortally wound- 1%'!;%™^ 
ed early in the action. As he was carried below, he L "- dl,ju >' 
issued his last heroic order, " Dorit give up the ship ;" 

words which are consecrated to his memory, and which 
have become the motto of the American navy. The 
bodies of Captain Lawrence and Lieutenant Ludlow — 
the second in command — were conveyed to Halifax, 
where they were interred with appropriate civil and 
military honors ; and no testimony of respect that was 
due to their memories was left unpaid. 

4. 3 On the 14th of August, the American brig Ar- Aug . ,,_ 
gus, after a successful cruise in the British Channel, in 3. what a 
which she captured more than twenty English vessels, vLse% l At- 
was herself captured, after a severe combat, by the brig Miami 
Pelican, a British vessel of about equal force, ^n 4 f the 
September following, the British brier Boxer surren- En,e ^}* t 
dered* to the American bnsf Enterprise, near the coast Boxer, and 

c if • a. f r V ■ mi their com- 

01 Maine, alter an engagement 01 forty minutes. Ihe manderst 
commanders of botn vessels fell in the action, and were a - 3ept ' * 



318 



TIIE UNITED STATES. 



[PART nr 



1. What is 
related uf 
Capl. Por- 
ter, and t'te 

frigate 
Essex I 

a. March 28, 
1314. 

2. What of 
American 

•privateers? 



3. Give an 
account of 

Die war 

on the v. a- 

coasi. 



1§22. interred beside each other at Portland, with military 
honors. 

5. 'During the summer, Captain Porter, of the frig- 
ate Essex, after a long and successful cruise in the 
Atlantic, visited the Pacific Ocean, where he captured 
a great number of British vessels. Early in the fol- 
lowing year, the Essex was captured 1 in the harbor of 
Valparaiso,* by a British frigate and sloop of superior 
force. 2 The numerous privateers, which, during this 
year, as well as the former, visited all parts of the 
world, and seriously annoyed the British shipping, in 
general sustained the high character which the Amer- 
ican flag had already gained for daring and intrepidity, 
and generous treatment of the vanquished. 

6. 3 Mean while, on the seacoast, a disgraceful war of 
havoc and destruction was carried on by large detach- 
ments from the British navy. Most of the shipping in 
Delaware Bay was destroyed. Early in the season, a 
British squadron entered the Chesapeake, and plun- 
dered and burned several villages. At Hampton,f the 
inhabitants were subjected to the grossest outrages from 
the brutal soldiery. The blockade of the northern 

ports fell into the hands of Commo- 
dore Hardy, a brave and honorable 
officer, whose conduct is pleasingly 
contrasted with that of the comman- 
der of the squadron in the Chesapeake. 

SECTION IV. 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF 1814. 

DIVISIONS. 

1. Events on the Niagara Frontier. — II. Events in 
the vicinity of Lake Champlain. — III. Eventi 
on the Atlantic Coast. — IV. Eventsin the South, 
and Close of the War. 

'■>/ I. Events on the Niagara Frontier. — 1. "A few 
» events of Indian warfare, which occurred in the early 
3. part of this year, have already been narrated 13 in the 




^ 



OENE&AL SCOTT. 



i. What 
remark*'- 
lome-eee-i 

of India 

wa~far a 

b. Sew p. i 



* Valparaiso, the principal port of Chili, is on a bay of the Pacific Ocean, sixty miles 
N.W. from Santiago. 

t Hampton, in Virginia, is situated north of James River, near its mouth, and on the 
W. side of Hampton River, about a mile from its entrance into Hampton Roads. 



CHAP, IV.] 



Madison's administration. 



319 



previous section, ^arly in the season, 2000 men, 
under General Brown, were detached from the army 
of General Wilkinson, and marched to Sackett's Har- 
bor, but were soon after ordered to the Niagara fron- 
tier, in contemplation of another invasion of Canada. 

2. 2 Early on the morning of the 3d of July, Gen- 
erals Scott and Ripley, at the head of about 3000 men, 
crossed the Niagara River, and surprised and took pos- 
session of Fort Erie* without opposition. On the fol- 
lowing day, General Brown advanced with the main 
body of his forces to Chippeway ;f where the enemjr, 
under General Riall, were intrenched in a strong po- 
sition. On the morning of the 5th, General Riall ap- 
peared before the American camp, and the two armies 
met in the open field ; but after a severe battle, the 
enemy withdrew to their intrenchments, with a loss in 
killed, wounded, and missing, of about 500 men. The 
total American loss was 338. 

3. 3 General Riall, after his defeat, fell back upon 
Oueenstown,and thence to Burlington Heights. J where 
he was strongly reinforced by General Drummond, 
who assumed the command. The Americans ad- 
vanced and encamped near the Falls of Niagara. § 
About sunset on the evening of the 25th, the enemy 
again made their appearance, and the two armies en- 
gaged at Lundy's Lane,|| within a short distance of the 
Falls, where was fought the most obstinate battle tha 
occurred during the war. 



1§!4. 

1. Of the 
movements 
of lit ner id 

Brown > 



July 3. 
2. Give an 

account of 
the event* 
that occur- 
red on the 
3d, 4 th, and 
5th of Juli/l 



July 5. 



3. Of the 

subsequent 

cventsiphich 

preceded the 

battle of 

Lundy's 

Lane. 



July 3i 



* Fort Erie is on the Canada side of Niagara River, nearly opposite Black Rock 
(See Map, p. 300.) 

t Chippeway Village is on the W. bank of Niagara River, vie. of ma oara fat.t.s. 
at the mouth of Chippeway Creek, two miles S. from the |j -rttrpendicular !- ~ 7 ' » > 
falls, and sixteen miles N. from Fort Erie. The battle of HJl^J^ Mocks £j/ £d {• 
Jul> 5th was fought in the plain on the S. side of the creek 
(See Map ; also Map, p. 306.) 

t Burlington Heights lie W. and S. of Burlington Bay. 
(See Note, p. 316.) 

$ The Falls of Niagara, between Lakes Erie and Onti- 
rio, are probably the greatest natural curiosity in the world. 
The mighty volume of water which forms the outlet of 
Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Erie, is here precip- 
itated over a precipice 160 feet high, with a roar like that 
of thunder, which may be heard, at times, to the distance 
of fifteen or twenty miles. The Falls are about twenty 
miles N. from Lake Erie, and fourteen S. from Lake On- 
tario. (See Map ; also Map, p. 306.) 



Lundy's I me, then an obscure road, is about half a 
mile N.VV. from the Falls. (See Ma » ^ 




% Mil c^ JPp^rs^^ 



320 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1814. 4. 'General Scott, leading the advance, first engaged 
i aive an tne enem y> an( l contended for an hour against a force 
at fit"ari? & r8at ty ^is su P er i° r J when both parties were rein- 
partofthc forced by the main bodies of the two armies, and the 
battle was renewed with increased fury. Major Jes- 
sup, in the mean time, had fallen upon the flank and 
rear of the enemy ; and, in the darkness, General Riall 
and his suite were made prisoners. As the British 
artillery, placed on an eminence, sorely annoyed the 
Americans in every part of the field, it became evident 
that the victory depended upon carrying the battery. 
2. Of the 5. 2 Colonel Miller was asked if he could storm the 
ihe'isfitisn battery. " I can try, sir," was the laconic answer. 
battery. pj ac i n g himself at the head of his regiment, he ad- 
vanced steadily up the ascent, while every dis- 
charge of the enemy's cannon and musketry rapidly 
thinned his ranks. But nothing could restrain the 
impetuosity of his men, who, in a desperate charge, 
gained possession of the battery ; and the American 
line was immediately formed upon the ground nre- 
viously occupied by the enemy. 
z.whatfur- 6. 3 The attention of both armies was now directed 
jsgfveTof to this position ; and three desperate and sanguinary 
'andqf'the efforts were made by the whole British force to regain 
eaSiliih fy Dut without success. In the third attempt General 
Drummond was wounded, when his forces, beaten back 
with a heavy loss, were withdrawn ; and the Amer- 
icans were left in quiet possession of the field. The 
British force engaged in this action was about 5000 
men, nearly one-third greater than that of the Amer- 
ican. The total loss of the former was 878 men, of 
the latter 858. 
4 tvhat ^' Generals Brown and Scott having been wound- 
changeo/of- ed, the command devolved upon General Ripley, who 

Jicerf) took ,' .. , . r . , ■" 

•place, and deemed it prudent to retire to h ort .brie ; where, on 

/ouoired"r, the 4th of August, he was besieged by General Drum- 

%m!£%$ mond, at the head of 5000 men. Soon after, General 

ti'theca™ Gaines arrived at the fort, and being the senior officer, 

paigni tcx^ the command. Early on the morning of the 15th, 

the enemy made an assault upon the fort, but were 

repulsed with a loss of nearly a thousand men. 

8 On the 17th of September, General Brown having 



chap, iv.] madison's administration. 321 

previously resumed the command, a successful sortie 1S14. 
was made from the fort, and the advanced works of the 
besiegers were destroyed. The enemy soon after re- 
tired to Fort George, on learning that General Izard 
was approaching from Plattsburg, with reinforcements 
for the American army. In November, Fort Erie was 
abandoned 11 and destroyed, and the American troops, a. No r ?. 
recrossing the river, went into winter quarters at Buf- 
falo," Black Rock,' and Batavia.* b.N. p.sis. 

1 1 T* rr t r* C N. p. 307. 

II. EVENTS IN THE VICINITY OF LAKE ChAMPLAIN. ¥ir ^ 

, .t •-■-.! ri 1 -iiT-ii • i_ 1 LWhatwen 

] 'Late in b ebruary, General Wilkinson broke up tumarot- 
his winter quarters at French Mills, d and removed his g««. mi- 
army to Plattsburg. In March, he penetrated into Can- k \™w.ista y 
ada, and attacked* a body of the enemy posted at La " " on? „ , 

/~i 1 1 j. 10 1 -i 1 • ii-i . , d. See p. 31«. 

CoJlej on the feorel ; but being repulsed with consid- e . Marck3«. 
erable loss, he again returned to Plattsburg, where he 
was soon after superseded in command by General 
Izard. i 

2. 2 In August, General Izard was despatched to the %\vhat 
Niagara frontier with 5000 men, leaving General *S"f/£ 
Macomb in command at Plattsburg with only 1500. '%£%"£ 
The British in Canada having been strongly reinforced Ge > 1 - Izardi 
by the veterans who had served under Wellington, in 
Europe, early in September Sir George Prevost ad- 
vanced against Plattsburg, at the head of 14,000 men, 

and at the same time an attempt was made to destroy 
the American flotilla on Lake Champlain, commanded 
by Commodore MacDonough. 

3. 3 On the 6th of September, the enemy arrived at 3. Give a* 
Plattsburg. The troops of General Macomb withdrew Tt^aulcl 
across the Saranac ; f and, during four days, withstood "^nir^ 
all the attempts of the enemy to force a passage. About f^jKLj? 
eight o'clock on the morning of the 11th, a general f. n. p. 316. 
cannonading was commenced on the American works; SepL u - 
and, soon after, the British fleet of Commodore Dow- 

nie bore down and ensfag-ed that of Commodore Mac- 
Donough, lying in the harbor. After an action of two 



* Batavia, the capital of Oenesee County, N. Y., is situated on Tonawands. Creek, 
about forty miles N.E. from Buffalo. 

t La Colle, on the VV. bank of the Sorel, is the first town in Canada N of the Can- 
ada line. La Colle Mill, where the principal battle occurred, was three ciles N. from 
the village of Odeltown. 

14* 



322 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§14. hours, the guns of the enemy's squadron were silenced, 
"" and most of their vessels captured. 

VrlnaTrf 4 - lThe battle on the land continued until nightfall. 
the prongs Three desperate but unsuccessful attempts were made 

and result v i t» • ■ 1 , r 

o/theac- by the -British to cross the stream, and storm the Amer- 
■ Hindi K ican works. After witnessing the capture of the fleet, 
the efforts of the enemy relaxed, and, at dusk, they 
commenced a hasty retreat ; leaving behind their sick 
and wounded, together with a large quantity of military 
stores. The total British loss, in killed, wounded, pris- 
oners, and deserters, was estimated at 2500 men. 

9.Wh&t HI. EVENTS ON THE ATLANTIC CoAST. 1. 2 On the 

currid°o', return of spring the British renewed their practice of 
"the Return P ett y plundering on the waters of the Chesapeake, and 
qfgpriuff/ made frequent inroads on the unprotected settlements 
Aug. is. along its borders. 3 On the 19th of August, the British 
same" % S" enera l> R°ss, landed at Benedict, on the Patuxent,* with 
•ending «»d 5000 men, and commenced his march towards.Washing- 
Gen.hi-i ton. 4 The American flotilla, under Commodore Bar- 
Amer'ccn ue y> tywg farther up the river was abandoned and burned. 
jiotiiiai 2. 6 Instead of proceeding directly to Washington, 
account of the enemy passed higher up the Patuxent, and ap- 
% tteencf!y proached the city by the way of Bladensburg.f Here 
event' 'that a stand was made, a but the militia fled after a short 
°Bm&fJ lt res i stance j although a body of seamen and marines, 
burg and at under Commodore Barney, maintained their ground 
ton until they were overpowered by numbers, and the 
a. Aug. 24. commo( ]ore taken prisoner. The enemy then proceed- 
ed to Washington, burned the capitol, president's house, 
and many other buildings, after which they made a 
hasty retreat to their shipping. 
% in V e < inthl ^ - ** n tbe mean time, another portion of the fleet as- 
mean'-^e, cended the Potomac, and, on the 29th, reached Alex- 
pm-mnof andria;Jthe inhabitants of which were obliged to pur- 
thejicet cnase t £ e preservation of their city from pillage and 
burning, by the surrender of all the merchandise in the 
town, and the shipping at the wharves. 

* The Patuxent Iiiver enters the Chesapeake from the N.W., twenty miles N. from 
the mo: 8 of the Potomac. Benedict is on the W. bank of the Patuxent, twenty-flv« 
miles from its month, and thirty-five miles S.E. from Washington, 
t Bladensburg is six miles N.E. from Washington. (See Map, p. 296.) 
\ Ale:' nldria, included in the District of Columbia until 1846, is on the W. bank oi 
the Potomac, seven miles below Washington. (See Map, p. 296.) 



CHAP. IV.] 



MADISON S ADMINISTRATION. 



323 



4. 'After the successful attack on Washington, Gen- 
eral Ross sailed up the Chesapeake ; and, on the 12th 
of September, landed at North Point, a fourteen miles 
from Baltimore ; and immediately commenced his 
march towards the city. In a slight skirmish General 
Ross was killed, but the enemy, under the command of 
Colonel Brooke, continued the march, and a battle of 
one hour and twenty minutes was fought with a body 
of militia under General Strieker. The militia then 
retreated in good order to the defences of the city, 
where the enemy made their appearance the next 
morning. b 

5. 2 By this time, the fleet had advanced up the Pa- 
tapsco,* and commenced a bombardment on Fort 
McHenry,f which was continued during the day, and 
most of the following night, but without making any 
unfavorable impression, either upon the strength of the 
work, or the spirit of the garrison. 3 The land forces 
of the enemy, after remaining all day in front of the 
American works, and making many demonstrations of 
attack, silently withdrew early the next morning, and 
during the following night, embarked on board their 
shipping. 

6. 4 In the mean time, the coasts of New England 
did not escape the ravages of war. Formidable squad- 
rons were kept up before the ports of New York, New 
London, and Boston ; and a vast quantity of shipping 
fell into the hands of the enemy. In August, Stoning- 
ton]: was bombarded d by Commodore Hardy, and sev- 
eral attempts were made to land, which were success- 
fully opposed by the militia. 

IV. Events in the South, and Close of the War. 
— 1. s During the month of August, several British 
ships of war arrived at the Spanish port of Pensacola, 
took possession of the forts, with the 



i§i4. 

1. \\~\atfar 
ther is rela- 
ted of Uen. 
Ross, and 
ivliat event* 
followed hb> 

death > 

a. See Map 

below. 



b. Sept. 13. 

2. Give an 
account of 
the attack 
on Fort 
McHenrij. 
Sept. 13, H. 



3. What is 
said of the 
retreat I 



c. Sept. 14. 



4. What is 
related of 
Vie war on 
the coast of 
iS'ctv Eng- 
land/ 



d. Aug. 9, 10, 
11, 12. 

5. What wen 

thejirst 
movements 
of the Brit- 
ish at the 
south, du- 
ring this 
year ? 



VICINITY OF BALTIMORE. 



* The Patapsco River enters Chesapeake Bay 
from the N.W., about eighty-five miles N. from 
the mouth of the Potomac. (See Map.) 

f Fort McHenry is on the W. side of the en- 
trance to Baltimore Harbor, about two miles be- 
low the city. (See Map.) 

t The village of Stonington, attacked by the en- 
emy, Is on a narrow peninsula extending into the 
8( and, twelve miles E. from New London. 




324 THE UNITED STATES L r PART IV. 

1§14. consent of the authorities, and fitted out an expedition 

' against Fort Bowyer,* commanding the entrance to 

the bay and harbor of Mobile. f After the loss of a 

ship of war, and a considerable number of men in 

a. Fort at- killed and wounded, «■ the armament returned to Pen 

tacked Sep- ,;„„„]„ 
tember 15. SdCOld. 

.what was 2. 'General Jackson, then commanding at the South 
Gemmi after having remonstrated in vain with the governoi 
jacksoni j p ensa cola, for affording shelter and protection to the 
enemies of the United States, marched against the 
a. Not. 7 place, stormed b the town, and compelled the British to 
e.Nov. 8 evacuate' Florida. Returning to his head-quarters at 
Mobile, he received authentic information that prep- 
arations were making for a formidable invasion of 
Louisiana, and an attack on New Orleans. 
a. Dec. 2. 3. 2 He immediately repaired" 1 to that city, which he 
q. what is found in a state of confusion and alarm. By his ex- 
arrtwi 'In ertions, order and confidence were restored ; the militia 
leant and were organized ; fortifications were erected ; and, final- 
measures ty> martial law was proclaimed ; which, although a 
ad °tum d ? bv violation of the constitution, was deemed indispensable 
for the safety of the country, and a measure justified by 
necessity. 
3. of the 4. 3 On the 5th of December a large British squad- 
uieBriti'sh roil appeared off the harbor of Pensacola, and on the 
ahTmeen- 10th entered Lake Borgne,| the nearest avenue of ap- 
e on. e Lake P'" oac h to New Orleans. Here a small squadron of 
Borgnei American gun-boats, under Lieutenant Jones, was at 
tacked, and after a sanguinary conflict, in which the 
killed and wounded of the enemy exceeded the whole 
e. Dec. H. number of the Americans, was compelled to surrender.* 
i.whatoc- 5. 4 On the 22d of December, about 2400 of the 
thelayane. enemy reached the Mississippi, nine miles below New 
THc h \M.t Orleans,^ where, on the following night, they were 
surprised by an unexpected and vigorous attack upon 
their camp, which they succeeded in repelling, after a 
loss of 400 men in killed and wounded. 

* Fort Bowyer, now called Fort Morgan, is on Mobile Point, on the E. side of thj 
ntranoe to Mobile Bay, thirty miles S. from Mobile. 

t Mobile, in Alabama, is on the W. side of the river of the same name, near its en 
trance into Mobile Bay. (Bee Map, p. 313.) 

t The entrance to this lake or bay is about sixty miles NJS. frorr New Orleans 
gee also Notes on p. 193.) 

$ For a description of New Orkcne see Note page 2PL 



UHAP rv.] 



MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION. 



325 



6. 'Jackson now withdrew his troops to his intrench- 
mcnts, four miles below the city. On the 28lh of De- 
cember and 1st of January, these were vigorously can- 
nonaded by the enemy, but without success. On the 
morning- of the 8th of January, General Packenham, 
the commander-in-chief of the British, advanced against 
the American intrenchments with the main body of his 
army, numbering more than 12,000 men. 

7. 2 Behind their breastworks of cotton bales, which 
o balls could penetrate, 6000 Americans, mostly mi- 
itia, but the best marksmen in the land, silently await- 

zd the attack. When the advancing columns had ap- 
proached within reach of the batteries, they were met 
by an incessant and destructive cannonade ; but clos- 
ing their ranks as fast as they were opened, they con- 
tinued steadily to advance, until they came within 
reach of the American musketry and rifles. The ex- 
tended American line now presented one vivid stream 
of fire, throwing the enemy into confusion, and cover- 
ing the plain with the wounded and the dead. 

8. 3 In an attempt to rally his troops, General Pack- 
enham was killed ; General Gibbs, the second in com- 
mand, was mortally wounded, and General Keene 
severely. The enemy now fled in dismay from the 
certain death which seemed to await them ; no one 
was disposed to issue an order, nor would it have been 
obeyed had any been given. General Lambert, on 
whom the command devolved, being unable to check 
the flight of the troops, retired to his encampment, 
leaving 700 dead, and more than 1000 wounded, on 
the held of battle. The loss of the Americans was only 
seven killed and six wounded. The whole British 
army hastily withdrew and retreated to their shipping. 

9. 4 This was the last important action of the war on 
the land. The rejoicings of victory were speedily fol- 
lowed by the welcome tidings that a treaty of peace 
between the United States and Great Britain had been 
concluded in the previous December. A little later 
the war lingered on the ocean, closing there, as on the 
land, with victory adorning the . aurels of the republic. 
In February, the Constitution captured the Cyane and 
the Levant off the Island of Madeira ; ft and in March, 



1§15. 

l.What sev- 
eral attacks 
were 'made 

on the 
American 

ivorks ' 



Jan. 3. 
2. Continue 
the account 
of the battlt 
of theith of 
January. 



3. Wliat is 
said of the 

losses and 

the retreat 

of the 

enenvjl 



4. What 

events fol- 
lowed the 
battle of 
Neio Or- 
leans, and 
in what 
manner die 
the tear 
clcscl 



a. y. p. a. 



826 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1815. the Hor.iet captured the brig Penguin, off the coast of 
Brazil. The captured vessels, in both cases, were 
stronger in men and in guns than the victors. 
1814. 10- l The opposition of a portion of the federal party 
&. see p. 307. to the war has already been mentioned. 1 The dissat- 
litidnfal isfaction prevailed somewhat extensively throughout 
°VhtfeA ^ e New England States ; and, finally, complaints were 
trai parti/ made, that the general government, looking upon the 
and of the, New England people with uncalled-for jealousy, did 
tf'manyof not afford them that protection to which their burthen 
England of the expenses of the war entitled them. They like- 
peopiei w j se complained that the war was badly managed ; 
and some of the more zealous opponents of the admin- 
istration proposed, that not only the militia, but the 
revenue also, of the New England States, should be 
retained at home for their own defence, 
s. wjiatcon- 11. 2 Finally, in December, 1814, a convention of 
V a^emb!eT delegates appointed by the legislatures of Massachu- 
at and$r rd ' setts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and a partial 
w '^osef r ' representation from Vermont and New Hampshire, 
assembled at Hartford, for the purpose of considering 
the grievances of which the people complained, and 
for devising some measures for their redress, 
s. row was 12. 3 The convention was denounced in the severest 
tton C r"gard- terms, by the friends of the administration, who branded 
fricnchof it with odium, as giving encouragement to the enemy, 
Oration}' an d as being treasonable to the general government. 
i.what is 4 The proceedings of the convention, however, were not 
proceedings as objectionable as many anticipated ; its most import- 
er the con- an t measure being the recommendation of several 

ventwni f . 

amendments to the constitution, and a statement or 
grievances, many of which were real, but which ne- 
s. of party cessarily arose out of a state of war. s As the news of 
feelings/ peace arrived soon after the adjournment of the con- 
vention, the causes of disquiet were removed ; but 
party feelings had become deeply embittered, and, to 
this day, the words, "Hartford Convention," are, with 

6 what a man y> a term of reproach. 

midof the 13. c Inthe month of August, 18 14, commissioners from 
peacef Great Britain and the United States assembled at Ghent,* 

* Ghent, the capital of E. Flanders, in Belgium, is on the River Scheldt, about thirty 
«iiles N.VV. from Brussels. Numerous canals divide the city into about thirty Wharfs. 



CHAP. rv.J 



MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION. 



327 



in Flanders, where a treaty of peace was conclu- 
ded, and signed on the 24th of December following. 
■ 'Upon the subjects for which the war had been pro- 
fessedly declared, — the encroachments upon American 
commerce, and the impressment of American seamen 
under the pretext of their being British subjects, the 
treaty, thus concluded, was silent. The causes of the 
former, however, had been mostly removed by the ter- 
mination of the European war ; and Great Britain had 
virtually relinquished her pretensions to the latter. 

War with Algiers. — 1. Scarcely had the war 
with England closed, when it became necessary for 
the United States to commence another, for the pro- 
tection of American commerce and seamen against 
Algerine piracies. 3 From the time of the treaty with 
Algiers, in 1795, up to 1812, peace had been preserved 
to the United States by the payment of an annual 
tribute. *In July of the latter year, the dey, believing 
that the war with England would render the United 
States unable to protect their commerce in the Medi- 
terranean, extorted from the American consul, Mr. 
Lear, a large sum of money, as the purchase of his 
freedom, and the freedom of American citizens then 
in Algiers, and then commenced a piratical warfare 
against all American vessels that fell in the way of his 
cruisers. The crews of the vessels taken were con- 
demned to slavery. 

2. 5 In May, 1815, a squadron under Commodore 
Decatur sailed for the Mediterranean, where the naval 
force of the dey was cruising for American vessels. On 
the 1 7th of June, Decatur fell in with the frigate of the 
admiral of the Algerine squadron, of forty-six guns, and 
after a running fight of twenty minutes, captured her, 
killing thirty, among whom was the admiral, and 
taking more than 400 prisoners. Two days later, he 
captured a frigate of twenty-two guns and 180 men, 
after which he proceeded 1 with his squadron to the 
bay of Algiers. Here a treaty b was dictate \ to the 
dey, who found himself under the humiliating neces- 
sity of releasing the American prisoners in his posses- 
don ; and of relinquishing all future claims to tribute 
from the United States. 



l§14. 

Deo. 21. 
1. Of the 

causeswhich 

led to the 

war 1 



2. Wliat led 
tu a war 
with Al- 
giers 1 



3. How had 
peace been 
preserved i 



4. What ad- 
vantage had 
the Dey ta- 
ken on ac- 
count ofllie 
war with 
England! 



1815. 

5. What wa* 

the success 
of Com. 
Decatur 7 



a. Arrived 
June 28. 
b. Treary 

concluded 
June 30 



328 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART IV. 



1§15. 

July, Aug. 
1. What did 
Decatur ob- 
tain from 
Tunis and 
Tripoli ? 
2. What was 
the effect of 
these 'pro- 
ceedings of 
Decatur 1 



1816. 

3. What is 
said of a. 
national 

bank! 

a. April 10. 

Commenced 

operations 

Jan. 1, 1817. 

4. What 

other 

events are 

related as 

occurring 

in 1816 ; 



3. 'Decatur then proceeded to Tunis, and thence to 
Tripoli, and from both of these powers demanded and 
obtained the payment of large sums of money, for vio- 
lations of neutrality during the recent war with Eng- 
land. 2 The exhibition of a powerful force, and the 
prompt manner in which justice was demanded and 
enforced from the Barbary powers, not only gave future 
security to American commerce in the Mediterranean, 
but increased the reputation of the American navy, and 
elevated the national character in the eyes of Europe. 

4. 3 The charter of the former national bank having 
expired in 1811, early in 1816 a second national bank, 
called the Bank of the United States, was incorporated," 
with a capital of thirty-five millions of dollars, and a 
charter to continue in force twenty years. 4 In De- 
cember, Indiana* became an independent state, and 
Avas admitted into the Union. In the election held in 
the autumn of 1816, James Monroe, of Virginia, was 
chosen president, and Daniel D. Tompkins, of New 
York, vice-president of the United States. 




JAMES ilO.rEOE 



CHAPTER Y. 

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FROM MABCII 4, 1817, TO MABCII 4, 1825. 

1. During the war, the prices 
of commodities had been high, 
and numerous manufacturing es- 
tablishments had sprung up ; but 
at the close of the war the coun- 
try was inundated with foreign 



* INDIANA, one of the Western States, contains an area of about 36,000 iiqiare 
miles. The southeastern part of the state, bordering on the Ohio, is hilly, but the 
southwestern is level, and is covered with a heavy growth of timber. N. W. of the 
Wabash the country is generally level, but near Lake Michigan are numerous sand 
hills, some of which are bare, and others covered with a growth of pine. The praivia 
lands on the Wabash and other streams have a deep and rich soil. Indiana was firat 
settled at Vlnoeanes, by the French, about the year 1730. 



chap, v.] mokroe's administration. 829 

goods, prices fell, and the ruin of most of the rival 1§17. 
establishments in the United States was the conse- 
quence. 

2. 'But although the return of peace occasioned i.irhatu 
these serious embarrassments to the mercantile interests, culture and 
't at once gave a new impulse to agriculture. Thou- m 'mt'of tne 

ands of citizens, whose fortunes had been reduced by eountr ^ i 
he war, sought to improve them where lands were 
cheaper and more fertile than on the Atlantic coast ; 
the numerous emigrants who flocked to the American 
shores, likewise sought a refuge in the unsettled re- 
gions of the West ; and so rapid was the increase of 
population, that within ten years from the peace with 
England, six new states had grown up in the recent 
wilderness. 

3. 2 In December, 1817, the Mississippi Territory 1 a. see p. v*. 
was divided, and the western portion of it admitted events op- 
inio the Union, as the State of Mississippi.* The east- ££Sj£ 
ern portion was formed into a territorial government, 1817 ' 
and called Alabama Territory. During the same 
month, a piratical establishment that had been formed 

on Amelia Island,! by persons claiming to be acting 
under the authority of some of the republics of South 
America, for the purpose of liberating the Floridas 
from the dominion of Spain, was broken up by the 
United States. A similar establishment at Galveston, J 
on the coast of Texas, was likewise suppressed. 

4. 3 In the latter part of 1817. the Seminole Indians, a.w»«f» 

i / i count is 

and a few of the Creeks, commenced depredations on given of 
the frontiers of Georgia and Alabama. General Gaines wuhm 
was first sent out to reduce the Indians ; but his force aendmie* 
being insufficient, General Jackson was ordered b to 
take the field, and to call on the governors of the ad- 
jacent states for such additional forces as he might 
deem requisite. 



in 1817? 
b. Dec. 26. 



* MISSISSIPPI, one of the Southern States, contains an area of abont 48.000 square 
miles. The region bordering on the Gulf of Mexico is mostly a sandy, level pine forest. 
Farther north the soil is rich, the country more elevated, ami the climate generally 
healthy The margin of the Mississippi River consists of inundated swamps covered 
with a large growth of timber. The first settlement in the state was formed aiNatches, 
by the French, in 1710. 

t Jimelia Island is at the northeastern extremity of the coast of Florida. 

t Galveston is an island on which is a town of the same name, lying at the miQtl 
of Galveston Bay, seventy-five miles S.W. from the mouth of the Sabine River. 



330 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

!§!§. 5. 'General Jackson, however, instead of calling on 

1. Qivsm tne governors, addressed a circular to the patriots of 

the°cou°e West Tennessee ; one thousand of whom immediately 

adopted by joined him. At the head of his troops, he then marched 

Gen JclcIc' . -> • . ■ *■ * 

son, his m- into the Indian territory, which he overran without op- 
thT'fndian position. Deeming it necessary to enter Florida for 
ca% r tur' e ' J of the subjugation of the Seminoles, he marched upon St 
indftwjat'e Mark's,* a feeble Spanish post, of which he took pos- 
°nof l 'and sess i° n j removing the Spanish authorities and troops 
Ambrtster. to Pensacola. A Scotchman and an Englishman, 
«.. n. p. 21. Arbuthnot and Ambrister, having fallen into his hands, 
were accused of inciting the Indians to hostilities, tried 
by a court-martial, and executed, 
b. May 24. Q. 2jj e afterwards seized b Pensacola itself; and, 
Softie nav i n o reduced the fortress of the Barancas,* sent the 
aipiurtof Spanish authorities and troops to Havanna. s The pro- 
s. How were ceedings of General Jackson, in the prosecution of this 
uisVofam. war 5 nave been the subject of much animadversion. 
JaC arded r t ^ ne SUD J ect was extensively debated in congress, du- 
ring the session of 1818-19, but the conduct of the 
general met the approbation of the president ; and a 
resolution of censure, in the house, was rejected by a 
large majority. 
£JTm- 7 - "In August, 1818, Illinois!, which had been 
noUr taken from Indiana Territory in 1809, adopted a state 

constitution, and in December was admitted into the 
1 R1 q Union. In the same year, Alabama^ became a State. 
5. o/. East 6 I n February, 1819, the United States obtained from 
Fbritf? Spain a cession of East and West Florida ; but the 
treaty was not finally ratified by the King of Spain 
.ofMait*! until October, 1820. "Early in 1820, the province 
of Maine, k which had been connected with Massa- 
chusetts since 1652, was separated from it, and be- 
came an independent State. 

* This fortress is on the west side of the entrance Into Pensacola Bay. 

t ILLINOIS, having the Mississippi River on her western border, the Ohio on the 
southern, the Wabash" on the east, and Lake Michigan on the north-east, is very 
favorably situated for internal trade; and in agricultural capabilities she is not sur- 
passed by any state in the Union. 

$ ALABAMA. The southern part of the state, which borders on the Gulf of 
Mexico, is low and level, sandy and barren ; the middle portions are somewhat hilly, 
Interspersed with fertile prairies; the north is broken, and somewhat mountainous. 

J For a description of Maine, see Note, p. 81. 



CHAP. V.] MONROE S ADMINISTRATION. 33 1 

8. •Missouri had previously applied for admission. 1§20. 
A proposition in congress, to prohibit the introduction J Wfiatia 
of slavery into the new state, arrayed the South against soMo/tke 
the North, the slavehokling against the non-slavehold- the Missouri 
ing states, and the whole subject of slavery became the 9 ~" 
exciting topic of debate throughout the Union. 2 The 1821. 
Missouri question was finally settled by a compromise, iJie^uesaon 
which tolerated slavery in Missouri, but otherwise pro- seuled/ 
hibited it in all the territory of the United States north 

and west of the northern limits of Arkansas ; and in 
August, 1821, Missouri* became the twenty-fourth 
state in the Union. 

9. 3 At the expiration of Mr. Monroe's term of office, 3. wm u 

i ii-i ■• i» it • m *<"'<* °f the 

he was re-elected with great unanimity. Mr. 1 omp- presidential 
kins was again elected vice-president. 4 An alarming ee i85>o? 
system of piracy having grown up in the West Indies, *i5C**^S| 
during the year 1822 a small naval force was sent west in- 
there, which captured and destroyed upwards of twenty i goo 
piratical vessels, on the coast of Cuba. In the follow- 
ing year, Commodore Porter, with a larger force, com- 1823. 
pletely broke up the retreats of the pirates in those 
seas ; but many of them sought other hiding places, 
whence, at an after period, they renewed their dep- 
redations. 

10. *The summer of 1824 was distinguished by the 1824. 
arrival of the venerable Lafayette, who, at the age of s.atvean 
nearly seventy, and after the lapse of almost half a cen- the visit of 
tury from the period of his military career, came to re- the muted 
visit the country of whose freedom and happiness he suites - 
had been one of the most honored and beloved found- 
ers. His reception 1 at New York, his tour through all a. Aug. 1824. 
the states of the Union, embracing a journey of more 

than five thousand miles, and his final departure b from b Sept 1825# 
Washington, in an American frigate prepared for his 
accommodation, were all signalized by every token of 

* MISSOURI, one of the Western States, contains an areit of about 64.000 square 
miles. This state presents a «reat variety of surface and of soil. The southeaster 
part of the state has a very extensive tract of low, marshy country, abounding in lakes 
and liable to inundations. The hilly country, N. and W. of this, and south of the Mis 
souri River, is mostly a barren region, but celebrated for its numerous mineral treas- 
ures, particularly those of lead and of iron. In the interior and western portions of 
the state, barren and fertile tracts of hill and prairie land, with heavy forests and na 
merous rivers, present a diversified and beautiful landscape. The country N. of the 
Missouri is delightfully rolling, highly fertile, and has been emphatically styled "the 
garden of the West." 



o32 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART IV, 



1§25. respect that could be devised for doing honor to the 

" Nation's Guest." 
1. what is 1 1. 'The election of a successor to Mr. Monroe was 
pr&s<rteni/ai attended with more than usual excitement, owing to 
eiechwof fa e num b er of candidates in the field. Four were pre- 
sented for the suffrages of the people : Adams in the 
East, Crawford in the South, Jackson and Clay in the 
West. As no candidate received a majority of the 
electoral votes, the choice of president devolved upon 
the house of representatives, which decided in favor of 
Mr. Adams. Mr. Calhoun, of South Carolina, had 
been chosen vice-president, by the people. 




J. Q. ADAMS. 



2. TT7«i< leas 
the state of 
the country 
duriny that 
period ': 

3. What is 
said of the 
controversy 
vnth Geor- 
gia f 



1701. 

4. What 
events oc- 
curred ou 
the ith of 
July, 1826? 



CHAPTER VI. 

J. Q. ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FBOM MAKCH 4, 1825, TO MARCH 4, 1829. 

1. "During the period of Mr. 
Adams's administration, peace was 
preserved with foreign nations ; 
domestic quiet prevailed; the 
country rapidly increased in pop- 
ulation and wealth ; and, like every era of peace and 
prosperity, few events of national importance oc- 
curred, requiring a recital on the page of history. 

2. 3 A controversy between the national government 
and the state of Georgia, in relation to certain lands 
held by the Cieek nation, at one time occasioned some 
anxiety, but was finally settled without disturbing the 
peace of the Union. After several attempts on the 
part of Georgia, to obtain possession of the Creek ter. 
ritory, in accordance with treaties made with portions 
of the tribe, the national government purchased the 
residue of the lands for the benefit of Georgia, which 
settled the controversy. 

3. 4 On the 4th of July, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary 
of American independence, occurred the deaths of the 
two venerable ex-presidents, John Adams and Thomas 



c!HAP. VI.J J. Q. ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION. 333 

Jefferson. 'Both had been among the first to resist J §26. 
the high-handed measures of Great Britain ; both 1. m,at re- 
were members of the early colonial congresses ; the madeupm 
former nominated Washington as the commander-in- 'terfo/'The 
ohief of the army, and the latter drew up the cele- ^I^ZT 
brated Declaration of Independence. 

4. Each had served his country in its hignest sta- 
tion ; and although one was at the head of the federal, 
and the other of the anti-federal party, both were equally 
sincere advocates of liberty, and each equally charita- 
ble towards the sentiments of the other. The peculiar 
circumstances of their death, added to their friendship 
while living, and the conspicuous and honorable parts 
which they acted in their country's history, would seem 
to render it due to their memories, that the early ani- 
mosities, and now inappropriate distinctions of their 
respective parties, should be buried with them. 

5. 'The presidential election of 1828 was attended 1828. 
with an excitement and zeal in the respective parties, ^id'of'Jie 
to which no former election had furnished a parallel. elecl j™ °f 
The opposing candidates were Mr. Adams and Gen- 
eral Jackson. In the contest, which, from the first 

was chiefly of a personal nature, not only the publi 
acts, but even the private lives of both the aspirants 
were closely scanned, and every error, real or sup- 
posed, placed in a conspicuous view. 2 The result of %ynuitn» 
the contest was the election of General Jackson, by a ^2o««^f 
majority far greater than his most sanguine friends 
hud anticipated. John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, 
was a second time chosen vice-president. 

6. 3 Our warmly contested presidential elections are 3 . matti 

often looked upon by foreigners, just arrived in the ^""jjresi- 

country, with much anxiety for the consequences. As ff '!/^/^ 

.the crisis of the election approaches, the excitement i**Vj» 
• t " i i ' -ii luteal ex- 

becomes intense; but, tempered by reason, it seldom cuementJ 

rises beyond a war of words and feelings ; and a scene 

jf strife, which, in Europe, would shake a throne to 

•ts foundation, is viewed with little alarm in the Amer- 

lean republic. A decision of the controversy at once 

allays the angry elements of discord, and the waves of 

party strife again sink back to their ordinary level, 

again to rise and again subside, at every new election. 




ANDKEW JACKSON. 



1§29. 

1. What is 
said in rela- 
tion to fre- 
quent remo- 
vals from 



1832 

2. What was 



[l'ART IV. 

CHAPTER VII. 

JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FEOM MARCH 4, 1829, TO MARCH 4, 1837. 

1, 'The first distinguishing feature 
in Jackson's administration, was the 
numerous removals from office, and 
the appointment of the political friends 
of the president to fill the vacancies 
thereby occasioned. This measure, 
in direct opposition to the policy of the previous ad- 
ministration, excited some surprise, and was violently 
assailed as an unworthy proscription for opinion's 
sake ; but was defended by an appeal to the preced- 
ent afforded by Mr. Jefferson, who pursued a similar 
course, though to a much smaller extent. 

2. 2 Early in 1832, a bill was brought forward in 
theresuitof congress for rechartering the United States Bank. 
torechanir After a long and animated debate, the bill passed both 
the banlT al ' louses °f congress, but was returned by the president, 

with his objections, and not being repassed by the con- 
stitutional majority of two-thirds, the bank ceased to be 
a national institution on the expiration of its charter 
in 1836. 

3. 3 In the spring of 1832, a portion of the Sacs, 
Foxes, and Winnebagoes, in Wisconsin Territory, 

ivarwit'h commenced hostilities, under the famous chief Black 
Foxes, and Hawk. After numerous skirmishes, most of the In- 
goesi dians were driven west of the Mississippi. Black 
Hawk surrendered himself a prisoner, and peace was 
concluded by a treaty, — the Indians relinquishing a 
large tract of their territory. 4 Black Hawk and a few 
other chiefs, after having visited Washington, were 
taken through several other cities, on their way home- 
ward, in order to convince them of the vast power and 
resources of their white neighbors, 
s Howiras 4. S A tariff bill, imposing additional duties on foreign 
Iwzregard- goods, having passed congress during the session which 
e south! terminated in the summer of 1832, caused, as on sev- 
eral previous occasions, great excitement in the south- 
ern portions of the Union. *In South Carolina, where 
*iecutredby the excitement was the greatest, a state convention de- 



3. What ac 

count is 

given of the 



4. What is 

said of the 

tour of 

Black 

Ilatek? 



chap, vn.] jackson's administration. 335 

clared* that the tariff acts were unconstitutional, and 1§32. 
therefore null and void ; that the duties should not be — 



was 
la- 
en- 



the con veil- 

paid ; and that any attempt on the part of the general % r *^J$ 
government to enforce the payment, would produce the a . ncv. 24. 
withdrawal of South Carolina from the Union, and the 
establishment of an independent government. 

5. 'This novel doctrine of the right of a state to de- x.Hmowen 
clare a law of congress unconstitutional and void, and ^nnnsma 
to withdraw from the Union, was promptly met by a by .' l £ ! H p [ r / e3 ~ 
proclamation 5 of the president, in which he seriously t,. Dec 10. 
warned the ultra advocates of " State rights" of the con- 
sequences that must ensue if they persisted in their 

course of treason to the government. He declared that, 
as chief magistrate of the Union, he could not, if he 
would, avoid the performance of his duty ; that the 
laws must be executed ; and that any opposition to 
their execution must be repelled ; by force, if necessary. 

6. 2 The sentiments of the proclamation met with a 2. how 
cordial response from all the friends of the Union, and matumg't, 
party feelings were for the time forgotten in the gen- ^rtfeS? 
era] determination to sustain the president in asserting 

the supremacy of the laws. 3 South Carolina receded 1833. 
from her hostile position, although she still boldly ad- J u l^ l % d 
vanced her favorite doctrine of the supremacy of state south car- 

. , i-i c 1 t • • 1 1 olma still 

rights, and, in the person 01 her distinguished senator, pursue t 
Mr. Calhoun, who had recently resigned the office of 
vice-president, asserted it even in the halls of congress. 

7. 4 Fortunately for the public peace, this cause of ». how tot 
discord, and contention between the North and the 'Xcwtf *&• 
South was in a great measure removed, by a " Com- movedi 
promise bill," introduced by Mr. Clay, of Kentucky. Feb 12 
This bill provided for a gradual reduction of duties . Became a 

... r ...„ » 8 , . . . lawMarch3. 

until the year 1843, when they were to sink to the 
general level of twenty per cent. s On the 4th of 5 WhM oc . 
March, 1833, General Jackson entered upon the sec- ^rifis^ 
ond term of his presidency. Martin Van Buren, of 
New York, had been chosen vice-president. 

8. 6 In 1833, considerable excitement was occasioned 3 _nTmtii 
on account of the removal, by the president, from the %%%^f 
Bank of the United States, of the government funds the govern- 

, .,.....' ii- - went funds 

deposited in that institution, and their transfer to cer- from the 
tain state banks. 7 The opponents of the administration v. states 1 



i36 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§33. censured this measure as an unauthorized and danger- 

~7. or the ous assumption of power by the executive, and the 

different want of confidence which soon arose in the moneyed in- 

views taken . i,, -t 

of this meas- stitutions oi the country, followed by the pecuniary dis- 
tresses of 1836 and 1837, were charged upon the hos- 
tility of the president to the Bank of the United States. 
On the other hand, these distresses were charged to the 
management of the bank, which the president declared 
to have become "the scourge of the people." 
i what 9. 'A few events concerning the Cherokees, require 
nade'tfthe notice in this portion of our history. These Indians 
Indians, na d l° n o been involved in the same difficulties as 
"condition? mose which had troubled their Creek neiyh^ors. They 
were the most civilized of all the Indian tribes,- -had 
an established government, a national legislature, and 
s. whatop- written laws. 2 During the administration of Mr. 
measures Adams, they were protected in their rights against the 
l in 'relation claims of the state of Georgia, but in the following ad- 
to than? m inistration, the legislature of Georgia extended the 
laws of the state over the Indian territory, annulling 
the laws which had been previously established, and 
a. Dec. 20, among other things, declaring 1 that " no Indian or de- 
scendant of an Indian, residing within the Creek or 
Cherokee nations of Indians, should be deemed a com- 
petent witness or party to any suit in any court where 
a white man is a defendant." 
3. What is 1 0. 3 Although the supreme court of the United States 
decisionof declared the acts of the legislature of Georgia to be un- 
th courTand constitutional, yet the decision of that tribunal was dis- 
takenbtfthi regarded, and the president of the United States in- 
vresidemi f orm ecl the Cherokees that he " had no power to oppose 
the exercise of the sovereignty of any state over all who 
may be within its limits ;" and he therefore advised 
them " to abide the issue of such new relations without 
any hope that he will interfere." Thus the remnant 
of the Cherokees, once a great and powerful people, 
were deprived of their national sovereignty, and de- 
livered into the hands of their oppressors. 
SJP? ? "aM ^' 4 ^ et ^ ie Cherokees were still determined to 
in relation remain in the land of their fathers. But at length, in 
oIum? ' 1 835, a few of their chiefs were induced to sign a treaty 
for a sale of their lands, and a removal wesl of tho 



CHAr. vii.1 jackson's administration. 337 

Mississippi. Although this treaty was opposed by a 1§35. 
majority of the Cherokees, and the terms afterwards 
decided upon at Washington rejected by them, yet as 
they found arrayed against them the certain hostility 
of Georgia, and could expect no protection from the 
general government, they finally decided upon a re- 
moval ; but it was not until towards the close of the 
year 1838 that the business of emigration was com- 
pleted. 

12. 'Near the close of the year 1835, the Seminole i- WH 1 ^ 

t i r ni • i i i •■»'••• ■ i said of the 

Indians of b loricla commenced hostilities against the Seminole 
settlements of the whites in their vicinity. The im- dmsei 
mediate cause of the war was the attempt of the gov- 
ernment to remove the Indians to lands west of the 
Mississippi, in accordance with the treaty of Payne's 
Landing,* executed* in 1832, which, however, the In- a. May 9. 
dians denied to be justly binding upon them. 2 Mi- 2. ofthesen- 
canopy, the king of the nation, was opposed to the re- ^jtcanlpd 
moval ; and Osceola, their most noted chief, said he an ^i2f 6 ' 
u Wished to rest in the land of his fathers, and his chil- 
dren to sleep by his side." 

13. 3 The proud bearing of Osceola, and his rcmon- 3. of the. 

, ■ r . , °,. e /-, <mi treatment q, 

strances against the proceedings 01 General lnompson, osceoia,e,,ui 
the government agent, displeased the latter, and he put treachl"y7 
the chieftain in irons. Dissembling his wrath, Osceola 
obtained his liberty, gave his confirmation to the treaty 
of removal, and, so perfect was his dissimulation, that 
he dissipated all the fears of the whites. So confident 
was General Thompson that the cattle and horses of 
the Indians would be brought in according to the terms 
of the treaty, that he even advertised them for sale in 
December, but the appointed days b passed, when it was b. cec. 1,15. 
discovered that the Indians were already commencing 
the work of slaughter and devastation. 

14. 4 Ai this time, General Clinch was stationed 4. What is 
at Fort Drane,t in the interior of Florida. Being Major Dade 
supposed to be in imminent danger from the Indians, "achment? 
and also in great want of supplies, Major Dade was 
dispatched from Fort Brooke, at the head of Tampa c . Dec. 21. 

* Payne's Landing is on the Ocklawaha River, a branch of the St. John's, about 
forty-five miles S.W. from St. Augustine. (See Map, next page.) 
t Fort Prune is about seventy miles S.W. from St. Augustine. 'See Map, next page > 

15 



838 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[pAur iv. 



1§35. Bay, with upwards of one hundred men, a to his assist- 

a. 8 officers ance - He had proceeded about half the distance, when 

S b d Dec™8 n ' ^ e was suddenly attacked* 1 by the enemy, and he and 

all but four of his men were killed ; and these four, 

horribly mangled, afterwards died of their wounds. 

One of them, supposed to be dead, was thrown into a 

heap of the slain, about which the Indians danced, in 

exultation of their victory. 

i. Give an *5. 'At the very time of Dade's massacre, Osceola, 

tM°d£ath{f W ^h a sma U band of warriors, was prowling in the 

General vicinity of Fort King.* While General Thompson 

and a few friends were dining at a store only 250 yards 

from the fort, they were surprised by a sudden dis- 

o. Dec 28. charge of musketry, and five out of nine were killed.* 

The body of General Thompson was found pierced by 

fifteen bullets. Osceola and his party rushed in, scalped 

the dead, and retreated before they could be fired upon 

by the garrison. The same band probably took par) 

in the closing scene of Dade's massacre on the same 

day. 

16. 2 Two days later, General Clinch engaged* the 
erals ciinc\ Indians on the banks of the Withlacoochee ;t and in 

and Gaineat -,-,, c \ c \i • r~i i i-n ' 

1836. -February of the following year, Generaf Gaines was 
e. Feb. 29. attacked' near the same place. 3 In May, several of the 
3. whatac- Creek towns and tribes ioined the Seminoles in the 

count tsgiv- _._ , ] j ■ r i 

en of the war. Murders and devastations were frequent, — the 
V theCreek.s Indians obtained possession of many of the southern 
t00 war/' m mail routes in Georgia and Alabama, attacked steam- 
boats, destroyed stages, burned sev 
eral towns, and compelled thou 
sands of the whites who had settled 
in their territory, to flee for their 
lives. 4 A strong force, however, 
joined by many friendly Indians, 
being sent against them, and sev- 
eral of the hostile chiefs having 
been taken, the Creeks submitted ; 



d. Dec. 31. 

2. What is 
staid of Gen- 



SBAT OF THE SEMINOLE WAR 
IN FLORIDA. 



mocklTouce. FtMusselZ 



vttU. 



Ft. Jennings Lcmxl *[£* 
Ft.Clinch, F'-Km^ »(ir 

cnjicir 

BattL 
JFt.C'oqper » 
WtfJi-oo 

lamp ^frjfc, dure 

IfcAj'/nslrviiJ 

Ft.Cross* 




Miles zo 



FtJ)arIen\ 



* Fort King is twenty miles S. W. from Payne'* 
Landing, and sixty-five miles from Si. Augus 
tine. (See Map.) 

t Withlacoochee River enters the Gulf of Met 
ico, on the west coast of Florida, abuiit ninety 
five miles N. fiom Tampa Bay. (See Map. 



nil.] 



van buren's administration. 



339 



and during the summer several thousands of them 
were transported west of the Mississippi. 

17. "Id October, Governor Call took command of 
the forces in Florida, and with nearly 2000 men 
marched into the interior. At the Wahoo swamp, a 
short distance from Dade's battle-ground, 550 of his 
troops encountered a greater number of the enemy, 
who, after a fierce contest of half an hour, were dis- 
persed, leaving twenty-five of their number dead on 
the field. In a second engagement, 
the whites lost nine men killed and 
sixteen wounded. In none of the 
battles could the loss of the Indians 
be ascertained, as it is their usual 
practice to carry off their dead. 



1§36. 

4. What U 

said of the 

submission 

of' the 

Creeks ? 

1. What is 

related of 

Governor 

Call's escps- 

dition into 

Vie interior i 



CHAPTER VIII. 

VAN BUREN'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FROM MARCH 4, 1S37, TO MARCH 4, 1841. 




VAN BtTBEN. 



1. 2 In the election of 1836, Martin Van Buren, of 
New York, had been chosen president of the United 
States, and Richard M. Johnson, of Kentucky, vice- 
president. As Mr. Van Buren was a prominent leader 
of the party which had secured the election of General 
Jackson, no change in the general policy of the gov- 
ernment was anticipated. 3 Soon after the accession of 
Mr. Van Buren, the pecuniary and mercantile dis- 
tresses of the country reached their crisis. 

2. During the months of March and April the fail- 
ures in the city of New York alone amounted to nearly 
one hundred millions of dollars. The great extent of 
the business operations of the country at that time, and 
their intimate connection with each other, extended the 
evil throughout all the channels of trade ; causing, in 
the first place, a general failure of the mercantile in- 
terests. — affecting, through them, the business of the 
mechanic and the farmer, nor stopping until it had re- 
duced the wages of the humblest day laborer. 

3. 4 Early in May, a large and respectable committee 



1837. 

2. What 3 
said of the 
election of 
1836, and of 
the antici- 
pated policy 
of the gov- 
ernment ? 



3 Of the con- 
ditinn of the 
country— 
the exten- 
sive fail- 
ures at that 
period, and 
of the con- 
sequences? 



4. WTiat re- 
quests were 
made of the 
president by 
a committer 
from Sew 
York? 



340 THF UNITED STATKS [PAltT IV. 

1837. from the city of New York, solicited of the preesident 
" his intervention for such relief as might he within his 

power; requesting the rescinding of the "specie cir- 
cular," a delay in enforcing the collection of the rev- 
enue duties, and the call of an extra session of congress 
at an early day, that some legislative remedies might 
be adopted for the alarming embarrassments of the 
i. Whatioa country. 'The " specie circular" was a treasury order, 
circular'! which had been issued during the previous adminis- 
tration, the principal object of which was to require 
the payment of gold and silver, for the public lands, 
in place of bank bills, or other evidences of money. 
2. what 4. 2 To the second request the president acceded, but 
wkcnV) D ?he d ec l ]ne d to repeal the specie circular, or to call an ex- 
zneaiitnti tra session of Congress. 3 Two days after the decision 

3. By -what c , . , ° - n i i i • i 

eventswas oi the president became known, ail the banks m the 

ofthepres- city of New York suspended specie payments, and this 

ld imoedl' was followed by a similar suspension on the part of 

i. whoirere the banks throughout the whole country. 4 The peo- 

e i£ e si%pen- P^ e were not the on ly sufferers by this measure ; for as 

swn.i the deposit banks had likewise ceased to redeem their 

notes in specie, the government itself was embarrassed, 

and was unable to discharge its own obligations. 

s.whotis 5. 5 The accumulated evils which now pressed upon 

coif of con- tne country, induced the president to call an extra ses- 

^fff'SS? °f sion of congress, which he had before declined doing-. 

the bills o 1 . !i- .° 

patjeddu- Congress met early m September, and during a session 
sion? of forty days passed several bills, designed for the re- 
lief of the government ; the most important of which 
was a bill authorizing the issue of treasury notes, not 
e.whatis exceeding in amount ten millions of dollars. 6 A bill 
lub-tfewu- ca ^ e d the Sub-treasury\>\\\* designed for the safe keep- 
ry-Min ing of the public funds, and intended as the prominent 
*• t T e ^'?f al measure of the session, passed the senate ; but in the 
fc Trea e smy nt nouse of representatives it was laid upon the table, af- 

B m - ter a long and animated discussion. 
t: What is 6. 'The Seminole war still continued in Florida, 
'tmtfnv? occasioning great expense to the nation, while the 
"semfnoie s ' c ^^y climate of a country abounding in swamps and 
war, and of marshes, proved, to the whites, a foe far more terrible 
concluded than the Indians themselves. After several encoun- 
jj™ ters in the early part of the season, in March a num.- 



chap, vol] van buren's administration. 341 

ber of chiefs came to the camp of General Jessup, and 1§37. 

signed 1 a treaty, purporting that hostilities should im- ~ At Forl 

mediately cease, and that all the Seminoles should re- , I r>a< i e i, 

i i i ' ir- ■ • • March 6. 

move beyond the {Mississippi. 

7. 'For a time the war appeared to be at an end, i. mat is 
but the treaty was soon broken through the influence ^uionof 
of Osceola. During the summer, several chiefs were '^IT'ite 
captured, and a few surrendered voluntarily. In Oc- ^^L^SL 
tober, Osceola and several principal ch.'efs, with about ring the 

L X / t SU'ftlttt*?}' Cif'wU 

seventy warriors, who had come to the American camp fain 

under protection of a flag, were seized b and confined i,. At Fort 

by the orders of General Jessup. P tobcr2u 

8. 2 This was the most severe blow the Seminoles 2. now ima 
had received during the war. By many, the conduct ofosceota 
of General Jessup, in seizing Osceola, has been se- a rionV e 'eZ' 
verely censured ; but the excuse offered was, that the re s arded1 
Indians had grossly deceived him on a former occa- 
sion, that Osceola was treacherous, that no blood was 

shed by the act, and that a very important service was 

thereby performed. 3 Osceola was subsequently placed 'thesubse? 

in confinement at Fort Moultrie/ where he died of a <p q^^ 

fever in January of the following year. c in south 

9. 4 On the 1st of December,. the army in Florida, 4 ^J 1 ^ 



stationed at the different posts, was estimated to num.- <midoj 

. , r ' _ T . - . continuance. 



of the, 
^.j... -nuance 

ber nearly nine thousand men. 1 et against this nu- of the war, 
merous force the Indians still held out with hopes of baiiienear 
effectual resistance. On the 25th of the month, Col- %tke?t er 
onel Taylor, at the head of about six hundred men, 
encountered the Indians on the northern side of the 
Bis: Water Lake,* in the southern part of the penin 
sula. After a severe battle of more than an hour, in 
which twenty-eight of the whites were killed and one 
hundred and eleven wounded, the enemy was forced 
to retire, but with what loss is unknown. 

10. s During the years 1837 and 1838, frequent en- 1^33. 
counters were had with the Indians, although but lit- 5. indoc- 
ile appeared to be accomplished towards bringing the "sis? 1 
war to a close. 6 In 1839, General Macomb, who had 1839 
received d the chief command of the army, induced a JA P ri| : 
number of the chiefs in the southern part of the penin- said of the 

* The Indian name is Kee-cho-bee, or O- kee-cho-bee. On same maps it is called 
Lake Macaco, 



342 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§39. sula to sign 1 a treaty of peace. The Indians were to 
maty am- remain m the country until they could be assured of 
eluded by the prosperous condition of their friends who had emi- 

Geacral Ma- 1 mi r t-h n 

comb/ grated, ^he general then leit Florida. But numer- 
a.May. oug murc i ers wri ich occured immediately after the 

1. Uharsoon . 'in n 1 • • -i- 1 ■ 

followed this treaty, destroyed all confidence in its utility ; and in 

June the government of the territory offered a reward 

of two hundred dollars for every Indian killed or taken. 

1840. 11. 2 The yer.r 1840 passed with numerous murders 

taid'ofm by the Indians, and frequent contests between small 

event! o/ parties of them and the whites. In December, Colonel 

1840, and of f_ iii- i -x ■ i t 

theexpedi- Harney, who, by his numerous exploits in Indian war- 
uarneyi' fare, had become the terror of the Seminoles, pen- 
etrated into the extensive everglades in Southern 
Florida, long supposed to be the head-quarters of the 
enemy, where he succeeded in capturing a band of 
forty, nine of whom he caused to be executed for some 
previous massacre in which they were supposed to be 
engaged. 
3. wimt fur- 12. 3 During the session of congress which termi- 
'ofaie s"t' nated in the summer of 1840, the Sub-treasury bill, 
trc biiil y w hdch had been rejected at the extra session of 1837, 
and which was regarded as the great financial meas- 
i). Jan. 23 ure of Mr. Van Buren's administration, passed b both 
and June 3o. nouses f congress and became a law. 
4 Give an 13. 4 The presidential election of 1840 was probably 
a the U "esf me rnost exciting election that had ever occurred in 
dentiai eiec- the United States. The trying scenes of financial em- 

tlon of 1340 , , li-ii i 

barrassment through which the country was then pass- 
ing, together with what was called " the experiments 
of the government upon the currency," furnished the 
opponents of the administration with abundant exciting 
topics for popular party harangues, in the approaching 
political contest. During several months preceding 
the election, the whole country was one great arena 
of political debate, and in the numerous assemblages 
of the people the ablest men of both parties engaged \ 
freely in the discussion. 
5. who were 14 a The whigs concentrate'! their whole strength 

therespec- TtT .„. P r TT . , „ TT „ °, 

livecatuii- upon William Henry Harrison, the "Hero ol the 
what was Thames, and of Tippecanoe," while the administra- 
tor?^^ 1 ? tion party united with equal ardor in favor of Mr. Van 



IX.] 



HARRISON S ADMINISTRATION. 



543 



Buret). The result was a signal defeat of the latter, 18^0. 
and a success of the whigs by a majority altogether 
unexpected by them. John Tyler of 
Virginia was elected "vice-president. 




WILLIAM n. HAKBISON. 



CHAPTER IX. 

HARRISON'S ADMINISTRATION. 

1. 'On the 4th of March, 1841, 
William Henry Harrison, in the pres- 
ence of a large assemblage of the peo- 
ple convened at the capitol in Washington, took the i«2?Ji 
oath prescribed by the constitution, and entered upon f™",?"^ 
the office of president of the United States. Harrison t 

2. 2 His inaugural address was a plain, but able and 2 ufhis in 
comprehensive document, expressing his approval of ""USSV"* 
the leading principles of the party which had selef'.ed 

him for the highest office in the gift of the people, and 
pledging his best endeavors to administer the govern- 
ment according to the constitution, is understood by 
its framers and early administrators. 

3. 3 In conclusion, the president expressed his pro- 3 . Wnnt 
found reverence for the Christian religion, and his 
thorough conviction that sound morals, religious lib- 
erty, and a just sense of religious responsibility, are 
essentially connected with all true and lasting happi- 
ness. " Let us unite then," said he, "in commending 
every interest of our beloved country to that good Be- 
ing who has blessed us by the gifts of civil and relig 
ious freedom ; who watched over and prospered the 
labors of our fathers ; and who has hitherto preserved 
to us institutions far exceeding in excellence those of 
any other people." 

4. *The senate was immediately convened for the 
purpose of receiving the usual nominations, and a new 
and able cabinet was formed, at the head of which was *j^^^ 
placed Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, as secretary tumi 



sen 
timents 
were ex- 
pressed in 
the conclu- 
sion of tiie 
addiessl 



i. iVhat 

trere the 

first acts of 



344 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART rv. 



3 §41. of state. 'But while every thing - promised an admin- 

, lVhat istration honorable to the executive and useful to the 

events soon country, rumors of the sudden illness of the president 

followed! /' ,,11 i i i r i , 

spread through the land ; and scarcely had they 
reached the limits of the Union, when they were fol- 
lowed by the sad intelligence of his death. 

5. 2 Just one month from the day of his inauguration, 
the aged president was a pallid corpse in the nation a' 
mansion. The event was calculated to make a deep 
impression upon the people, who had witnessed and 
taken part in the recent scenes of excitement which 
had preceded the elevation of one of their number to 
be the nation's ruler. The hand of Almighty power 
was acknowledged in the bereavement, teaching that 
" the Lord alone ruleth." 



2. What con- 
cluding re- 
marks are 
■made 7 




JOHN TTLEE. 



United States. 



CHAPTER X. 

TYLER'S ADMIJSTISTBATION, 

EXTENDING FE01I APEIL 4, 1841, TC MAKCH 4, 1S45. 

1. 3 On the death of General Harri- 
son, Mr. Tyler, the vice-president, 
became the acting president of the 
During an extra. session* of congress 
the sub-treasury bill was repealed ; a general bankrupt 
law was passed ; and two separate bills, chartering a 
bank of the United States, were rejected 5 by the 
'sftolep* 7 executive veto. The course pursued by the presi- 
i3, 1841. r\ en t caused him to be denounced generally, by the 
andsLpt 1 !' w hig party, which had elected him to office, and oc- 
casioned the resignation of his entire cabinet, with 
one exception. 

2. 'In 1842, an important treaty, adjusting the dis- 
pute in relation to the northeastern boundary of the 
United States was negotiated 11 at Washington, between 
Mr. Webster, on the part of the United States, and 
mud b> u. s. Lord Ashburton on the part of Great Britain. The 
8.B.0ct.H. same year was signalized by the commencement of 



3. Give an 
account of 
(he extra 
session that 
had been 
called by 
Harrison. 



c. Mr. Web- 
ster. 

1842. 
I. What 
events oc- 
curred in 
1812? 
d.J.ily. Rat- 



;•] 



tyler's administration. 345 



domestic difficulties in Rhode Island, which at one 1§42. 
time threatened serious consequences. 

3. l A movement having been made to set aside the 1. Give an 
ancient charter under which the government of the "Ihe'Zm- 
colony and state had so long been administered, 11 par- o/X"/;^- 
ties were formed with respect to the proper mode of uloTehi- 
adopting a new constitution. The "suffrage party," „. and - 

i £5 O ^ «/ ' a.Sincel663. 

having formed and adopted a constitution, m a man- seep. 115. 
ner declared by their opponents to be in violation of 1843. 
law, chose b Thomas W. Dorr governor, and elected a b- Apnl 18 
legislature. About the same time the " law and 
order party," as it was called, chose Samuel W. King 
governor. In May, 1843, both parties c met and or- c - May 3, 4 
ganized their respective governments. 

4. 2 The adherents of the "law and order party" 2. wimimo 
then took active measures to put down what they de- utSm- 
nominated the rebellion. Great commotion ensued, lou>ed? 
and several arrests were made. Dorr left the state, 

but soon returning, 1 * a bloody struggle appeared in- d. siayi6. 
evitable ; but his associates finally dispersed, on the 
appearance of the government forces, and Dorr, to 
avoid arrest, fled from the state. 

5. 3 In June, however, considerable numbers of the e . At cho 
" suffrage party" made their appearance e under arms, f P j Ch ^L 
and w r ere joined*" by Dorr, but a body of troops being 3. what u 
sent against them, they dispersed without any effectual Umuffi* 
resistance. 4 Dorr again fled, but, returning after a S,^f.. 
few months, was arrested, tried? for treason, convicted, ^va™ 8 
and sentenced to be imprisoned during life. In the p^tyf 
mean time a constitution for the state had been adopted 1844. 
according to the prescribed forms of law. In June, ^T' 
1845, Dorr was released, although he had refused to tnt/ateo/ 

* 1 o Dorr '" 

accept a pardon on condition of taking the oath of . 
allegiance to the state gc v ernment. 

6. "During the last year of Mr. Tyler's administra- 5. whatu 
tion, considerable excitement prevailed on the subject u.l d y°ir th qt 
of the annexation of Texas to the American Union, a T mul^a-- 
measure first proposed by the government of the for- tiun? 
mer country. Texas, formerly .a province of Mexico, 6. of the 
but settled mostly by emigrants from the United States, l yS °t 
had previously withdrawn from the Mexican Republic. 

15* 



346 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PAET IV 



I §44. 



\.0fp\e. op- 
position to 
annexation, 
and the ar- 
gument* 
against the 
tKeasure t 



a. April 12. 

1845, 

2. Ho io did 
t?te Amer- 
ican gov- 
ernment 
dispose of 
the meas- 
ure ? 
ft. What Mils 
parsed con- 
gress ? 
4. TT7ia( is 
juid of the 
Uection of 
1844? 

March i. 



and by force of arms had nobly sustained her independ- 
ence, although unacknowledged by Mexico. 

7. ] The proposition for annexation tc the United 
States was strongly resisted at the North, and by the 
whig party generally throughout the Union. The 
impolicy of extending our limits by accessions of for- 
eign territory ; the danger of a war with Mexico ; the 
encouragement given to slavery by the admission of 
an additional slave state ; and the increase of power 
that the South and southern institutions would thereby 
gain in the national councils, were urged against the 
measure. 

8. 2 A treaty of annexation, signed* by the president, 
was rejected by congress, but early in the following 
year a bill was passed, authorizing the president, un- 
der certain restrictions, to negotiate with Texas the 
terms of annexation. 'During the same sessions of 
congress bills were passed providing for the admission 
of Iowa and Florida, as states, into the Union. 4 The 
opposing candidates in the election of 1844 were Mr. 
Clay of Kentucky and James K. Polk of Tennessee. 
The contest resulted in the choice of the latter, who 
entered on the duties of his office on the 4th of March 

of the following year. 




JAMBS K. POLK. 



5. What oc- 
curred soon 



CHAPTER XI. 

POLK'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FKOM MAECH 4, 1S45, TO MARCH 4, 1849. 
WAR WITH MEXICO. 

1. 'Scarcely had Mr. Polk taken 
his seat as president of the United 
States, when decided indications 



after poik's f a rupture with Mexico became apparent. *Mex- 

accesston t . * . i , a 

6. what is ico had long viewed' the conduct of the American 
v&wTand government, in relation to the acquisition of Texas, 
% cl Heri™ with exceeding jealousy and distrust ; still claiming 



CHAP, xi.] polk's administration. 347 

that countiy as a part of her own territory, she had 1815. 
declared that she would regard annexation as a hostile ~ 
act, and that she was resolved to declare war as soon 
as she received intimation of the completion of the 
project. 'In accordance with this policy, irnrae- i.whatwm 

i. i p i i • r • i j i done by the 

diately after the resolution of annexation had passed Mexican 
the American Congress, and received the sanction of Almonte? 
the President, Mr. Almonte, 1 the Mexican Minister at a pronoun- 
Washington, protesting against the measure as an act ce ta. mou " 
of warlike aggression, which he declared Mexico 
would resist with all the means in her power, demand- 
ed his passports and returned home. 

2. 2 On the fourth of July following, Texas assented 2 $™ft m 
to the terms of the resolution of annexation, and two Texa * f 
days later, fearing that Mexico would carry her threats 

of war into execution, requested the President of the 
United States to occupy the ports of Texas, and send 
an army to the defence of her territory. 'Accord- J»»erto»i 
ingly, an American squadron was sent into the Gulf ^ncf 
of Mexico, and General Taylor, then in command at 
Camp Jessup,* was ordered by the American govern- 
ment to move with such of the regular forces as could 
be gathered from the western posts, to the southern 
frontier of Texas, to act as circumstances might re- 
quire. 4 By the advice of the Texan authorities he * . V F"?'*» 
• i i i r> 1 ,• p t ■ said °f the 

was induced to select tor the concentration ot nis movements 

tioops the post of Corpus Christi,"f" a Texan settle- ° Taylor f 
ment on the bay of the same name, where, by the 
beginning of August, 1845, he had taken his position, 
and at which place he had assembled, in the Novem- 
ber following, an army of little more than four thou- 
sand men. 1846. 

3. 6 On the 13th of January, 1846, when it was s- circum 

J ' ' stances thai 

believed that the Mexicans were assembling troops on led to the 

, . , r • -ii ii- f executive or- 

their northern frontiers with the avowed object ot re- aerofizth, 
conquering Texas, and when such information had i8«, and m 
been received from Mexico as rendered it probable, ^Sm 
if not certain, that she would refuse to receive the ^xayiart 

* Camp Jessup is in thewestern part of Louisiana, a few miles southwest from Natch 
ttoches, (Natch-i-tosh.) 

t Corpus Christi is at the mouth of the Nueces River, on the western shore of Corpus 
Christi Kay, a branch of the A) inzas Bay, about 100 mites from the Rio Grande. (See 
Map Cor. p. 351.) 



348 THE U: 1TED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§46. envoy* whom the United States had sent to negotiate 
a. Mr.siideii. a settlement of the difficulties between the two coun- 
tries, the American president ordered General Taylor 
to advance his forces to the Rio Grande,* the most 
southern and western limits of Texas, as claimed by 
herself: on the 8th of March following the advance 
column of the army, under General Twiggs, was put 
in motion for that purpose, and on the 28th of the 
same month General Taylor, after having established 
a depot at Point Isabel,f twenty-one miles in his rear, 
took his position on the northern bank of the Rio 
Grande, where he hastily erected a fortress, called 
Fort Brown, within cannon shot of Matamoras. £ 

l. what is 4. 'On the 26th of April, the Mexican general, 

sciid of the > . " 

nonce given Ampudia, gave notice to General Taylor that he con- 
Ainpud'ia, sidered hostilities commenced, and should prosecute 
commence- them ; and on the same day an American dragoon 
auuaihh- P art .Y °f sixty-three men, under command of Captain 
uiitiesi Thornton, was attacked on the east side of the Rio 
Grande, thirty miles above Matamoras, and after the 
loss of sixteen men in killed and wounded, was com- 
pelled to surrender. This was the commencement of 
actual hostilities — the first blood shed in the war. 
2. of the far- 5. 2 The movements of the enemy, who had crossed 
mentsof the the river above Matamoras, seeming to be directed to- 
e aenerai wards an attack on Point Isabel, for the purpose of cut- 
mmih^and ting off the Americans from their supplies, on the first 
"Xf of May General Taylor marched to the relief of that 
place, with his principal force, leaving a small com- 
mand in defence of Fort Brown. After having gar- 
risoned the depot, on the 7th of May General Taylor 
set out on his return. At noon of the next day the 
Mexican army, numbering about six thousand men, 
with seven pieces of artillery, was discovered near 
Palo Alto, drawn up in battle array across the prairie 
through which the advance led. The Americans, al- 

* The Rio Grande, (Ree-o-Grahn-da.,) or Rio del Norte, (Ree-o-del-Nor-ta), meaning 
Great River, or River of the North, rises in the Rocky Mountains north of Santa Fe, 
and flowing southeast, a distance of nearly 1800 miles, enters the Gulf of Mexico be- 
,ow Matamoras. (See Map.) 

t roint Isabel is 21 miles N. E. of Matamoras, near the Gulf. The entrance to the 
Lagoon, on the shore of which the village stands, is called Brazos Santiago 

t Matamoras is about 20 miles from the mouth of the Rio Grande, by the windings 
of the stream. (See map. m.) 



cHAr. xi.] folk's administration. J349 

though numbering but twenty-three hundred, advanced 1 8 16. 
to the attack, and after an action of about five hours, 
which was sustained mostly by the artillery, drove the 
enemy from their position, and encamped upon the 
field of battle. The Mexican loss was about one hun- 
dred killed, — that of the Americans but four killed and 
forty wounded, but among those mortally wounded 
was the lamented Major Ringgold, of the artillery. 

6. 'At two o'clock in the afternoon of the next day '■ Give an 

... . , i t /■ i account oj 

no American army again advanced, and alter a march the tattieoj 
of two hours came in sight of the enemy, who had raimc 
taken up a strong position near a place called Resaca 
de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown, on the 
borders of a ravine which crossed the road. The ac- 
tion was commenced on both sides by the artillery, 
but the Mexican guns, managed by General La Vega, 
were better served than on the former occasion, and 
their effect soon began to be severely felt. An order 
to dislodge them was gallantly executed by Captain 
May, at the head of a squadron of dragoons, which, 
charging through a storm of grape shot, broke the 
ranks of the enemy, killed or dispersed the Mexican 
artillerymen, and took General La Vega prisoner. 
The charge was supported by the infantry — the whole 
Mexican line was routed, and the enemy fled in con- 
fusion, abandoning his guns and a large quantity of 
ammunition ; and when night closed over the scene, not 
a Mexican soldier was to be found east of the Rio 
Grande. 2 On the day following the battle the Amen- £«<?«£< 
can army took up its former position at Fort Brown, Brown? 
which had sustained, with little loss, an almost unin- 
terrupted bombardment of seven days from the Mexi- 
can batteries in Matamoras. % 'j?ct'pro e '' 

7. 3 The news of the capture of Captain Thornton's tnr d " c ^ mit 
party produced the greatest excitement throughout the theumonts 

£ . J * . & . & the news of 

Union : it was not doubted that Mexico would receive the capture 

' , , ... , of Thorn- 

Si severe chastisement; and a war spirit, unknown be- ton's party % 

fore to exist, heralded, in anticipation, a series of vie- i. mat wo* 

tories and conquests, terminating only in the " Halls American 

of the Montezumas."* 4 The President, in a message %^nt? 

* The expression, " Halls of the Monteiumas" is applied to the palace of the ancienl 
Mexican lungs, of the race of the Montezumas. 



350 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§46. to Congress^* declared that Mexico had " invaded our 

a. May utii, territory, and shed the hlood of our fellow-citizens on 

1846 our own soil," and Congress, adopting the spirit of the 

message, after declaring that war existed " by the act 

of the republic of Mexico," authorized the President 

to accept the services of fifty thousand volunteers, and 

i what fs pl ace d ten millions of dollars at his disposal. 'The 

s<vd of the news of the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la 

effect pro- „ . .. r> i ^ r i i 

iuced by the ralma, arriving a lew days later, fanned anew the 
batt&of flame of war; an anticipated march to the Mexican 
andVesaca capital, in the ranks of a conquering army, seemed to 
de via P i al ' he viewed but as a pleasant pastime, or a holiday ex- 
cursion, and the call for volunteers was answered by 
the prompt tender of the services of more than three 
hundred thousand men. 
2 of the pre- 8. 2 Most of the summer of 1847 was occupied by 
for [he inva- the government in preparations for the invasion of 
twn icoi tx ' Mexico, from several quarters at the same time. A 
force of about 23,000 men was sent into the field, the 
largest portion of which, placed under the command 
of General Taylor, was to advance from Matamoras 
into the enemy's country in the direction of Mon- 
terey :* General Wool, at the head of about 2,900 
men, concentrated at San Antonio de Bexar,f was to 
march upon Chihuahua ;% while General Kearney, 
with a force of about 1,700, was to march from Fort 
Leavenworth, § in Missouri, upon Santa Fe,|| the 
capital of New Mexico. 
s.ofthefor- 9. 3 Owing to the difficulties experienced in trans- 
mentofGet porting supplies, and the necessity of drawing them 
"alalia/- mostly from the United States, by way of New Or- 
MontJreyi leans, General Taylor was unable to commence a 
forward movement until the latter part of August ; 
and it .was the 19th of September when he appeared 
before Monterey, with an army then numbering only 



* For the situation of Monterey (Monter-a) see Map, letter t 
t Son Antonio de Bexar, the oldest Spanish town in Texas. (See Map. Bexar.) 
% Chihuahuah (Chee-ooah-ooah) is nearly 700 miles N. W. from the city of Mexico, 
(See Map.) 

$ Fort Leaoenworth is a military post of the United States on the west side of Mis- 
souri River. (See Map.) 

|J Santa Fe, the capital of the former Mexican state of New Mexico, is a town ol 
about 4000 inhabitants, 15 miles east of the Rio Grande, and about 1100 miles N W 
from the city of Mexico. (See Map.) 



352 THE UNITE.3 STATES. [PART IV. 

1§'16. 6,609 men, after having garrisoned several towns on 

i situation the Rio Grande, through which his route lay. 'Mon- 

ua&tumft tere y> the capital of New Leon, was at this time a 

city of about 15,000 inhabitants, strong in its natural 

defences, and garrisoned by seven thousand regular 

and about three thousand irregular troops, under the 

command of General Ampudia. 

2 G'.Kcsn io. a On the morning of the 21st of September the 

account of o l 

theattackon attack was commenced, which was continued with 

Monterey,— .... ,11 • 1 

amttnua- great spirit during the day, but without any important 
figv, ami results, except the carrying of several fortified heights 
l-enderlf in the rear of the town. The assault was continued 
the place, during the 22d, when the Bishop's Palace, a strong 
Sept. 22i position, and the only remaining fortified height in 
the rear of the town, was gallantly carried by the 
troops under General Worth. On the morning of the 
sept. 23d 23d the lower part of the city was stormed by Gen- 
eral Quitman, the troops slowly advancing by digging 
through the stone walls of the houses. In this way 
the fight continued during the day, and by night the 
enemy were confined chiefly to the Citadel, and the 
Plaza, or central public square of the city. Early 
Sept. 24th. on the following morning the Mexican general sub- 
mitted propositions which resulted in the surrender 
and evacuation of Monterey — and an armistice of 
eight weeks, or until instructions to renew hostilities 
should be received from either of the respective gov- 
ernments. 
^r'cdvance n - 3 ° n the 1 3th of October the War Department 
of General ^ordered General Taylor to terminate the armistice 

Taylor, and t J 

captures by an d renew offensive operations ; and about the middle 

' canst of November, Salt'llo,* the capital of the state of 

Coahuila, was occupied by the division of General 

Worth ; and late in December General Patterson 

4 what is took possession of Victoria, - ]" the capital of Tamauli- 

*erahwooi pas ; while, about the same time, the port of Tampico| 

an neyf r ' was captured by Commodore Perry. 4 In the mean 

* Salt.illo is about 70 miles S. W. from Monterey, in the southern part of the state of 
Coahuila. 

t Victoria is at the western extremity of Tamaulipas. (Tarn aw-lee-pas) near the 
boundary of San Luis Potosi, and on the northern bank of the river Santander. 

% Tampico (Tam-pe-co) is at the southeastern extremity of Tamaulipas, on the north 
side of the river Panuco. The old town of that name is "on the south side of the river 
See Map.) • 



CHAP. XI. J polk's administration. 353 

time General Wool, after crossing the Rio Grande, i§46. 
rinding his march to Chihuahua, in that direction, im- — 
peded by the lofty and unbroken ranges of the Sierra 
Mad re, had turned south and joined General Worth 
at Saltillo, while General Kearney, somewhat earlier 
in the season, after having performed a march of 
nearly a thousand miles across the wilderness, bad 
made himself master of Santa Fe, and all New Mex- 
ico, without opposition. 

12. 'After General Kearney had established a new ' S^SSiS? 

J A.cui ritzy * 

government in New Mexico, on the 25th of Septem- Q^ ch %j 
ber he departed from Santa Fe, at the head of four 
hundred dragoons, for the California settlements of 
Mexico, bordering on the Pacific Ocean ; but after 
having proceeded three hundred miles, and learning 
that California* was already in possession of the 
Americans, he sent back three quarters of his force, 
and with only one hundred men pursued his way 
across the continent. 

13. s In the early part of December a portion of \ccoun?of 
General Kearney's command, that had marched with D onip"an'a 
him from Missouri, set out from Santa Fe on a south- expeduimf 
ern expedition, expecting to form a junction with 
General Wool at Chihuahua. This force, numbering 

only nine hundred men, was commanded by Colonel 
Doniphan, and its march of more than a thousand 
miles, through an enemy's country, from Santa Fe to 
Saltillo, is one of the most brilliant achievements of 
the war. During the march this body of men fought 
two battles against vastly superior forces, and in each 
defeated the enemy. 3 The Battle of Bracito,f fought safdofihe 
on Christmas day, opened an entrance into the town Bramtani 
of El Paso4 while that of Sacramento,§ fought on scy- 
the 28th of February, 1847, secured the surrender 



* Most of Upper or jVcm? California, which is separated from New Mexico fcy the Col 
ornjo river, is an elevated, dry, and sandy desert. The inhabitable portion extends 
along the shore of the Pacific about 500 miles, with an average breadth of 40 miles. 
'See Map.) 

t The battle of Bracilo, so called from the " Kittle Arm," or Vend in the river near 
the place, was fought on the east bank of the Rio Grande, about 200 ini!es north of 
Chihuahua. 

\ The town of El Paso is situated in a rich valley on the west side of the Rio 
Grande, 'M) miles south from the BTacito. 

$ The battle of Sacramrnto was fought near a small stream of that name, about 20 
miles north of the city of Chihuahua. 



354 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§46. of Chihuahua, a city of great wealth, and containing 
" a population of more than forty thousand inhabitants. 

». of events 14. 'While these events were transpiring on the 
ctfiGcoasT? eastern borders of the Republic, the Pacific coast had 
become the scene of military operations, less brilliant, 
ce«d/n|*o/ but more important in their results. ! In the early 
Fremontj P art °f June, 1846, Captain Fremont, of the Topo- 
graphical Corps of Engineers, while engaged at the 
head of about sixty men in exploring a southern 
route to Oregon, having been first threatened with an 
attack by De Castro, the Mexican governor on the 
California coast, and learning afterwards that the 
governor was preparing an expedition against the 
American settlers near San Francisco,* raised the 
standard of opposition to the Mexican government in 
California. 

3. of further 15, 3 After having defeated, in several engagements, 

events, ter- a > o e> » 

minatingin greatly superior Mexican forces, on the 4th of July 

the conquest V-, • r . . . . , ' , , . , 4 

ofcaiifor- t remont and his companions declared the independ- 
ence of California. A few days later, Commodore 
Sloat, having previously been informed of the com- 
mencement of hostilities on the Rio Grande, hoisted 
the American flag at Monterey. j In the latter part 
of July, Commodore Stockton assumed the command 
of the Pacific squadron, soon after which he took 
possession of San Diego,:]: and, in conjunction with 
Captain Fremont, entered the city of Los Angelos§ 
without opposition ; and on the 22d of August, 1646, 
the whole of California, a vast region bordering on 
the Pacific Ocean, was in the undisputed military 

4. whatoc- possession of the United States. 4 In December fol- 
me arrival lowing, soon after the arrival of General Kearney 
Kearney ? from his overland expedition, the Mexican inhabitants 

of' California attempted to regain possession of the 
government, but the insurrection was soon suppressed. 
imut-wu 10. 'We have stated that after the close of th 

Che situation \ . 

of General armistice which succeeded the capture of Monterey^ 

* Snx Francisco, situated on the hay of the same name, possesses probably the best 
harbor on the west coast of America. (See Map.) 

t Monterey, (Mon-ter-a) a town of Upper California, on a bay of the same name, 80 
miles south of San Francisco, contained in 1847 a population of about 1000 inhabitants. 
{See Map.) 

t San Diego is a port on the Pacific nearly west of the head of the-Gulf of California. 

(f Log Angelos, or the city of the Angels, is about 100 miles north of San Diego. 



CHAP XI. J polk's administration. 355 

the American troops under General Taylor spread 1846. 
themselves over Coahuila and Tamaulipas. In the ~^~ y , 0T > s ar . 
mean time the plan of an attack on Vera Cruz, the f* %%%f£ e 
principal Mexican post on the Gulf, had been matured %^f^l 
at Washington, and General Scott sent out to take the terey-ami 

i f * «■ • t>i • i by what ar- 

chief command of the army in Mexico. By the with- my & the 

i i t> r* i I i r~t i m i 5 enemy was 

drawal of most of the regulars under LJeneral laylor s he opposed) 
command for the attack on Vera Cruz, the entire 
force of the Northern American army, extending 
from Matamoras to Monterey and Saltillo, was re- 
duced to about ten thousand volunteers, and a few 
companies of the regular artillery, while at the same 
time the Mexican General Santa Anna was known to 
be at San Luis Potosi,* at the head of 22,000 of the 
best troops in Mexico, prepared to oppose the farther 
progress of General Taylor, or to advance upon him 
in his own quarters. 

17. 'In the early part of February, 1847, General 1847. 
Taylor, after leaving adequate garrisons.in Monterey i. of 'General 
and Saltillo, proceeded with about five thousand men movement* 
to Agua Nueva,f where he remained until the 21st ary^mn 

. of the month, when the advance of Santa Anna with 
his whole army induced him to fall back to Buena 
Vista,:]: a very strong position a few miles in advance 
of Saltillo. 2 Here the road runs north and south a. Describe 

, , i />, , . n i i • the position 

through a narrow defile, skirted on the west by im- of General 

ii it i ,i .i • c Taylor's ar 

passable gullies, and on the east by a succession ot my at Bus- 
rugged ridges and precipitous ravines which extend na Vi ' tcL 
back nearly to the mountains. On the elevated 
plateau or table-land formed by the concentration of 
these ridges, General Taylor drew up his little army, 
numbering in all only 4,759 men, of whom only 453 
were regular troops ; and here, on the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, he was confronted by the entire Mexican array, 
then numbering, according to Santa Anna's official 
report, about 17,000 men, but believed t) exceed 
20,000. iThttm* 

18. 3 On the morning of the next day, the 23d of o/ ^" a ' 

* San Luis Potosi, the capital of the state of the same name, Is situated in a pleas- 
ant valley, about 240 miles northwest from the city of Mexico, anil more than 300 miles 
from Saltillo. (See Map.) 

t Agua Ji'ueva (Ah-goo-ah Noo-avah) is about 14 miles south from Saltillo. 

t Buena Vista (Boo-a-nah Vees-tah) is about three miles south from Saltillo 



856 THE UNITED STATES. [PaRT "V. 

I §47. February, the enemy began the attack with great lm- 
petuosity ; but the resistance was as determined as the 
assault, and after a hard-fought battle, which was con- 
tinued during the greater part of the day, the Mexi- 
can force was driven in disorder from the field, with 
a loss of more than fifteen hundred men. The Ameri- 
can loss in killed, wounded, and missing, was seven 
hundred and forty-six ; and, among these, twenty-eight 
1 what were officers were killed on the field. 'This important vie- 
vteffzcifof tol T broke up the army of Santa Anna, and, by et- 
tiis victory? fectually securing the frontier of the Rio Grande, al- 
lowed the Americans to turn their whole attention and 
strength to the great enterprise of the campaign, the 
capture of Vera Cruz, and the march thence to the 
Mexican capital. 

accmmtTf 19- 2 ° n the 9tJl of March > 1847 > General Scott, at 
the move- the head of twelve thousand men, landed without op- 
'"omerai position a short distance south of Vera Cruz,* in full 
investment view of the city and the renowned castle of San Juan 
cfiiz-bmn- d'Ulloa. On the 12th the investment of the city was 
andcapfwre completed ; on the 18th the trenches were opened, and 
of the city. on the 22d the first batteries began their fire, at the dis- 
tance of 800 yards from the city. From the 22d until 
the morning of the 26th, almost one continued roar of 
artillery prevailed, the city and castle batteries an- 
swering to those of the besiegers, and shells and shot 
were rained upon the devoted town with terrible ac- 
tivity, and with an awful destruction of life and prop- 
erty. At length, just as arrangements had been made 
for an assault, the governor of the city made over- 
tures of surrender ; on the night of the 27th the arti- 
cles o-f capitulation were signed, and on the 29th the 
American flag was unfurled over the walls of the city 
and castle. 
s. of the 20. 3 The way was now open for the march towards 
TerirriTz! the Mexican capital, and on the 8th of April General 
"u'eo'/ccrro Twiggs was sent forward, leading the advance, on the 
Gorio - Jalapa road. But Santa Anna, although defeated at 
Buena Vista, had raised another army, and with 15,000 

* Vera Cruz, the principal sea-port of Mexico, is built on the spot where Cortez first 
landed within the realms of Montezuma. The city is defended by the strong fortress 
of San Juan d' Ulloa, built on an island, or reef, of the same name, about 400 fathom* 
from the shore. (See May,) 



chap, xi.] tolk's administration. 357 

men had strongly intrenched himself on the heights of 1§47. 
Cerro Gordo,* which completely command the only 
road that leads through the mountain fastnesses into 
the interior. General Twiggs reached this position 
on the 12th, but it was not until the morning of the 
18th, when the commander-in-chief and the whole 
army had arrived, that the daring assault was made. 
Before noon of that day every position of the enemy 
had been stormed in succession, and three thousand 
prisoners lad been taken, together with forty-three 
pieces of bronze artillery, five thousand stand of arms, 
and all the munitions and materials of the army of the 
enemy. 

21. 'On the day following the battle, the army en- t. continued 
tered Jalapa,j" and on the 22d the strong castle of Per- the'jLmeri- 
ote^: was surrendered without resistance, with its nu- ^iussu 
merous park of artillery, and a vast quantity of the n p'J e °^ t 
munitions of war. On the 15th of May the advance 

under General Worth entered the ancient and re- 
nowned city of Puebla ;§ and when the entire army had 
been concentrated there, in the very heart of Mexico, 
so greatly had it been reduced by sickness, deaths, 
and the expiration of terms of enlistment in the volun- 
teer service, that it was found to number only five 
thousand effective men. 3 With this small force it was 2. What wo* 
impossible to keep open a communication with Vera 'Jif/s»wH 
Cruz, and the army was left for a time to its own re- ne f "{ e T 
sources, until the arrival of further supplies and rein- 
forcements enabled it to march forward to the Mexican 
capital. 

22. 3 At length, on the 7th of August, General Scott, 3. D^mbe 
having increased his effective force to nearly eleven oftnear- 
thousand men, in addition to a moderate garrison left p^wa— 
at Puebla, commenced his march from the latter place rivni atsan 
for the capital of the republic. The pass over the Au s usn - n - 

* The pass of Cerro Gordo is about 45 miles, in a direct line, northwest from Vera 
Cruz. 

t JaJapa, a city of about 15.0(10 inhabiting, is 55 miles northwest from Vera Cruz 
(See map.) The well-known medicinal herb jalap, a species of the convolvulus, grow 
abundantly in the vicinity of this town, to which it is indebted for its name. 

t Perote (Per-o ta) Is about 90 miles, in a direct line, northwest from Vera Cruz. 
The fortress is about half a mile north from the town of the same name. 

$ Puebla, a city of about 60,000 inhabitants, and the capital of the stale of the same 
name, is about 85 miles southeast from the city of Mexico. (See Map.) 



358 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[PART IV, 



1847. mountains, by Rio Frio, where the army anticipated 
resistance, was found abandoried ; a little further on 
the whole valley of Mexico burst upon the view ; and 

Aug. nth. on the 1 1th the advance division under General Twiggs 
reached Ayotla,* only fifteen miles from Mexico. A 
direct march to the capital, by the national road, had 
been contemplated, but the route in that direction pre- 
sented, from the nature of the ground and the strength 
of the fortifications, almost insurmountable obstacles, 
and an approach by way of Chalco and San Augustin, 
by passing around Lake Chalco, to the south, was 

Aug. isth. tnought more practicable, and by the 18th the entire 
army had succeeded in reaching San Augustin, ten 
miles from the city, where the arrangements were 
made for final operations. 




.V'" 7 ' .>'' 



CUERWAVACA V g 4?,,, " --£y Q i( V.V.lVLA 4 MILPA5 



I'dlofthe ^" 'The city of Mexico,f situated near the western 
situation bank of Lake Tezcuco, and surrounded by numerous 



* For the location of the places Ayotla, Chalco, San Augustin, ChapvJtcpec, Chum 
busco, Contrcrag, and San Antonio, see the accompanying map. 
t See description of Mexico, page 19. 



chap xi. J folk's administration. 359 

canals and ditches, could be approached only by long 1§47. 
narrow causeways, leading over impassable marshes, f Mexico, 
while the gates to which they conducted were strongly ^lacLfto 
fortified. 'Beyond the causeways, commanding the the city? 
outer approaches to the city, were the strongly forti- i. of the 

,, , " r> s-m i i rn i li posts which 

tied posts of L-hapultepec and Uhurubusco, and the defended 
batteries of Contreras and San Antonio, armed with proachest 
nearly one hundred cannon, and surrounded by 
grounds either marshy, or so covered by volcanic 
rocks that they were thought by the enemy wholly 
impracticable for military operations. 2 Six thousand a- of them- 

,,' . , /~i i -rr i • i i i i •»'!/ °f tfle 

Mexican troops under General Valencia held the ex- enemy? 
terior defences of Contreras, while Santa Anna had a 
force of nearly 25,000 men in the rear, prepared to 
lend his aid where most needed. 

24. 3 In the afternoon of the 19th some fighting oc- 3. of the 
curred in the vicinity of Contreras, and early on the contreras 
morning of the next day the batteries of that strong Tutorial 
position were carried by an impetuous assault, which 

lasted only seventeen minutes. In this short space of 
time less than four thousand American troops had 
captured the most formidable intrenchments, within 
which were posted seven thousand Mexicans. The 
'post of San Antonio, being now left in part unsupported, 
was evacuated by its garrison, which was terribly cut 
up in the retreat. 

25. *The fortified post of Churubusco, about four *■ ofthecap- 
miles northeast from the heights of Contreras, was the churubus 
next point of attack. Here nearly the entire army 

of the enemy was now concentrated, and here the 
great battle of the day was fought ; but on every part 
of the field the Americans were victorious, and the en- 
tire Mexican force was driven back upon the city, and 
upon the only remaining fortress of Chapultepec. 
'Thus ended the battles of the memorable 20th of Au- » The result 

, . i ■ ,i i » •<!• oflhelattlti 

gust, m which nine thousand Americans, assailing oftheiv.h 

strongly fortified positions, had vanquished an army °f Ausimf 
of 30^000 Mexicans. 

26. 6 On the mornins of the 21st, while General 6 -^' h "' i3 

_, . ,° . . ' . . said of the 

Scott was about to take up battering positions, pre- armistice 
paratory to summoning the city to surrender, he re enemy 1 * 



360 THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

1§17. ceivcd from the enemy propositions which terminated 
in the conclusion of an armistice for the purpose of ne- 
gotiating a peace. With surprising infatuation the 
enemy demanded terms that were due only to con- 
querors, and on the 7th of September hostilities were 
1. What 6c- recommenced. "On the morning of the 8th the Mo- 

v'euhof lino del Rey, or " King's Mill," and the Casa de Mata, 

ptem e> ^ e p r j nc jp a ] ou ter defences of the fortress of Chapul- 

tepec, were stormed and carried by General Worth, 

after a desperate assault in which he lost one fourth 

of his entire force. 

s. Give an 27. 2 The reduction of the castle of Chapultepec it- 

account of . „ , , ii-i t ■ ~i i 

thereduc- sen, situated on an abrupt, rocky height, one hundred 
cmmof and fifty feet above the surrounding grounds, was a 

Chapuite- ^j more f orm j^ a bl e undertaking. Several batteries 
were opened against this position on the 12th, and on 
the 13th the citadel and all its outworks were carried 
by storm, but not without a very heavy loss to the 

s. rae con- American army. 3 The battle was continued during 

tinuation of i i • c- , i /• 

the battle, the day, on the lines ot the great causeways before 
mix. mentioned, and when night suspended the dreadful 
conflict, one division of the American army rested in 
the suburbs of Mexico, and another was actually 
4. capture cf within the gates of the city. ''During the night which 
followed, the army of Santa Anna, and the officers of 
the national government abandoned the city, and at 
seven o'clock on the following morning the flag of the 
American Union was floating proudly to the breeze 
above the walls of the national palace of Mexico. 
5 The Re- B The American army had fulfilled its destination ; our 
soldiers had gained the object of their toils and suffer- 
ings ; and, as the fruit of many victories, were at last 
permitted to repose on their laurels, in the far-famed 
" Halls of the Montezumas." 
1848. 28. "The conquest of the Mexican capital was the 
6 .yhatis finishing stroke of the war, and on the 2d of February 

«aid of the . a ' J 

conclusion following the terms ot a treaty of peace were concluded 

upon by the American commissioner and the Mexican 

i.Ratiiica- government. 'This treaty, after having received 

treaty with some modifications from the American Senate, was 

Mexico? a( jopted by that body on the 10th of March, and subse 



CHAP XI.] polk's ADMINISTRATION. 36x 

quently ratified by the Mexican Congress at Que re- 1§4§. 
taro,* on the 30th of May of the same year. 

29. 'The most important provisions of this treaty \Jy ™% t 
are those by which the United States obtains from provision*? 
her late enemy a large increase of territory, embrac- 
ing all New Mexico and Upper California. 2 The ^u"/^ 
boundary between the two countries is to be the Itio wm-agreed 

J ttpon, (tflti 

Grande from its mouth to the southern boundary of what other 

tvt n r • i ii i ii concessions 

New Mexico, thence westward along the southern and were made 
western boundary of New Mexico to the River Gila,"(" yi ea 
thence down said river to the Colorado,^: thence west- 
ward to the Pacific Ocean. The free navigation of 
the Gulf of California, and of the River Colorado up 
to the mouth of the Gila, is guarantied to the United 
States. 3 For the territory and privileges thus obtained, 3. what dm 
the United States surrendered to Mexico " all castles, states agree 
forts, territories, places and posssssions," not embraced jof^the tuf 
in the ceded territory, — agreed to pay Mexico fifteen *$£[££& 
millions of dollars, and assumed the liquidation of all c t h a f^' ? 
debts due American citizens from the Mexican gov- 
ernment. 

30. 4 SucIi was the conclusion of the Mexican war, — *■ what is 
a war opposed as impolitic and unjust by one portion polity and 
of the American people, and as cordially approved by thewnr.lnd 
the other, but admittel by all to have established for th il c u a haT 
our nation, by the unbroken series of brilliant victories es /^ r b the d 
won by our army, a character for martial heroism A £££™* 
which knows no superior in the annals of history, and 

which fears no rival in the pathway of military glory. 
6 But war is seldom without its alloy of bitterness; and 5. o/theai- 
in this instance it was not alone its ordinary calamities mingul 
of suffering, and wretchedness, and death, — the " sighs Tofcfa^? 8 " 
of orphans, and widows' tears," — that moderated our 
exultations ; but with our very rejoicings were min- 
gled the deep and sullen notes of discord; and with 
the laurels of victory, with which fame had encircled 

* Queretaro. the capital of the state of the same name, is about 101 miles northwest 

from the city of Mexico. 
t The river Gila enters the Colorado from the cast. (See Map.) 
X The Colorado river, the largest stream in Mexico west of the Cordilleras or Rocky 

Mountains, rises in the high table-lands of Northern Mexico, and flowing southwest 

falls into the head of the Gulf of California. (See Map.) 

16 



362 THE UNITED STATES. [FART IV 

184§. the brow of our nation's glory, were entwined the cy- 
press and the yew— emblems of mourning. 

1, What U 31. 'The vast extent of unoccupied territory which 
umtolyac we had acquired as the result of the conquest, proved 
tle^onteft, an apple of discord in our midst; and the question of 
dawitr ^ e ^ na l disposal of the prize was a problem which 
O iro*tr nn ~ our P r °f° UH dest statesmen found it difficult to solve. 

that has The South and the North took issue upon it — the for- 

ari-m be- -. . . i • i <> i ■ • ■ i 

tweai the mer claiming the right ot her citizens to remove, with 

he south t their property in slaves, on to any lands purchased by 

the common treasure of the republic, and the latter 

demandiing that territory free from slavery at the time 

of its acquisition, should for ever remain so. 

2. what is 32. 2 The opposing principles of slavery extension 
prlUZntiai and slavery restriction entered largely, as elements of 

elr \bm° f party zeal and political controversy, into the presiden- 
tial election of 1848 ; but although the South advo- 
cated one line of policy, and the North another, the 
citizens of neither section were united in the support 
of either of the three presidential candidates, who 
were Martin Van Buren, of New York ; Lewis Cass, 

3. of the of Michigan ; and Zachary Taylor, of Louisiana. 3 Gen- 
gv^% eral Cass, the regular democratic candidate, and Gen- 
ca-7'ami eral Taylor, the Whig nominee, both claimed by their 
Tauiorf reS p ec ti V e parties as lavoring Southern interests, while 

the same parties in the North advocated their election 
for reasons directly opposite, received the principal 

4. of Mr. support of the whig and democratic parties; 4 while 
TanBaren? ]y[ r> y an Buren, first nominated by a division of the 

democratic party of New York, and afterwards re 
nominated by a northern "Free Soil" convention held 
at Buffalo, was urged upon the people by his partisans 
as the peculiar exponent of the free-soil principles so 
generally professed by the northern section of the 
%J™*J°%f Union. 5 After an exciting political canvass, the elec- 
ta canvass t tion resulted in the choice of Zachary Taylor, by one 
hundred and sixty-three electoral votes, out of a total 
of two hundred and ninety. Millard Fillmore, of New 
York, was chosen vice-president. 



CHAP. XII.] 



363 




CHAPTER XL 

TAYLOR'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FROM MARCH 4, 1S49, TO JULY 9, 1850. 

1. 'At the time of the acces- 
sion of General Taylor to the 
presidency, California, embracing 
the western portion of the newly- 
acquired territory of the United 
States, had already begun to at- zaohaet taylob 

tract a large share of public attention. 2 The im- IS 49. 
portance which this country has subsequently attained, lg m^ ,-, 
in the rapid growth of its population — in its vast m ^rniaf 
mineral resources — its already extensive commerce — 2 oriUlhis . 
and its rapid advancement to the position of a state lor y ? 
in the great American confederacy, demands a brief 
account of both its early and its recent history. 

2. s The principal Spanish settlements of California ^^ipai 
were missionary establishments, twenty-one in num- ^pan.nhset 
ber ; the earliest of which, that of San Diego, was 
founded in 17G9. "Established to extend the domain 
of the Spanish crown, and to propagate the Roman dwacur* 
faith by the conversion of the untutored natives, they 
formed a line of religious potts along the whole west- 
ern frontier, each a little colony within itself, and, being 
exclusive in their character, absorbing the lands, the 
capital, and the business of the country, they sup- 
pressed all enterprise beyond their limits, and di 1 * 
couraged emigration. 

3. California remained thus under ecclesiastical -^J^^a, 
sway until, in 1833, the Mexican government con- made in 
verted the missionary establishments into civil institu 
tinns, subject to the control of the state, 
lon^c period of anarchy and discord which followed in perwd'afan 

.r • r , . . J ,iii • archy and 

Mexico, the missions were plundered by successive atecord 

, • , r • i • i i winch foi- 

governors, and, with tew exceptions, their lands were 'mwvli 
granted away, until scarcely anything but their huge 
stone buildings remained. 'Yet the result proved ben- i- Whatnot 
eficial to the country at large. * As the lands were dis- ' these 
tributed, agriculture increased ; the attention of for- " fffl " 



. Their ob- 
ject and 



Murine: the •J^ 



S64 



THE UNITED STATES 



[part IV. 



1§4». 



\V7iat cc- 
curretl in 
1316 / 



i. WhatU 
said of 'emi- 
gration to 
the country? 



i. Of the fa- 
vorable- 
prospects 

thus 
opened ? 



4. Of the 
first report 
of the dis- 
covery 0/ 
gold) 



5. Of the ef- 
fects pro- 
duced by it ? 



6. The effects 
upon Labor ; 

-rae ofpri. 

CCS, fyc ? 



V Of the 
tttnount of 

gold first 
galttercd f 



eigne rs began to be turned to tbe country ; and from 
1833, when scarcely any but native born inhabitants 
were found there, up to 1845, the foreign population 
had increased to more than five thousand. 

4. 'Still, the unsettled condition of the government 
prevented anything like systematic enterprise ; nor was 
it until 1846, when Fremont and his companions hoist- 
ed the American flag and declared California indepen- 
dent of Mexican rule, that the natural capacities of the 
country for a numerous agricultural population began 
to be developed. 2 With the belief that California had 
become, inseparably, a portion of the American Union, 
emigrants came pouring in, mostly from the United 
States, to seek their fortunes in a new country under 
their own flag. 'Grazing and agriculture were the 
chief occupations of the people ; many little villages 
sprung up ; and everything promised fair for the 
steady growth of this distant territory on our western 
borders. 

5. "In this tranquil state of affairs the announcement 
was made in the latter part of February, 1848, that a 
mechanic, emplo} r ed in cutting a mill-race on the 
" American Fork" of the Sacramento, about fifty miles 
above New Helvetia, or Sutter's Fort, had found nu- 
merous particles of gold, and some pieces of consider- 
able size, in the sands of the stream. 6 The report 
spread with rapidity ; examinations were made at 
other points along the stream, and almost everywhere 
with success ; and in a few weeks the newly-discov- 
ered gold region was crowded with adventurers, 
tempted by the glittering prize. 

6. "Laborers in the settlements, carried away by the 
excitement, struck for higher wages, and left their em- 
ployers : sailors abandoned their vessels in the har- 
bors : the villages were nearly deserted ; and, as pro- 
visions were scarce, flour and pork arose to forty, and 
even a hundred, dollars per barrel at the mines, butter 
to a dollar per pound, and common shoes sold for ten 
or twelve dollars per pair. 7 At first, workmen at the 
mines ordinarily gathered gold to the amount of from 
twenty to forty dollars per day ; and in some instances 
they obtained from $500 to $1000 a day for each man, 



CHAP. XII,] tailor's administration. 365 

7. "The gold was gathered by washing the earth in 1§49. 
pans, or other shallow vessels, — the particles of earth , Describe 
being washed away, while the gold, gravel, and sand, S^^^L 
settled at the bottom. The gravel was then picked tntsuuiJ 
out by the hand, and the residue was dried on a board 

or cloth, when the sand was blown away by a common 
bellows or the mouth; the greater weight of the gold 
causing it to remain behind. In the mountains the 
gold was picked out of the rocks in pieces varying from 
the finest particles to those of five or six ounces in 
weight. 2 The mining operations have since been car- 2. Hmoare 
vied on in a more scientific manner. The richest gold 'operailww 
is now found imbedded in rock quartz, which is broken, nme f ^ r l ricd 
and ground down, and the gold is then separated by 
the process of amalgamation with quicksilver. 

8. 'Already, at the time of the discovery of the min- 3 hthw u 
eral wealth of California, the population embraced ^puii'bm. 
many enterprising Americans ; and now, citizens from 1'^J'ofm 
the states crowded there in great numbers, carrying v&pM 
with them an ardent attachment to the political insti- 
tutions of their country, and desiring to see the same 
established over the land of their adoption. *For 4 ofthe.it 

,, .-.. j rt • • ii .. petitions to 

some time tney petitioned Congress in vain, as that congress, 
body, divided on the subject of permitting or prohib- ""iu'u/ 6 ' 
iting slavery there, were unable to agree upon the de- 
tails of a form of government for the new territory. 

9. 'General Taylor,. on his accession to the presi- 5 Hmpdid 
dency, assured thp Californians of his earnest desire to Hreut^b 
grant them all the protection and assistance in the mbiKt * 
power of the executive, and advised them to form for 
themselves, in the meantime, a state government, after- 

vards to be submitted to Congress for approval. 

10. 6 Acting upon this advice, and encouraged by s Gtvcan 
General Mason, who succeeded General Riley as mili- ^^"^ 
tary governor in April 1840, the people chose dele- '',^, ( {„ r ^j 
oat^s who met at Monterey in September of the same tabumvg 
yi-ar, for the purpose 01 iorming a constitution for a w>u' 
state government. The result of their deliberations 

was the adoption of a state constitution, by which 
slavery was excluded from the country, in accordance 
with the decision of a special convention previously 
held at San Francisco. The new constitution was 



S6G THE UNITED STATES. [PART IV. 

I8J9. adopted by the people with great unanimity. Petei 
H. Burnet was elected chief magistrate, and the first 
legislature assembled at San Jose on the 20th of De- 
cember, 1849. 

i. what is 11. 'While California was a prey to anarchy and 

saio of th& t t 

conduct of misrule, incident to the mixed character of its popula- 
te/ c-a^- tion, — while the project of an independent republic 
orna was by some openly avowed, — and while the interests 
of the people were neglected by the Congress of the 
United States, which was violently agitated by the 
clause in the new constitution prohibiting slavery, the 
legislature of California manifested, throughout, a no- 
ble spirit of devotion to the public good, and a faithful 
attachment to the American Union. 
\cammof 12 - 2 ^ n tne meantime, long standing animosities be- 
mdifunif twcen Texas and New Mexico were involving those 

tie* w/iicn . . 3 

arwbe- countries, and the general government, in a complica- 
aaawiseno tion of difficulties. Texas had ever claimed, since she 
gained her independence of Mexico, that her territory 
extended to the Rio Grande ; and she was determined 
. to extend her authority there also, although the inhab- 
-i^t-r, itants of the valley of Santa Fe had ever rejected her 
pretensions, and resisted her rule. 3 In February, 
niunures 1850, Texas sent her commissioner to organize coun- 
ty Texas, ties in New Mexico, and enforce her jurisdiction over 
wu there- the disputed territory ; but the United States civil and 
*" ; " military governor at Santa Fe, disregarding the claims 
of Texas, and acting in accordance with instructions 
from Washington, favored the views of the people of 
New Mexico, who met in convention, and formed a 
constitution for a state government, which they trans- 
mitted to Washington for the approval of the Ameri- 
can Congress. The agent of Texas was unable to ac- 
complish his mission. 
4. mat is 13. "While California and New Mexico were peti- 

eaiilufthe . ... . . -., . '■ r . 

!ticr»u,n pe- Uomng tor admission as states into the American 
Union, a similar petition was sent up to Congress by 
a strange people from the very centre of the va§fc 
American wilderness. A few years before, a band of 
Mormons, or, as they style themselves, "Latter Day 
Saints," had collected at Nauvoo, in the state of Illi- 
nois, under the guidauce of Joe Smith, their pretended 



,— and 



368 



TAYLOR S ADMINISTRATION. 



[part IV. 



1849. 



\ Of their 

establish- 
ment in 
California 
~and the 
success of 
this strange 
imposture 7 



1850. 



5. What is 

laid of the 

death of 

General 

Taylor? 



S. Of the 
character 
attributed to 
him by Gen- 
eral Cass! 
a. General 
Cass. 



prophet and leader ; but as serious dissensions arose 
between them and the neighboring people, they set 
out, like the Israelites of old, with " their flocks, their 
herds, and their little ones," to seek a refuge in the 
wilderness, far away from those who, while they pitied 
their fanaticism, hated them, and despised their re- 
ligion. 

14. 'Passing beyond the Rocky Mountains, they 
found, in the valley of the Great Salt Lake, in North- 
ern California, a delightful and fertile region, which 
they chose for their future home, and the seat of a new 
religion, which, in its infancy, has been little less suc- 
cessful than that of the Arabian impostor. Not from 
the states only, but even from Europe, the Mormon 
missionaries brought in their proselytes by hundreds 
and by thousands: their thrifty settlements rapidly 
increased ; and while they were scarcely thought of 
by " the world's people" but as a band of outcasts, 
we find them, in the year 1850, asking to be enumer- 
ated as a member of our confederacy, and the Amer- 
ican Congress gravely discussing the terms of the 
admission of the new territory of "Utah !" 

15. 2 While Congress was still in session, engaged in 
acrimonious debate on the various subjects which arose 
out of the connection of slavery with the new territo- 
ries, the country was called to mourn the sudden loss 
of its chief magistrate. Zachary Taylor died at Wash- 
ington on the 9th of July, after an illness of less than 
a week. ' Among his last words were, " I have endeav- 
ored to do my duty. I am not afraid to die." His 
memory will ever be cherished by his countrymen as 
that of an able and good man. 3 ln the language of an 
eminent political opponent, 11 "The integrity of his mo- 
tives was never assailed nor assailable. He had passed 
through a long and active life, neither meriting nor 
meeting reproach, and, in his last hour, the conviction 
of the honest discharge of his duty was present to con- 
sole, even when the things of this life were fast fadinc 
awav " 



CHAP. XIII.] 



369 




MILLA-ED FILMOKE. 



1850. 



accession to 
the presi- 
dency ? 



CHAPTER XIII. 

FILMORE'S ADMINISTRATION, 

FEOM JULY 10, 1S50, TO MARCH 4, 1S53. 

1. "On the day following the 
decease of the president, the vice- 
president, Millard Filmore, pro- 
ceeded to the Hall of the House 
of Representatives, and there, in 
accordance with the constitution, 
and in the presence of both Houses of Congress, took 
the oath of office as President of the United States. x what is 
Without commotion, without any military parade, 'pfimorjl' 
but with republican simplicity, the legitimate suc- 
cessor to the presidency was installed in office, and 
the wheels of government moved on as harmoniously 
as ever ; presenting to the world a sublime spectacle 

of the beauty and perfection of self-government. 

2. 'The first session of the 31st Congress, which 2. whatioa» 
opened on the 3d of Nov. 1819, and closed on the uro}7he\n 
30th of September, 1850, — was one of the longest and thtsxatcfn- 
most exciting; ever held. 3 The great subjects of dis- / r 'f.!. ? . 

o . . ~ J_ 3. It hdt 

cussion were, the admission of California with the con- u>erejhe 
stitution she had adopted, and the Texas boundary fectaofdis- 
question. 'With these was involved the long agitated i "Canvas 
question of slavery, in all its various phases — respect- i Mhtna% 
ing tiie extension of slavery to new territory — its abo- 
lition in the District of Columbia, and the restoration 
of fugitive slaves to their owners. 

3. 6 Early in the session, before the death of General 5. what i» 
Taylor, Mr. Clay, at, the head of a committee of thir- ctay'fbuu 
teen, had reported to the Senate a bill providing for the 
admission of California with the constitution she had 
adopted — for the organization of the territories ot New 
Mexico and Utah, and for the adjustment of the Texas 
boundary. "This project, which received the name of « w<ic.tw*i 
the " Omnibus bill," was strongly contested, anu crip- '^{fij' 
pled by various amendments, until nothing remained 



370 



THE UNITED STATES. 



[part IV. 



1850. 



i What, 
however, 
joas the gen- 
eral result 
of ihe dis- 
c ussion / 



1. Respect- 
ing Cat/for 
nia in par- 
ticular I 



8 The Mar 

toon terri- 
tory? 



4 New 

Mexico 1 



5. Respect- 
ing the I'tx- 
as Boicu- 
dary bill ? 



6. The fugi- 
tive siave 
lata) 



1. The slave- 
trade in tlie 
Distr id of 
Columbia? 



8. Qf what 
were these 
bills the 
results? 



but the sections organizing Utah as a separate territory, 
which passed both houses, and became a law. 

4. 'After much discussion, however, the California 
admission bill, the New Mexico Territorial bill, and the 
Texas boundary, all subsequently passed as separate 
propositions, very much as they had been proposed by 
the committee of which Mr. Clay was chairman. By 
this result, 1st. 2 The vast territory of California, with 
a sea-board corresponding in latitude to the entire 
Atlantic coast from Boston to Charleston, became a 
state of the American Union, with a constitution ex- 
cluding domestic slavery : 2d. "The Mormon territory 
of Utah, embracing the great central basin of the coun- 
try between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, was 

erected into a territorial government, with the decla- 
im 7 

ration that, when admitted as a state, " said territory, 
or any portion of. the same, shall be received into the 
Union with or without slavery, — as its constitution 
shall prescribe at the time of the admission :" 3d. 4 New 
Mexico was erected into a territorial government with 
the same provision respecting slavery as in the case of 
Utah: 4th. 5 The Texas Boundary bill (with the con- 
sent of Texas afterwards obtained), established the 
dividing line between Texas and New Mexico four de- 
grees east of Santa Fe ; and in consideration that 
Texas relinquished her claims to the territory east of 
the Rio Grande thus included in New Mexico, the 
United States agreed to pay her the sum of ten mil- 
lions of dollars: 5th. "An act called the "Fugitive 
Slave Law," was passed, providing for the more effec- 
tual and speedy delivery, to their masters, of fugitive 
slaves escaping into the free states : and Gth. 7 An act 
providing for the suppression of the slave-trade in the 
District of Columbia, which declares that "if any slave 
shall be brought into the District of Columbia for the 
purpose of being sold, or placed in depot there to be 
sold as merchandise, such slave shall thereupon become 
liberated and free." 

5. "These various bills were the results of a compro- 
mise of opposing views on the subject of slavery, and 
in this spirit they were advocated by their supporters ; 
but. as was to be expected, they failed to give entire 



CBAP. XIII. | FILM0RE S ADMINISTRATION. 371 

satisfaction either to the North or to the South. 'A 1§50. 
portion of the South, complaining of the injustice of 

• ... . * l- Hew UJ&T6 

excluding their citizens from territory purchased by theyregard 
their blood and by the common treasure of the Union, eni section* 
would have rejected California until she struck from unlml 
ber constitution the clause prohibiting slavery; while 
at the North there was much bitterness of feeling 1 35 1-8. 
against the fugitive slave law, which exhibited itself 
m conventions of the people, and in the aid afforded to 
fugitive slaves escaping to Canada. 

b'. '"'During the remainder of President Fihnore's ad- 2- wtuati 

. • . i-i l i- 11 said oft/is 

ministration, little occurred to disturb the quiet tenor remainder 
of our country's history. 3 At peace with foreign na- °idmmmra- 
tions, and blessed with almost unexampled prosperity „ ?°™ , 

. , l l r J 3. Slate of 

in the various departments of agriculture, commerce, the country, 
and manufactures, our course is steadily onward in the 
march of national greatness. 4 The presidential election 4. character 
of 1852, although following closely upon the violent & /"/J %"esi- 
sectional and political contentions of the 31st Congress, uollqf is^i 
was one of unusual quiet, and great moderation of 1852. 
party feeling : — a harbinger of good — a bow of prom- 
ise spanning the political horizon after the storm has 
passed away. The result of the political canvass was 
the election of the democratic candidate, General 
Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, over General 
Winfield Scott, the candidate of the whig party. 

Conclusion. 6 At this period in our history — at the s. At what 
beginning of the last half of the nineteenth century — we now or- 
it is wise to review the past, while with feelings of 'history?* 
mingled fear and hope we contemplate the future. 

1. "Little more than two centuries have elapsed since 6 - How long 
the first permanent settlement by civilized man was first setae- 
made within the limits of the present United States, u. states? 
"During more than two thirds of that period, while the 7. state of 
colonies remained under the government of Great Brit- durtng ry 
sin, the English settlements were confined to the At- ^JthlrSls 
tantic coast ; and at the close of the Revolution the that v cricd '-' 
population numbered only three millions of souls. 

2. 6 The separation, perfected by the Revolution, at 8 change* 

1 * 1 j that iwifiic- 

once opened new fields for exertion and nterprise ; — aiatetyjoi 
a great change was suddenly made in the character of Reroiutioii 
the American people; and, under the fostering care 



372 THE UNITED STATES. [PART XV 

1§52. of republican institutions, the tide of population has 
proves, of rolled rapidly inland, crossing the Alleghanies — sweep- 
■papulation } n nf over the vast valley of the Mississippi, and the 

westward. o •/ i *■ 

plains of California — looking down from the heights 

of the Sierra JVevada — nor resting in its onward 

course until it has settled on the waters of the Colum- 

i. Rapid in- bia, and the shores of the Pacific. 'During the last 

crease of .' , . . , °. . . 

population, sixty years of our country s history, the population has 
increased, in a ratio hitherto unprecedented, from three 
millions to more than twenty millions of souls. 
K. Previa 3. \Nor has our progress been less rapid in the va- 
$-c. ' rious arts of civilized life. Our transition has been 
sudden from the weakness of youth to the vigor 
3 Power of manhood. 3 In power and resources we already 
sources, sustain a proud rivalry with the time-honored nations 
of the Old World, and we rank the first among the re- 
i. Extent of publics of the New. ''Our busy commerce has ex- 
"merZ"' tended over every sea, and entered every port; and 
from the Arctic circle to the opposite regions of Polar 
cold, our canvass whitens in every breeze. Our do- 
Manvfac- mestic manufactures, in the amount of capital em- 
tures. ployed, and in the quality and value of their fabrics, 
are already competing successfully with those of France 
Agricni- and England, while the rewards of agriculture are 
shedding their blessings on millions of our happy 
people. 
6. Facilities 4. 5 Our numerous railroads, telegraphs, and canals s 
^icS" navigable rivers and inland seas, by the facilities of 
communication which they open, bring closely to- 
gether the most distant sections of the Union, and do 
much to harmonize that diversity of feelings and of in- 
e. Religion, terests which would otherwise arise. "The Bible, and 
the institutions of Christianity, shed their blessings 
Education upon us ; and the education of youth, upon which the 
well-being of society, and the perpetuity of our repub- 
lican institutions, so greatly depend, is receiving thai 
share of attention which its importance demands. 
drcntude 'For all these blessings we are bound to acknowledge 
%Lx%ng"a. e and adore the invisible hand of Almighty power thai 
has directed and sustained us ; for every step in oui 
progress has been distinguished by manifest tokens oi 
providential agency. 



374 



FILMORE'S ADMINISTRATION. 



[part IV. 



Let our prayer then be that the same God who brought 
our fatners out of bondage, into a strange land, to found an 
empire in the wilderness, may continue his protection to their 
children. Let us indulge the hope, that in this Western 
World freedom has found a congenial clime ; that the tree of 
liberty which has been planted here may grow up in majesty 
and beauty, until it shall overshadow the whole land ; and that 
beneath its branches the nations may ever dwell together in 
unity and love. Let us endeavor to cultivate a spirit of mutual 
concession and harmony in our national councils ; and remem- 
bering that the monarchies of the Old World are looking upon us 
with jealousy, and predicting the day of our ruin, let us guard with 
sacred faith the boon that has been bequeathed us, and amid all 
the turmoils of political strife by which we may be agitated, let 
us ever bear aloft the motto, " The Union; one and inseparable " 




BUCHANAN. 



APPENDIX. 



Explanatory Note. — It has been our object, in the 
foregoing pages, to give a connected history of the Uni- 
ted States, from the earliest discovery of the North Amer- 
ican continent to the present time. In order to preserve 
the chain of events unbroken, we have seldom digressed 
to consider the histories of other American states, except 
where they were intimately connected with our own. 
But as our relations with the British Possessions on our 
north, and the Mexican States on our southwest, are daily 
becoming more and more intimate, a knowledge of the 
past history and present condition of those countries is 
becoming additionally important to our people. Besides, 
Texas, New Mexico, and California, recently brought 
into our confederacy, have thus made their history our 
own, and rendered it additionally desirable in a work 
designed for our schools, to give some account of their 
past annals, and of the country from which they have 
been separated. For these reasons we annex, in the fol- 
lowing pages, a brief history of the Canadas, both un 
der French and under English rule, the history of Mex- 
ico, and the history of Texas down to the time when 
the " lone star" became one in our glorious constellation 



APPENDIX. 



GHAFTEE I. 

I. History of Canada under the French. — 77. History of Canada 
under the English. 

1. History of Canada under the French. — 1. The propel 
introduction to the history of the Canadas is to be found in the 
brief account, already given, of the voyages of Cartier, Iloberval, 
and Champlain, the latter of whom, sailing as the lieutenant of 
De Monts, became the founder of Quebec in 1G08, about a year 
after the English settlement of Jamestown in Virginia. 

2. The history of Champlain is one of undaunted courage 
and resolution, and like that of the celebrated Captain John 
Smith, of Virginia, is filled with thrilling accounts of romantic 
adventure among the Indians. On his first arrival in the coun- 
try, Champlain found the powerful Algonquin and Iroquois 
tribes, the former on the northern bank of the St. Lawrence, 
and the latter south and west of Lake Ontario, engaged in 
deadly wars with each other. Champlain at once entered into 
alliance with the Algonquins, who promised to assist him in 
exploring the country of their enemies the Iroquois. 

3. In the spring of 1609, Champlain, with two of his coun- 
trymen, and a band of his Indian allies, crossed the St. Law- 
rence, and discovered the lake which bears his name. On the 
banks of Lake George they had an encounter with the Iroquois, 
who were soon routed, being struck with terror at the havoc 
made by the unknown instruments of destruction in the hands 
of the French. 

4. Soon after this expedition, Champlain found it necessary 
to revisit France, but in 1610 he was enabled to return with a 
considerable reinforcement and fresh supplies. Again he ac- 
companied his Algonquin allies in an expedition into the terri- 
tory of their enemies, and again the Iroquois lied before the 
destruction which followed in the path of the white stranger. 
Being recalled to France, Champlain persuaded his allies to 



CANADA. UNDER THE FRENCH. 377 

allow one of their young men to accompany him, 'while at the 
same time a Frenchman remained to learn the language of the 
Indians. After a brief absence he returned, in 1611, with the 
Indian youth, whom he designed to employ as interpreter be- 
tween the French and their allies. 

5. While Cham plain was awaiting an appointment which he 
ad made with his savage allies, he passed the time in selecting 

place for a new settlement, higher up the river than Quebec. 
After a careful survey, he fixed upon a spot on the southern 
©order of a beautiful island inclosed by the divided channel of 
the St. Lawrence, cleared a considerable space, surrounded it 
by an earthen wall, and sowed some grain. From an eminence 
in the vicinity, which he named Mont Royal, the place has since 
been called Montreal. 

6. In the year 1612 the government of New France, or Can- 
ada, was placed in the hands of a French nobleman, the Count 
de Soissons, who delegated to Champlain all the functions of his 
high office. The count dying soon after, the Prince of Conde 
succeeded to all the privileges of the deceased, and transferred 
them to Champlain on the most liberal terms. As his commis- 
sion included a monopoly of the fur trade, Champlain was now 
able to engage the merchants in his projects of discovery and 
settlement. 

7. Like many others at that period, Champlain was enthusi- 
astic in the belief of the existence of a north-western passage to 
China. A Frenchman who had spent a winter among the 
northern savages, imposed upon the credulity of Champlain by 
reporting that the river of the Algonquins (the Ottawa) issued 
from a lake which was connected with the North Sea ; that he 
had visited its shores, had there seen the wreck of an English 
vessel, and that one of the crew was still living with the Indians. 

8. Eao-er to ascertain the truth of this statement, Champlain 
determined to devote a season to the prosecution of this grand 
object, and with only four of his countrymen, among whom was 
the author of the report, and one native, he commenced his voy- 
age by the dangerous and almost impassable route of the Ottawa 
Iliver. The party continued their course until they came within 
eight days' journey of the lake on whose shores the shipwreck 
was said to have occurred. 

9. Here the falsity of the Frenchman's report was made ap- 
parent by the opposing testimony of the friendly tribe with 
whom he had resided, and he himself, in fear of merited pun- 



373 CANADA UNDEK THE FRENCH. 

ishment, confessed that all he had said was a complete untruth. 
He had hoped that the difficulties of the route would earlier 
have induced his superior to relinquish the enterprise, and that 
his statement would still be credited, which would give him no- 
toriety, and perhaps lead to his preferment to some conspicuous 
station. Thus the season was passed in a series of useless la- 
bors and fatigues, while no object of importance was promoted. 

10. Champlain, having again visited France, and returned 
with additional recruits, — ever ready to engage in warlike en- 
terprises with his Indian allies, next planned an expedition 
against the Iroquois, whom it was now proposed to assail 
among the lakes to the westward. Setting out from Montreal, 
he accompanied his allies in a long route, first up the Ottawa, 
then overland to the northern shoi'es of Lake Huron, where 
they were joined by some Huron bands, who likewise consid- 
ered the Iroquois as enemies. 

11. Accompanied by their friends, after passing some dis- 
tance down Lake Huron, they struck into the interior, and came 
to a smaller expanse of water, on the banks of which they dis- 
covered the Iroquois fort, strongly fortified by successive pali- 
sades of trees twined together, and with strong parapets at top. 
The Iroquois at first advanced, and met their assailants in front 
of the fortifications ; but the whizzing balls from the fire-arms 
soon drove them within the ramparts, and, finally, from all the 
outer defences. They continued, however, to pour forth show- 
ers of arrows and stones, and fought with such bravery that, in 
spite of all the exertions of the few French and their allies, it 
was found impossible to drive them from their stronghold. The 
Iroquois bitterly taunted the allied Hurons and Algonquins as 
unable to cope with them in a fair field, and obliged to seek the 
odious aid of this strange and unknown race. 

12. The enterprise being finally abandoned, and a retreat 
commenced, Champlain, wounded, but not dispirited, claimed 
the completion of the promise of his allies to convey him homo 
after the campaign. But delays and excuses prolonged the 
time of his departure. First guides were wanting, then a ca 
noe, and he soon found that the savages were determined to 
detain him and his companions, either to accompany them in 
their future expeditions, or to aid in their defence in case of au 
attack from the Iroquois : and he was obliged to pass the win- 
ter in the country of the Hurons. In the spring of the follow- 
ing year he was enabled to take leave of his savage allies, soon 



CANADA UNDER THE FRENCH. 379 

after which he repaired to Tadoussac, whence he sailed, and 
arrived in France in the September following. 

13. The interests of the colony were now for some time much 
neglected, owing to the unsettled state of France during the 
minority of Louis XIII. ; and it was not until 1620 that Cham- 
plain was enabled to return, with a new equipment, fitted out 
by an association of merchants. During his absence, the settle- 
ments had been considerably neglected, and, after all that had 
been done for the colony, there remained, when winter set in 
Dot more than sixty inhabitants of all ages. 

14. The progress of the colony was also checked by the ap- 
pointment of an unqualified governor, De Caen, in the place of 
Champlain, and, after the restoration of the latter, by dissen- 
sions in the mother country, caused chiefly by the opposing 
sentiments of the Catholics and the Protestants, and the at- 
tempts of the former to diffuse the Catholic religion throughout 
the New World. In 1C29, during a brief war between England 
and France, Port Royal, Quebec, and the other French settle- 
ments, fell an easy prey to a small English squadron com- 
manded by Sir David Kuk, a Protestant refugee from France. 
England, however, placed little value on these distant conquests, 
and by the treaty of March, 1032, France obtained the restitu- 
tion, — not of New France or Canada only, but of Cape Breton 
and the undefined Acadia. 

15. On the restoration of Canada, Champlain was reinvested 
with his former jurisdiction, which he retained until his death, 
which occurred early in 1G3G During more than sixty years 
after his death, the colonists were engaged in almost constant 
warfare with the powerful tribes of the Iroquois. In 1648, 
after a brief interval of repose, their settlements were attacked 
with almost fatal precision, and the inhabitants, without dis- 
tinction of age or sex, involved in indiscriminate slaughter. The 
Huron allies of the French were almost everywhere defeated, 
and their country, lately so peaceable and flourishing, became 
a land of horror and of blood. The whole Huron nation, witli 
one consent, dispersed, and fled for refuge in every direction. 
A few afterwards reluctantly united with their conquerors ; the 
greater number sought an asylum among the Chippewas of Lake 
Superior, — while a small remnant sought the protection of the 
French at Quebec. 

16. The Iroquois now rapidly extended their conquests over 
the western Huron tribes, and also over the Algonquins of New 



S80 CANADA UNDER THE FRENCH. 

England, while the French, shut up In their fortified posts, be- 
held the destruction of their allies without daring to venture to 
their relief. In 1665, however, the power of the French was 
augmented by an increase of emigrants, and the addition of a 
regiment of soldiers. Three forts were erected on the river 
Richelieu, (now the Sorel,) and several expeditions were made 
into the territory of the Iroquois, which checked their insolence, 
and for a time secured the colony from the inroads of these 
fierce marauders. 

17. During the administration of De Courcelles, who suc- 
ceeded De Tracy as governor in 1667, a settlement of Hurcns. 
under the direction of the Jesuit Marquette, was established on 
the island of Mackinaw, between lakes Huron and Michigan, — 
a situation very favorable for the fur trade. The site of a fort 
was also selected at Cataraqui, on Lake Ontario, near the pres- 
ent village of Kingston, an advantageous point for the protection 
of the trading interests, and for holding the Five. Nations in 
awe. Count Frontenac, who succeeded De Courcelles in 16*72, 
caused the fort at Cataraqui to be completed ; and it has often, 
'rom him, been called Fort Frontenac. 

18. In 1684, M. De la Barre, the. successor of Front jnac, 
crossed Lake Ontario, and marched into the country of the Iro- 
quois to subdue them ; but a mortal sickness having broken out 
in the French army, De la Barre thought it best to yield to the 
terms of the enemy and withdraw his forces. In the following 
year De la Barre was recalled, and the Marquis Denonville was 
appointed in his stead. 

19. Denonville professed to the Iroquois a wish to maintain 
peace, while the opposite course was intended by him. Having, 
under various pretexts, allured a number of chiefs to meet him 
on the banks of Lake Ontario, he secured them and sent them 
to France as trophies ; and afterwards they were sent as slaves 
to the galleys. This base stratagem kindled anew the flame of 
war, and each party prepared to carry it on to the utmost ex- 
tremity. Denonville made an inroad into the country of the 
Senecas, who burned their villages on his approach. In return 
the enemy attacked the two forts Niagara, and Cataraqui, the 
former of which was abandoned after nearly all the garrison 
had perished of hunger. Lake Ontario was covered with the 
canoes of the enemy ; the allies of the French began to waver ; 
and had the savages understood the art of siege, they would 
probably have driven the French entirely from Canada. In 



CANADA UNDER THE FRENCH. 381 

this critical situation, Denonville was obliged to accept the most 
humiliating terms from the enemy, and to request back from 
France the chiefs whom he had so unjustly entrapped and sent 
thither. 

20. The treaty, however, was interrupted by an unexpected 
act of treachery on the part of the principal chief of the Hurons, 
who, fearing that the remnant of his tribe might now be left 
defenceless, captured and killed a party of the Iroquois depu- 
ties who were on their way to Montreal ; and as he had the 
address to make the Iroquois believe that the crime had been 
committed at the instigation of the French Governor, the flame 
of war again broke out, and burned more fiercely than ever. 
The Iroquois soon after made a descent on the island of Mon- 
treal, which they laid waste, and carried off 200 prisoners. 

21. In this extremity, when the very existence of the colony 
was threatened, Denonville was recalled, and the administration 
of the government was a second time intrusted to Count Fron- 
tenac. At this period, the war, called by the French and English 
colonies, " King William's War," broke out between France and 
England. It was during this war that the French and their allies 
attacked and destroyed Schenectady, Salmon Falls, and Casco 
in Maine, and that the British colonies sent unsuccessful expedi- 
tions against Quebec and Montreal. Frontenac made a success- 
ful irruption by way of Lake Ontario and the river Oswego, into 
the Iroquois country, laying waste the villages of the Cayugas 
and Onondagas ; but the enemy rallied, and severely harassed 
him in his retreat. 

22. The war between the French and the Iroquois continued 
three years after the peace between France and England in 
1G97. At length, in the year 1700, this long Indian war was 
brought to a close, and the numerous prisoners on both sides 
were allowed to return. The natives, prisoners to the French, 
availing themselves of the privilege, eagerly sought their homes, 
but the greater part of the French captives were found to have 
contracted such an attachment to the wild freedom of the woods, 
that nothing could induce them to quit their savage associates. 

23. During Queen Anne's war, from 1702 to 1713, the Iro- 
quois preserved a kind of neutrality between the French arid 
the English, while each party endeavored to secure their co- 
operation in its favor. After the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, 
Canada enjoyed a long period of uninterrupted tranquillity. 
The extent of settled territory, however, was still small, chiefly 



882 CANADA UNDER THE ENGLISH. 

embraced in a narrow strip on the St* Lawrence, between Que- 
bec and Montreal. At Fort Frontenac and Niagara a few sol- 
diers were stationed; a feeble settlement was formed at Detroit; 
and at Mackinaw a fort surrounded by an Indian village. In 
1731 tli 3 French erected Fort Frederic, (now Crown Point,) en 
the western shore of Lake Champlain, but surrendered it to tha 
English under General Amherst, in 1759. In 1756, they 
erected the fortress of Ticonderoga, at the mouth of the outlet 
of Lake George; and in 1754 the Marquis du Q.uesne erected, 
at the confluence of the Alleghany and Monongahela, the mem- 
orable fort which bore his name. 

24. The French were likewise encroaching upon Nova Scotia, 
which had been ceded to England by the treaty of Utrecht in 
1713 ; and in the west they were attempting to complete aline 
of forts which should confine the British colonists to the terri- 
tory east of the Alleghanies. These encroachments were the 
principal cause which led to the "French and Indian war," a 
war which resulted in the overthrow of the power of France in 
America, and the transfer of her possessions to a rival nation. 
An account of that war has already been given in a former part 
of this work, to which we refer for a continuation of the history 
of Canada during that eventful period. 

II. History of Canada under the English. — 1. The his- 
tory of Canada subsequent to the peace of 1763, is so intimately 
connected with that of the United States, and so much of it has 
been embraced in former pages of this work, that we shall pass 
briefly over those portions common to both, and shall dwell on 
such events only as are necessary to preserve the history of 
Canada entire. 

2. During the American Revolution, the French Canadians 
maintained their allegiance to the British crown, and united 
with the English in the war against the colonies. The issue of 
the war was attended with considerable advantage to Canada. 
A large number of disbanded British soldiers, and loyalists from 
the United States, who had sought refuge in the British terri- 
tories, received liberal grants of land bordering on the St. Law- 
rence and Lake Ontario ; and at this period are dated the first 
permanent settlements in "Canada West," or Upper Canada. 
The new settlers founded Kingston, on the site of Fort Fronte- 
nac ; and a few years later a number of emigrants, under the 
direction of General Simcoe, founded York, since called Toronto. 

3. In 1791, the repeated requests of the people for a repro- 



CVNADA UNDER THE ENGLISH. 383 

seniative government, were granted, and Canada VrtS divided into 
two provinces, Upper and Lower, over which representative gov- 
ernments were established, on a basis resembling that of the 
British constitution. In the year 1803, slavery was declared 
to be inconsistent with the laws of the country, and the few 
individuals held in bondage received a grant of freedom. 

4. Soon after the close of the war of 1812, the principal 
events of which, so far as they belong to Canadian history, have 
been related in another part of this work, internal dissensions 
began to disturb the quiet of the two provinces, but more par- 
ticularly that of Lower Canada. The controversy began in the 
Lower Province, between the governor and the assembly, the 
former demanding a large annual grant for the uses of govern- 
ment, without specifying the particular objects go which it wag 
to be applied, and the latter demanding thac the estimate? 
should be given in detail, while the assembly should be the 
judge of their necessity and propriety. 

5. During a long controversy with successive governors, most 
of these points were, one after another, yielded to the represen- 
tatives of the people ; but with each succession the demands of 
the assembly increased, until, in 1S31, it declared that "under 
no circumstances, and upon no considerations whatever, would 
it abandon or compromise its claim over the whole public reve- 
nue." The British government partially yielded to this demand 
by transferring to the assembly all control over the most impor- 
tant revenues of the province, but, in return, claimed that cer- 
tain casual revenues arising from the sale of lands, the cutting 
of timber, &c, should be considered as- belonging to the crown, 
and should be appropriated chiefly to the payment of, the sti- 
pends of the clergy of the established church. The crown also 
demanded permanent salaries for the judges, the governor, and 
a few of the chief executive officers. 

6. While these royal claims, which greatly irritated the peo- 
ple, were still unsettled, the assembly next demanded that the 
legislative council, hitherto appointed by the crown, should be 
abolished, and a new one, similar to the American senate, sub- 
stituted in its place, with members elected by the people. To 
this demand the British ministry gave a peremptory refusal, 
declaring it inconsistent with the very existence of monarchical 
institutions; and early in 1837 the British parliament, by a vote 
of 318 to 56, strongly reaffirmed the position assumed by the 
ministry. 



384 CANADA UNDER THE ENGLISH. 

7. Intelligence of this vote occasioned violent commotions in 
the Canadas ; various meetings of the people Avere held to con- 
sider the state of the country, and a recommendation was made 
to discontinue the use of British manufactures, and of all arti- 
cles paying taxes. Meetings of the loyalists also were held in 
Quebec and Montreal, condemning the violent proceedings of 
the assembly, and deprecating both the objects and the measures 
of the so-called patriot party. 

8. A recourse to arms appears now to have been resolved 
upon by the popular leaders, foremost of whom was Papineau, 
speaker of the assembly, whose avowed object was an entire 
separation of the Canadas from the parent state. A central 
committee was formed at Montreal : an association called " The 
Sons of Liberty" paraded the streets in a hostile manner ; and a 
proclamation was issued by them denouncing the " wicked de- 
signs of the British government," and calling upon all friends 
of their country to rally around the standard of freedom. 

9. In many places the people deposed the magistrates, and 
reorganized the militia under officers of their own selection. 
Loyalist associations, however, were formed in opposition to 
the 3 e movements "; and the Catholic clergy, headed by the bish- 
op of Montreal, earnestly exhorted the people to take no part 
in <.he violent proceedings of the "Patriot party." In Mon- 
treal, the "Sons of Liberty" were attacked in the streets and 
dispersed by the loyalists; the office of the Vindicator news- 
paper was destroyed, and the house of Papineau, the great 
agitator, was set on fire by the victors, but rescued from the 
flames. Exaggerated reports of this affair spread through the 
country, increasing the ceneral ferment, and Driving new strength, 
to the cause of the disaffected. It being announced that resist- 
ance was assuming a more organized form, the government 
.issued warrants for the arrest of twenty-six of the most active 
of the patriot leaders, of whom seven were members of the 
assembly, including Papineau, the speaker of that body. 

10. Several were apprehended, but Papineau could not bo 
found. A body of militia, sent to make some arrests in th 
vicinity of St. Johns, on the Sorel, succeeded in their purpose, 
but on their return they were attacked by a party of the insur- 
gents, and the. prisoners were rescued. In the latter part of 
November, strong detachments of government troops, com- 
manded by Colonels Gore and Wetherall, were sent to attack 
armed bodies of the insurgents, assembled under Papineau, 



CANADA UNDER THE ENGLISH. 385 

Brown, and Neilson, in the villages of St. Denis and St. Charles, 
on the Sorel. After considerable bloodshed, the insurrection 
was suppressed in that quarter; Neilson was taken prisoner ; 
and Brown and Papineau sought safety by escaping to the Uni- 
ted States. In December, thirteen hundred regular and volun- 
teer troops were sent against the districts of Two Mountains 
and Terrebonne. At St. Eustache an obstinate stand was made 
by the insurgents, who were finally defeated with severe loss ; 
the village of Benois was reduced to ashes, and several of the 
patriot leaders were taken. At the close of the year 1837, the 
whole province of Lower Canada was again in a state of tran- 
quillity. 

11. In the meantime Upper Canada had become the theatre 
of important events. A discontented party had arisen there, 
demanding reforms similar to those which had been the cause 
of dissensions in the lower province, and especially urging the 
necessity of rendering the legislative council elective by the 
people. On the breaking out of the insurrection in the lower 
province, the leaders of the popular party, who had long de- 
sired a separation from Great Britain, seized the opportunity 
for putting their plans in execution, but after a few skirmishes 
the patriot leaders disappeared, their followers laid down their 
arms, and tranquillity was restored throughout the province. 

12. Mackenzie, however, one of the promoters of the insur- 
rection, having: fled to Buffalo, succeeded in kindling there a 
great enthusiasm for the cause of the " Canadian Patriots." A 
small corps was quickly assembled; Van Rensselaer, Suther- 
land, and others, presented themselves as military leaders ; 
possession was taken of Navy Island, situated in the Niagara 
channel; and fortifications were there commenced which were 
defended by thirteen pieces of cannon. Recruits flocked to 
this post until their numbers amounted to about a thousand. 
Colonel M'Nab soon arrived with a large body of government 
troops, but without the materials for crossing the channel, or 
fuccessfully cannonading the position of the insurgents. 

13. Much excitement prevailed along the American frontier 
and volunteers from the states began to flock in considerable 
numbers to aid the cause of the 'Patriots." But the Ameri- 
can president, Mr. Van Buren, issued two successive proclama- 
tions, warning the people of the penalties to which they would 
expose themselves by engaging in hostilities with a friendly 

17 



386 CANADA USTDJEK, THE ENGTLI8H. 

power, and also appointed General Scott to take command o(f 
the disturbed frontier, and enforce a strict neutrality. 

14. In the meantime a small steamer, named the Caroline, 
had been employed by the insurgents in conveying troops and 
stores from Fort Schlosser, on the American shore, to Navy 
Island. Captain Drew, having been instructed by Colonel 
M'Nab to intercept her return, but not being able to meet the 
boat in the channel, attacked her at night, while moored at the 
American shore. At least one of the crew was killed, and the 

esssel, after being towed to the middle of the stream, was set 
?a fire and abandoned, when the burning mass was borne down- 
ward by the current, and precipitated over the Falls. 

15. This act, occurring within the waters of the United States, 
occasioned much excitement throughout the Union, and led to 
an angry correspondence between the British and the American 
minister. After the arrival of General Scott on the frontier, 
effective measures were taken to prevent farther supplies and 
recruits from reaching Navy Island, when, the force of the as- 
sailants continually increasing, and a severe cannonade having 
been commenced by them, the insurgents evacuated their posi- 
tion on the 14th of January. Van Rensselaer and Mackenzie 
escaping to the United States, were arrested by the Americas 
authorities, but admitted to bail. A number of the fugitive? 
lied to the west, and under their leader, Sutherland, formed ap 
establishment on an island in the Detroit channel. After meet- 
ing with some reverses, this party also voluntarily disbanded. 

16. Tranquillity was now, for a short time, restored to both 
Canadas, — parliament made some changes in the constitution 
of the lower province — and in May 1838 the Earl of Durham 
arrived at Quebec, as governor-general of all British America ; 
but the opening of his administration meeting with some cen- 
sure in the British parliament, he resigned his commission, and 
on the 1st of November sailed for England. 

17. On the 3d of November, only two days after *he depar- 
ture of the Earl of Durham, a fresh rebellion, which had been 
organizing during the summer along the whole line of the Amer- 
ban frontier, broke out in the southern counties of Montreal 
District. At Napierville, west of the Sorel, Dr. Neilson and 
other leaders had collected about 4000 men, several hundred 
of whom were detached to open a communication with theii 
friends on the American side of the line. These were attacked 
and repulsed by a party of loyalists, who afterwards posted 



CAKADA [THDEH THE EXGLISB. 38** 

-jiemselves in Odelltown chapel, where they were in turn at- 
tacked bv a Jnr^e body of the insurgents, headed by Neilson 
himself; but after a severe engagement the latter were obliged 
to retreat with considerable lo^s. 

18. In the meantime seven regiments ot the line, under the 
command of Sir James McDonnell, crossed the St. Lawrence 
and marched upon Napierville, but on their approach the in- 
surgents disperst d. So rapid were the movements of the gov 
ernment troops, that the insurrection in Lower Canada was 
ertirelv suppressed at the expiration of only one w T eek after the 
first movement. A fev> days after these events several hundred 
Americans sailed from the vicinity of Sackett's Harbor, and 
landed near Prescctt, where they were joined bv a number of 
the Canadians. On the 13th of November they were attacked 
bv the government troops, but the latter weie repulsed. On 
the 16th they were attacked by a superior force, when nearly 
the whole party surrendered. 

19. Not withstanding the ill success of all the invasions hith- 
erto planned on the American side of the line in aid of the 
Canadian insurgents, on the 4th of December a party of about 
two hundred crossed from Detroit, and landing a few miles 
above Sandwich, dispersed a party of British, and burned the 
barracks and a British steamer, but being attacked by a larger 
party of the British on the same day, they were defeated and 
dispersed. A number of the prisoners were ordered to be shot 
by the Canadian authorities immediately after the engagement. 

20. These events, occurring in the latter part of 1S3S, closed 
the " Canadian Rebellion." Throughout the disturbances, the 
American government, acting upon the principles of strict neu- 
tralitv, had zealously endeavored, as in duty bound, to prevent 
its citizens from organizing within its borders, for the purpose 
of invading the territory of a friendly power; yet doubtless a 
majority of the American people sympathized with the Cana- 
dians, and wished success to their cause. The exceedingly de- 
fective organization of the insurgents, their want of concert, 
their irresolution, and the want of harmony among their lead- 
ers, show that the Canadian people, however great may have 
been the grievances of which they complained, were at that 
time totally unprepared to effect a forcible separation from the 
mother country. 

21. As the last great event in Canadian history, on the 23 J 
if July 1840, the British parliament, after much discussion. 



388 HISTORY OF MEXICO. 

passed an act by which the provinces of Upper and Lower Can- 
ada were united into one, under the name of the Province of 
Canada. The form of government adopted was similar to that 
previously existing in each province, — consisting of a governor 
appointed by her majesty, a legislative council summoned by 
the governor, and a representative assembly elected by the 
people. 

22. As a concluding statement to this brief sketch of Cana- 
dian history, it may be remarked, that only a few of the evils 
£o long complained of have been removed, and the great mas3 
of the people have yet but little share either in the choice of 
their rulers, or in the free enactment of - the laws by which the 
province is governed. 



CHAPTER II. 



HISTORY OF MEXICO AND TEXAS. 

J. Aboriginal Mexico. — II. Colonial History of Mexico. — III. Mexico 
during the first Revolution. — IV. Mexico from the close of the first Rev- 
olution to the adoption of I lie Federal Constitution of 1824. — V. Mexico 
from the adoption of the Federal Constitution in 1S24 to the commence- 
ment of the Texan Revolution in 1835. — VI. Texan Revolution. — VII. 
Mexico from the close of the Texan Revolution in 1S36 to the commence- 
ment of the war with the United States in 1846. 

1. Aboriginal Mexico. — 1. At the time of the discovery of 
America, nearly the whole continent was occupied by barbarous 
and wandering tribes, of whose history little that is authentic 
can now be learned. The aboriginal Mexicans, however, dif- 
fered essentially from the great mass of the race to which they 
apparently belonged. They had made considerable advances in 
civilization — were an agricultural people — had built flourishing 
cities — and were united under a regular system of government. 

2. The Toltecas or Toltecs, are the most ancient Mexican na- 
tion of which history and fable combined furnish us any ac- 
counts. The symbolical representations, or hieroglyphics, from 
which their history is obtained, and which were found among 
the Mexicans, represent that in the year 472 of the Christian 
era, they were expelled from their own country, called Tollan, 
situated somewhere to the north of Mexico, and that, for some 



HISTORY OF MEXICO. 889 

time after, they led a migratory and wandering life ; but, at 
the expiration of 104 years, they reached a place about fifty 
miles to the eastward of the city of Mexico, where they re- 
mained twenty years. Thence they proceeded a short distance 
westward, where they founded a city, called from the name of 
their original country, Tollan, or Tula. 

3. The Toltecas, during their journeys, were conducted by 
chiefs; but after their final settlement, in the year C67, their 
government was changed to a monarchy, which lasted nearly 
four centuries. At the expiration of this time, they had in- 
creased very considerably in numbers, and had built many 
cities ; but when in the height of their prosperity, almost the 
whole nation was destroyed by a famine and a pestilence. 

4. The hieroglyphical symbols from which the account of 
this event is derived, represent that, at a certain festive ball 
made by the Toltecas, the Sad Looking Devil appeared to 
them, of a gigantic size, with immense arms, and, in the midst 
of their entertainments, embraced and suffocated them ; that 
then he appeared in the form of a child with a putrid head, 
and brought the plague; and finally, at the persuasion of the 
same devil, they abandoned the country Tula, and dispersed 
themselves among tlie surrounding nations, where they were 
well received on account of their superior knowledge and civil- 
ization. 

5. About a hundred years after the dispersion of the Toltecs, 
their country was occupied by the Chichemecas, who also came 
from the north, and were eighteen months on their journey. 
Although less civi.bed than the Toltecs, they had a regular 
form of monarchical government, and were less disgusting in 
their manners than some of the neighboring nations. They 
formed an alliance with the remnant of the Toltecs, and inter- 
married with them; the consequence of which was the intro- 
duction of the arts and knowledge of the Toltecs, and a change 
in the Chichemecas, from a hunting to an agricultural people. 
The Chichemecas were soon after joined by the Acolhuans, 
likewise from the north ; after which the history of the two na- 
tions is filled with uninteresting accounts of petty conquests, 
en il wars, and rebellions, until the appearance of the Aztecs. 
or Mexicans, also of Indian origin. 

6. The latter are represented tu have left their own country, 
a great distance to the north of the Gulf of California, in the 
year 1160, by the command of one of their deities ; and, aftei 



390 HUTORT OF MEXICO. 

wandering fifty-six years, to have arrived at the city of Zum- 
};ango, in the valley of Mexico. During their journey they art 
supposed to have stopped some time on the banks of the river 
Gila, an eastern branch of the Colorado, where may still be 
seen remains of the massive stone buildings which they are 
said to have constructed. 

7. Thence they proceeded until they came to a place about 
two hundred and fifty miles northwest from Chihuahua, and 
now known by the name of Casa Grande, on account of a very 
large building still extant there at the time of the Spanish con- 
quest, and universally attributed to the Aztecs, by the tradi- 
tions of the country. Thence they proceeded southward to 
Guliacan, on a river of the same name, which flows into the 
Gulf of California, about the 24th degree of north latitude. 
Here they made a wooden image of their god, and a chair of 
reeds and rushes to support it, and also appointed four priests, 
called the " Servants of God," to carry it on their shoulders 
during their subsequent wanderings. 

8. When the Aztecs left their original habitations, they con- 
sisted of six tribes ; but at Culiacan, the Mexicans separated 
from the other five, and taking their deity with them, continued 
their journey alone. In the year 12 1G, they arrived in the 
valley of Mexico, where they were at first well received, but 
they were afterwards enslaved by a neighboring prince, who 
claimed the territory, and who was unwilling to have them re- 
main without paying tribute. 

9. They were finally, however, released from bondage, when 
they resumed their wanderings, which they continued until the 
year 1325, when they came to a place on the borders of a lake, 
where the eagle that had guided them in their journeys rested 
upon a nopal, where it shortly afterwards died. This was the 
sign given them by their oracle, designating the place where 
they were finally to settle ; and as soon as they had taken pos- 
session of the spot, they erected an altar to the god who had 
conducted them in their wanderings. The city which they 
built here was 6rst called Tenochtitlan, and afterwards Mexico, 
sinnifyinff the place of Mexitli, the Mexican cod of war. 

10. During the time which intervened from the founding of 
Mexico to the conquest by the Spaniards, a period of nearly 
two hundred years, the Mexicans went on gradually increasing 
in power and resources, and, by conquest and alliances, they 
extended their dominion, not only over the other Aztec tribes, 



HISTOKY OF MEXICO. 391 

which had accompanied them during most of their wanderings, 
and which afterwards settled around them, but also over other 
tribes or nations that spoke languages different from the Aztec 
or Mexican. 

11. Previous to their settlement in the valley of Mexico, the 
Mexicans continued unacquainted with regal dominion, and 
were governed in peace, and conducted in war, by such as 
were entitled to pre-eminence by their wisdom or their valor; 
but after their power and territories became extensive, the su 
preme authority finally centered in a single individual ; an 
when the Spaniards, under Cortez, invaded the country, Mon- 
tezuma was the ninth monarch in order who had swayed the 
Mexican sceptre, not by hereditary right, but by election. The 
accounts given of all this history, in the hieroglyphic writings 
of the Mexicans, and which have been faithfully translated by 
Spanish writers, are minute and circumstantial ; but the details 
would possess little interest for us. 

II. Colonial History of Mexico. — 1. The conquest of 
Mexico by the Spaniards, an account of which has already been 
given, vested the sovereignty of the country in the crown of 
Spain, which guaranteed that, on no account should it be sepa- 
rated, wholly or in part, from the Spanish monarchy. 

2. The establishment of a Spanish colonial government ip 
Mexico was followed by the bondage of the natives, who were 
at first reduced to the most cruel and humiliating form of slave- 
ry. About the middle of the sixteenth centurj 7 , the wretched- 
ness of their situation was somewhat alleviated by the labors 
and influence of the worthy Las Casas, but they were not al- 
lowed to leave the districts in which they were settled ; their 
lands were retained by the Spaniards ; and they were still 
obliged to labor for their oppressors. This indirect slavery 
was eventually abolished about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, but the Indians were still deprived of all privileges as 
citizens, and the government seemed to aim at keeping the na- 
tive population in poverty and barbarism. 

3. The colonial government was not much better calculated 
to promote th* 1 interests and prosperity of the native Spanish 
population. For nearly three centuries, down to the year IS 10. 
Mexico was governed by viceroys appointed by the court of 
Spain; all of whom, with one exception, were European Span- 
iards. Every situation in the gift of the crown was bestowed 
upon a European ; nor is there an instance, for many years 



392 HISTORY OF MEXICO. 

before the revolution, either in the church, the army, or the 
law, in which the door of preferment was opened to a Spaniard 
Mexican born. Through this policy a privileged caste arose, 
distinct from the Mexican Spaniards in feelings, habits, and in- 
terests, — the p;iid agents of a government whose only aim was. 
to enrich itself, without any regard to the abuses perpettuted 
under its authority. 

4. The complaints of the Creoles (the name given to tho 
white inhabitants, of European descent, born in America) were 
unheeded by the Spanish government. During the reign of 
Charles V. in the latter part of the 18th century, it is said that 
" Every office was publicly sold, with the exception of those 
that were bestowed upon court minions as the reward of dis- 
graceful service. Men destitute of talent, education, and char- 
acter, were appointed to offices of the greatest responsibility in 
church and state ; and panders and parasites were forced upon 
America, to superintend the finances, and preside in the su- 
preme courts of appeal. For the colonists there was no respite 
from official blood-suckers. Each succeeding swarm of adven- 
turers, in the eagerness to indemnify themselves for the money 
expended in purchasing their places, increased the calamities of 
provinces already wasted by the cupidity of their predecessors. 
Truly might the Hispano- Americans have exclaimed, ' That 
which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten, that 
which the. locust hath left hath the canker-worm eaten, and 
that which the canker-worm hath left hath the caterpillar 
eaten.' " 

5. The same writer thus forcibly describes the condition of 
Mexico immediately previous to the events which led to the 
Revolution. " The condition of Mexico at the beginning of the 
present century was stamped with the repulsive features of an 
anarchical and semi-barbarous society, of which the elements 
were — an aboriginal population, satisfied with existing in un- 
molested indigence ; a chaos of parti-colored castes, equally 
passive, superstitious, and ignorant ; a numerous Creole class, 
wealthy, mortified, and discontented ; and a compact phalana 
of European officials, — the pampered Mamelukes of the crown — 
who contended for and profited by every act of administrative 
iniquity. Public, opinion was unrepresented ; there were no 
popularly chosen authorities, no deliberative assemblies of the 
people, no independent publications, — for the miserably meagre 
press was but a shadow , — a light-abhorring phantom, evoked 



HISTORY OF MEXICO. o93 

to stifle free discussion by suppressing its caase. and bound t 
do the evil bidding of a blind, disastrous, and suicidal tyranny.' 
1IL Mexico during the first Revolution. — 1. \\ hen in 
the year 1S08, Charles IV, the king of Spain, was dethroned by 
the emperor Napoleon, the viceroy of Mexico exhorted the peo- 
ple to preserve their fidelity to their dethroned monarch, and, 
for the purpose of conciliating the good will, and gaining the 
assistance of the Creoles, proposed to admit them to a share in 
the government ; but the court of the Audiencia, the highest ju- 
dicial tribunal in Mexico, declaring the illegality of this meas- 
ure, and taking part with the European Spaniards against the 
Creole population, seized and imprisoned the viceroy and his 
adherents. 

2. The arbitrary measures of the Audiencia increased the 
feeling of hostility against the Europeans ; a general impatience 
to shake off the yoke of foreign domination was manifested 
throughout the province; and on the 16ih of September 1810, 
Hidalgo, a priest in the little town of Dolores, raised the stan- 
dard of revolt, by seizing and imprisoning seven Europeans, 
whose property he distributed amongst his followers. 

3. The news of this insurrectionary movement spread rapidly, 
and was everywhere received with enthusiasm. On the 29th 
of the same month, Hidalgo entered the city of Guanaxuato at 
the head of a force of 20,000 men, chiefly Indians poorly armed, 
overpowered the garrison, put the Spaniards to death, gave up 
their property to his troops, and recruited his military chest 
with public funds amounting to five millions of dollars. 

4. After having entered Valladolid without resistance, he 
advanced, at the head of his motley force, within a few miles 
of the Mexican capital ; but after remaining two or three days 
within sight of the city, he made a sudden and unaccountable 
retreat. His subsequent career was a series of disasters. On 
the 7th of November, his undisciplined and poorly armed troops 
were met and routed with great loss, in the plains of Aculco, 
by the royalist general Calleja. Calleja soon after entered the 
city of Guanaxuato, where he took ample revenge for the ex- 
cesses which the insurgent populace had previousby committed 
against the Europeans. To avoid the waste of powder and 
bail, it is said that he cut the throats of the defenceless inhab- 
itants, until the principal fountain of the city literally overflowed 
with gore. 

5 Hidalgo retreated to Valladolid, where he caused eighty 
17* 



394 HISTORY OF MEXICO. 

Europeans to be beheaded; and thence proceeding to Guada< 
laxara, he caused between seven and eight hundred of the pop- 
ulation to be taken to the neighboring mountains and butchered 
in secret, without any form of trial or examination ; thus imitat- 
ing, on American soil, the horrors of the French Revolution. 
On the 17th of January 1811, his forces were routed at the 
Bridge of Calderon ; and soon after Hidalgo himself, while pro- 
ceeding with several of his officers to the frontiers of the United 
States to purchase arms and military stores, was surprised and 
made prisoner through the treachery of a former associate. 
Being brought to trial by orders of the government, he was 
deprived of his clerical orders and sentenced to be shot. His 
companions shared his fate. 

G. After the fall of Hidalgo, the warlike priest Morelos as- 
sumed the general command of the insurgent forces. During 
the year 1811, by a series of brilliant victories which were 
never tarnished by wanton cruelties, he overcame the several 
detachments sent against him, and in February 1812, his ad- 
vanced forces had arrived within twenty miles of the gates of 
Mexico; but soon after he was shut up in the town of Cuautla 
by the forces of Calleja. Morelos sustained the siege with great 
spirit, until famine and disease commenced their frightful rava- 
ges in the town, when the place was evacuated, with but little 
loss, on the night of the second of May. It was during the 
siege of Cuautla that Victoria and Bravo, both young men, 
first distinguished themselves. At the same time Guerrero, in 
the successful defence of a neighboring town, began his long 
and perilous career. 

7. During nearly two years the troops of Morelos were al- 
tr.ost uniformly successful in their numerous encounters with 
the enemy ; but on the 23d of December 1813, and on the 6th 
of January following, they were twice defeated with great less 
at Valladolid. Morelos never recovered from these reverses, 
and although he continued to display all his wonted resolution 
and activity, he lost action after action ; all his strong posts 
were taken ; several of his best generals died upon the scaffold, 
or perished on the field of battle ; and finally, Morelos himself, 
being taken prisoner, was condemned to death. On arriving at 
the place of execution, he uttered the following simple but af- 
fecting prayer: "Lord, if I have done well, thou knowest it: 
if ill, to thy infinite mercy I commend my soul." He then 
b^und a handkerchief over his eyes, gave the signal to the sol- 



HISTORY OF MEXICO 3£S 

diers to fire, and met death with as much composure as he had 
ever shown when facing it on the field of battle. 

8. After the death of Morelos, the cause of the insurgents 
languished ; the jarring interests of the different leaders broke 
out into open discord ; and although the war was continued in 
various quarters, yet after a struggle of nine years from the 
first outbreak in the little town of Dolores, the First Revolution 
terminated in 1819, in the total defeat and dispersion of the 
Independent party. But although open hostilities were quelled, 
the spirit of independence was daily gaining ground among the 
Creole population. Spain had entirely lost all those moral in- 
fluences by which she had so long governed her colonies in the 
New World. 

IV". Mexico, from the close of the first Revolution in 

1819, TO THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF 1824. 

— 1. In the year 1820, the arbitrary government of Spain gave 
place to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. As 
the Spanish constitution provided for a more liberal administra- 
tion of government in Mexico than had prevailed since 1812, 
the increased freedom of the elections again threw the minds of 
the people into a ferment ; and the spirit of independence, which 
had been only smothered, broke forth anew. 

2. Moreover, divisions arose among the Mexican Spaniards 
themselves, some, among whom was the viceroy of Apadaca, 
being in favor of a return to the old system of arbitrary rule, 
while others were sincerely attached to the liberties guaranteed 
by the new constitution. 

3. In this state of affairs the viceroy planned a scheme for 
overturning the existing government, and proclaiming the re- 
establishment of the absolute authority of the king. Selecting 
as his instrument Don Augustin Iturbide, he sent him to the 
western coast at the head of a body of troops to begin the in- 
surrection : but Iturbide, instead of acting in obedience to his 
instructions, took the bold stand of proclaiming Mexico wholly 
independent of the Spanish nation. Thus began the second 
Revolution — the war of Mexican Independence. 

4. On the 24th of February 1821, Iturbide proclaimed his 
project, known as the "Plan of Iguala," which declared that 
Mexico should be an independent nation, its religion Catholic, 
and its government a constitutional monarchy. All distinctions 
of caste were to be abolished ; all inhabitants, whether Span- 
iards, Creoles, Africans, or Indians, who should adhere to the 



896 HISTORY OF MEXICO. 

cause of independence, were to be citizens; and the door of 
preferment was declared to be opened to virtue and merit alone. 

5. The progress of Iturbide was rapid ; and before the month 
of July, the whole country, with the exception of the capital, 
recognized his authority ; and on the 27th of September, the 
capital itself submitted, and all opposition ceased. A national 
congress was then called for the formation of a constitution ; 
and in the meantime Iturbide, who was eulogized as the savior 
of the country, was made temporary president, with a yearly 
salary of one bundled and twenty thousand dollars. 

6. When the National Congress assembled, three distinct 
parties were found among its members : — 1st, the Bourbonists, 
who wished a constitutional monarchy, with a prince of the 
house of Bourbon at its head : 2d, the Rejmblicans, who de- 
sired a federal republic; and 3d, the Iturbidists, who wished to 
place Iturbide himself upon the throne. 

7. By much artifice the soldiers of the garrison of Mexico, 
and a large crowd of the leperos or beggars of the city, were 
induced to proclaim Iturbide emperor. The latter, pretending 
to yield with reluctance to what he was pleased to consider the 
" will of the people," brought the subject before Congress, 
which, overawed by the soldiery and the rabble, gave their 
sanction to a measure which they had not the power to oppose ; 
and Iturbide was proclaimed, and everywhere acknowledged, 
emperor. 

8. On the accession of Iturbide, a struggle for power began 
between him and the Congress, and, after live months of con- 
tention, Iturbide terminated the dispute as Cromwell and Bo 
naparte had done on similar occasions before him, by proclaim- 
ing the dissolution of the national assembly^ and substituting in 
its stead a junta of his own nomination. 

9. The popularity of Iturbide did not long survive his as- 
sumption of arbitrary power. In less than a month an insur- 
rection broke out in the northern provinces ; and soon after, the 
youthful general, Santa Anna, a former supporter of Iturbide, 
declared against him, at the. head of the garrison of Vera Cruz. 
The old revolutionary leaders, Generals Bravo, Guerrero, and 
Victoria, joined Santa Anna, when Iturbide, terrified by the 
storm which was arising against him, formally resigned the im- 
perial crown on the 19th of March 1823, and on the 11th ol 
May following sailed for Europe. 

10. The Congress which assembled in August immediately 



HISTORY OF MEXICO. 397 

entered on the duties of forming a new constitution, which was 
submitted on the 31st of January 1824, and definitively sanc- 
tioned in October following. By this instrument, modelled 
somewhat after the constitution of the United States, the Mex- 
ican provinces were united in one Independent Republic. With 
many excellent provisions, the constitution \va3 liable to some 
serious objections. The trial by jury was not introduced, nor 
was the requisite publicity given to the administration of jus- 
tice : and as if to bind down the consciences of posterity to all 
uture generations, the third article in the constitution declared 
that, "The religion of the Mexican nation is, and will be per- 
petually, the Roman Catholic Apostolic." 

11. The fate of the ex-emperor remains to be noticed. In 
consequence of his supposed intention of returning to Mexico, a 
circumstance which might endanger the peace of the country, 
in April 1824 the Congress passed a decree of outlawry against 
him. In July, however, he landed in disguise, but was soon 
afterwards arrested, and shot by order of the provincial Con- 
gress of Tamaulipas. 

V. Mexico from the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 
tion OF 1824 TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE TfiXAN REVOLU- 
TION in 1835. — 1. On the first of January 1825, the first Con- 
gress under the federal constitution assembled in the city of 
Mexico; and at the same time General Guadalupe Victoria 
was installed as president of the republic, and General Nicholas 
Bravo as vice-president. The years 1825 and 1826 passed 
with but few disturbances; the administration of Victoria was 
generally popular; and the country enjoyed a greater degree 
of prosperity than at any former or subsequent period. 

2. The country was divided, however, between two political 
parties, at the head of which were two opposing Masonic socie- 
ties, knosvn as the Scotch and the York lodges ; — the former 
aristocratic in sentiment, in favor of the establishment of a 
strong central government, and supposed to be secretly in- 
clined to a constitutional monarchy, with a king chosen from 
the Bourbon family : — the latter, opposed to a royal or central 
government, of strong democratic tendencies, and generally in 
favor of the expulsion of the Spanish residents. 

3. In the elections which took place in the autumn of 1820, 
bribery, corruption, and calumnies of all kinds, were resorted to 
by both parties, and some of the elections were declared null 
in consequence of the illegality of the proceedings by which 



S98 HISTOKA OF MEXICO. 

they had been effected. At length, in the beginning of 1828, 
the dissensions of the two parties broke out in open hostilities 
by an insurrectionary movement of the Scotch party, which, 
however, was soon suppressed. 

4. In the presidential election of 1828, General Pedraza, a 
member of the Scotch party, was elected president, by a ma- 
jority of only two votes over his competitor, General Guerrero; 
but the Yorkinos, declaring that the election had been carried 
by fraud, determined to obtain redress by an appeal to arms. 
At this moment Santa Anna, whose name had figured in the 
most turbulent periods of the Revolution since 1821, appeared 
on the political stage, — at the head of 500 men he took pos- 
session of the castle of Perote, and proclaimed Guerrero, the 
chief of the Yorkino party, president. 

5. On the last day of November, the government guard in 
the city of Mexico was surprised by the Yorkinos, and a con- 
test began in the streets of the city, which, after continuing 
four days, ended in the dissolution of the Congress, the flight 
of the president Pedraza, and a partial pillage of the capital. 
On the first of January, 1829, anew Congress assembled, when 
Guen-ero was made president, and Santa Anna was declared to 
have deserved well of his country. 

G. Thus terminated the first struggle for the presidential 
succession in Mexico — in scenes of violence and bloodshed, and 
in the triumph of revolutionary force over the constitution and 
laws of the land. The appeal then made to arms was after- 
wards deeply regretted by the prominent actors themselves, 
many of whom perished in subsequent revolutions, victims of 
their own blood-stained policy. The country long mourned 
the consequences of their rash and guilty measures. 

7. In July 1829, a Spanish expedition of 4000 men landed 
at Tampico, for the invasion of the Mexican Republic ; but after 
an occupation of two months, the invading army surrendered to 
Santa Anna on the 10th of September. At this time General 
Bustamente, then in command of a body of troops, thinking a 
favorable opportunity had arrived for striking a blow at su- 
premacy, denounced the ambitious designs of Guerrero, and 
marched upon the capital. The government was easily over- 
thiown, Guerrero fled, and Bustamente was proclaimed his 
successor. In an attempt to recover his authority in the fol- 
lowing year, Guerrero fell into the hands of his enemies, when 
he •« as condemned as a traitor, and executed in February 1831 



TEXAN REVOLUTION. 399 

8. -After this, tranquillity prevailed until 1832, when Santa 
Anna, one of the early adherents of Guerrero, but afterwards 
the principal supporter of the revolution by which he was over- 
thrown, declared against the really arbitrary encroachments of 
Bustamente. After a struggle of nearly a year, an armistice 
was agreed upon, and Pedraza was recalled to serve out the re- 
maining three months of his unexpired term. In the early part 
of 1833, Santa Anna himself was chosen president, und Gomez 
Farias vice-president. 

9. Scarcely a fortnight had elapsed after Santa Anna had 
entered on the duties of his office, when an insurrection, sup- 
posed to have been instigated by him, and in favor of the 
church and the army, and "Santa Anna for dictator," broke 
out within twenty miles of the capital. The movement, how- 
ever, was unsuccessful, and soon after Santa Anna retired to 
his estate in the country, leaving the executive authority in the 
hands of the vice-president. 

10. In the early part of 1834, Santa Anna, deeming the oc- 
casion favorable lor the success of his ambitious designs, placed 
himself at the head of the military chiefs and the army, dis- 
solved the congress, and summoned another. In the meantime 
he took into his own hands all the powers of government, while 
lie used his power and influence to subvert the constitution he 
had sworn to defend. 

11. The several Mexican states were all more or less agitated 
by these arbitrary proceedings ; but the party in power* at the 
head of which was Santa Anna, after much opposition, suc- 
ceeded in abolishing the federal system of 1824, and in estab- 
lishing a strong " Central Republic." The legislatures of the 
states were declared to be abolished, and the states were 
changed into departments under the control of military com- 
mandants, who were to be responsible to the chief authorities 
of the nation, — the latter to be concentrated in the hands of 
one individual, whose authority was law. At the head of the 
new government was Santa Anna. 

12. Several of the Mexican states took up arms in support 
of the constitution of 1824, but all, with the exception of Texas, 
hitherto the least important of the Mexican provinces, were 
6peedily reduced by the arms of Santa Anna. 

VI. Texan Revolution. — 1. At the time of the outbreak of 
the first Mexican Revolution in 1810, the settlements in Texas 
consisted of only a few feeble Spanish garrisons, connected with 



400 TEXAN REVOLUTION. 

a few missions of the Roman church. When Mexico had es- 
tablished her independence, the Mexican government adopted a 
liberal system of colonization ; and emigrants in large numbers, 
mostly from the United States, began to flow to Texas, the 
most fertile of the Mexican provinces. 

2. With the exception of a transient outbreak in 1820, Texas 
remained faithful to Mexico, until the arbitrary proceedings of 
Santa Anna and his adherents overthrew the federal constitu- 
tion. In opposition to a force sent by Santa Anna to reduce 
them to subjection, the Texans declared that they took up arms 
"in defence of their rights and liberties, which were threatened 
by the encroachments of military despots, and in defence of the 
republican principles of the Federal Constitution of Mexico." 

3. The war commenced by the successful attack of several 
Mexican garrisons, while the Mexican troops were advancing 
into the country under the command of General Cos, the broth- 
er-in-law of Santa Anna. General Cos, marching into the in- 
terior, took post at Bexar, which he garrisoned with a thousand 
regular troops. This place was soon besieged by about 500 
Texans, and after a vigorous assault was compelled to surren- 
der, Dec. 11th, 1835. General Cos and his followers, after 
pledging themselves not to oppose in any manner the re-estab- 
lishment of the Federal Constitution of 1824, were allowed to 
retire to Mexico. 

4. The fall of Bexar occasioned but a brief truce to the war, 
for in less than three months from the capitulation of General 
Cos, Santa Anna himself entered Texas at the head of 8000 of 
the best troops of Mexico, accompanied by an unusually large 
train of artillery. His avowed object was " to exterminate the 
rebels, and drive the Americans out of Texas." 

5. Sending a division of his forces, under General Urrea, to 
South-eastern Texas, Santa Anna, at the head of 4000 of his 
troops, advanced to Bexar, where was a Texan force of 150 
men, afterwards increased to 182, under the command of Wil- 
liam Barrett Travis. Travis retired to the fortified enclosure 
of the Alamo, where were a few pieces of artillery, and there 
defended himself during eleven days against the whole force of 
the enemy. 

0. This was humiliating in the extreme to the Mexican gen- 
erals ; and soon after midnight, on the 6th of March, their entire 
army, commanded by Santa Anna in person, surrounded the 
fort for the purpose of taking it by storm, cost what it might. 



TEXAN REVOLUTION. 401 

7. The cavalry formed a circle around the infantry for the 
double object of urging them on, and preventing the escape of 
the Texans ; and amidst the discharge of musketry "nd cannon 
the enemy advanced towards the Alamo. Twice repulsed in 
their attempts to scale the walls, they were again impelled to 
the assault by the exertions of their officers ; and borne onward 
by the pressure from the rear, they mounted the walls, and, in 
the expressive language of an eye-witness, "tumbled over like 
sheep." 

S. Then commenced the last struggle of the garrison. Travis 
received a shot as he stood on the walls cheering on his men ; 
and as he fell, a Mexican officer rushed forward to dispatch 
him. Summoning up his powers for a final effort, Travis met 
his assailant with a thrust of his sword, and both expired to- 
gether. The brave defenders of the fort, overborne by multi- 
tudes, and unable in the throng to load their fire-arms, continued 
the combat with the butt-ends of their rifles, until only seven 
were left, and these were refused quarter. Of all the persons 
in the place, only two were spared — a Mrs. Dickerson, and a 
negro servant of the commandant. 

9. Major Evans, of the artillery, was shot while in the act 
of firing the magazine by order of Travis. Colonel James 
Bowie, who had been confined several days by sickness, was 
butchered in his bed, and his remains were savagely mutilated. 
Among the slain, surrounded by a heap of the enemy who had 
fallen under his powerful arm, was the eccentric David Crock- 
ett, of Tennessee. The obstinate resistance of the garrison, 
and the heavy price which they exacted for the surrender of 
their lives, had exasperated the Mexicans to a pitch of rancor- 
ous fury, at which all considerations of decency and humanity 
were forgotten. The bodies of the dead were stripped, thrown 
into a heap and buried, after being subjected to brutal indigni- 
ties. No authenticated statement of the loss of the Mexicans 
has been published, although it has been variously estimated at 
from a thousand to fifteen hundred men. 

10. On the 3d of March, during the siege of Bexar, a con- 
vention of Texan delegates which was in session at Washington, 
on the Brazos river, agreed unanimously to a Declaration of In- 
dependence. On the 17th of the same month a constitution for 
the Republic was adopted, and David G. Burnett, of New Jer- 
sey, the son of an officer of the American Revolution, was ap- 
pointed provisional president. 



402 



TEXAN REVOLUTION. 



1 1. During the sitting of the convention, General Urrea was 
proceeding along the line of the coast, where he met with but 
feeble opposition from small volunteer parties sent out to pro- 
tect the retreat of the colonists. Those who were taken prison- 
ers by him were mercilessly put to death, even though they 
had surrendered upon written guarantees of safety. Among 
these was the brave Colonel Fannin and 250 men, who, having 
capitulated upon honorable terms, were afterwards shot by the 
orders of Santa Anna. 

12. After the fall of the Alamo, on the 31st of March, Santa 
Anna left Bexar, and proceeded north in search of the enemy, 
who still showed a disposition to harass his movements. In 
the meantime General Houston, the commander-in-chief of the 
Texan forces, was making what preparations his limited means 
would allow to arrest the progress of the invaders. 

13. On the 10th of April Santa Anna reached New Wash- 
ington, at the head of the west branch of Galveston Bay, and 
soon after encamped on the banks of the San Jacinto. On 
the morning of the 20th, General Houston, descending the right 
bank of Buffalo Bayou, took post within three quarters of a 
mile of the enemy. The effective Mexican force on the San 
Jacinto now numbered 1G00 men, while the Texans numbered 
only f 83. 

14. The opposing forces remained in their respective positions 
until the afternoon of the 21st, when Houston ordered his offi- 




TEXAN REVOLUTION. 403 

eers to parade their respective commands, having previously 
taken measures for the destruction of all the bridges in the 
vicinity; thus cutting off all possibility of escape for the enemy, 
should they be defeated. 

15. The troops paraded with alacrity and spirit ; the disparity 
in numbers seeming to increase their enthusiasm, and to heighten 
their anxiety for the conflict. The order of battle being formed, 
the cavalry, sixty-one in number, commanded by Colonel Mira- 
beau B. Lamar, were despatched to the front of the enemy's 
left for the purpose of attracting their notice, when the main 
body advanced rapidly in line, the artillery, consisting of two 
six pounders, taking a station within two hundred yards of the 
enemy's breastwork. With the exception of the cannon, which 
commenced a vigorous discharge of grape and canister, not a 
gun was fired by the Texans until they were within point blank 
shot of the enemy's lines, when the war cry, Remember the 
Alamo ! was raised. 

1G. The thrilling recollections suddenly revived by that well- 
known name, together with the knowledge that the cowardly 
assassins of Fannin and his comrades were before them, gave 
new excitement to the Texans, and, in the frenzy of revenge, 
the}' threw themselves in one desperate charge on the enemy's 
works, and, after a conflict of fifteen minutes, gained entire pos- 
session of the encampment ; taking one piece of cannon loaded, 
four stands of colors, and a large quantity of camp equipage, 
stores, and baggage. The whole Mexican army was annihilated 
— scarcely a single soldier escaping. Of nearly 1600 men who 
commenced the action, 630 were killed, 208 wei - e wounded, 
and 730 were made prisoners ; while, of the Texan force, only 
eight were killed, and seventeen wounded. On the day follow- 
ing the battle, Santa Anna was captured on the banks of Buf- 
falo Bayou, while wandering alone, unarmed, and disguised in 
common apparel. It was only by the exercise of extraordinary 
firmness on the part of General Houston and his officers, that 
his life was spared from the fury of his Texan captors. An ar- 
mistice was soon after agreed upon, and the several divisions of 
the Mexican forces, in obedience to the orders of Santa Anni, 
retired beyond the Colorado. 

17. On the 14th of May a convention was concluded betweei 
the Texan government and Santa Anna, by the terms of which 
hostilities were immediately to cease between the Mexican and 
Texan troops ■ the Mexi